Pierre Samuel du Pont de Nemours


Pierre Samuel du Pont de Nemours
Pierre S. du Pont
Personal details
Born December 14, 1739(1739-12-14)
Paris, France
Died August 7, 1817(1817-08-07) (aged 77)
Greenville, Delaware, USA
Spouse(s) Nicole Charlotte Marie Louise le Dée de Rencourt
Marie Françoise Robin de Poivre
Children Victor Marie du Pont
Eleuthère Irénée du Pont
Residence Chevannes,
Nemours, France

Pierre Samuel du Pont de Nemours (December 14, 1739 – August 7, 1817) was a French nobleman, writer, economist, and government official, who was the father of Eleuthère Irénée du Pont, the founder of E.I. duPont de Nemours and Company, patriarch and progenitor of one of America's richest business dynasties of the 19th and 20th centuries.

Contents

Early life and family

Pierre du Pont was born December 14, 1739, the son of Samuel Dupont and Anne Alexandrine de Montchanin. His father was a watchmaker and French Protestant or Huguenot. His mother was a member of an impoverished noble family from Burgundy. He married Nicole Charlotte Marie Louise le Dée de Rencourt in 1766, also of a minor noble family. They had two grown children, including Eleuthère Irénée du Pont, the founder of E.I. duPont de Nemours and Company in the United States.

Ancient Régime

With a lively intelligence and high ambition, du Pont became estranged from his father, who wanted him to be a watchmaker, and developed a wide range of acquaintances with access to the French court. Noblesse de lettres: Pierre Samuel du Pont de Nemours made noble by "lettres patentes" (letters patent) from the king Louis XVI 1784. Eventually he became the protege of Dr. François Quesnay, the personal physician of Louis XV's mistress, Madame de Pompadour. Quesnay was the leader of a faction known as the économistes, a group of liberals at the court dedicated to economic and agricultural reforms. By the early 1760s Pierre Samuel’s writings on the national economy had drawn the attention of intellectuals like Voltaire and Turgot. His book Physiocracy, which advocated low tariffs and free trade among nations, deeply influenced Adam Smith.

In 1768 he took over from Nicolas Baudeau editor of Ephémérides du citoyen ou Bibliothèque raisonnée des sciences morales et politiques wherein published 'Observations sur l'Esclavage des Negresin Volume 6.

In 1774 he was invited by King Stanisław August Poniatowski of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth to help organize that country’s educational system.[1] The appointment to the Commission of National Education, with which he worked for several months, helped push his career forward, bringing him an appointment within the French government.[1]

He served as Inspector General of Commerce under Louis XVI, helped negotiate the treaty of 1783, by which Great Britain formally recognized the independence of the United States, and arranged the terms of a commercial signed by France and England in 1786.

French Revolution

He was initially a supporter of the French Revolution and served as president of the National Constituent Assembly. At this time, he added the name of the Nemours district south of Paris to his name to distinguish himself from other du Ponts in the Assembly. He and his son Eleuthère Irénée du Pont were among those who physically defended Louis XVI and Marie Antoinette from a mob besieging the Tuileries Palace in Paris during the insurrection of August 10, 1792. He was condemned to the guillotine during the Reign of Terror, but his execution was still pending when Robespierre fell on 9 thermidor an IV (27 July 1794), and he was spared. He married Françoise Robin on 5 vendémiaire an IV (27 September 1795). (Robin was the daughter of Antoine Robin de Livet, a French aristocrat who lived in Lyon, and the widow of Pierre Poivre, the noted French administrator.) After his house was sacked by a mob during the events of 18 fructidor an V (4 September 1797), he and his entire family left for the United States in 1799. They hoped (but failed) to found a model community of French exiles.

In the United States, he developed strong ties with industry and government, in particular with Thomas Jefferson. Pierre engaged in informal diplomacy between the United States and France during the reign of Napoleon. He was the originator of an idea that eventually became the Louisiana Purchase, as a way to avoid French troops landing in New Orleans, and possibly sparking armed conflict with U.S. forces. Eventually, he would settle in the U.S. permanently; he died there in 1817.

His son, Eleuthère Irénée, founded what would become one of the largest and most successful American corporations: E. I. du Pont de Nemours and Company.

See also

  • Du Pont family for other family members and relationships.
  • Commission of National Education

References

  1. ^ a b Jacek Jędruch (November 1982). Constitutions, elections, and legislatures of Poland, 1493-1977: a guide to their history. University Press of America. p. 164. http://books.google.com/books?id=Jl6OAAAAMAAJ. Retrieved 13 August 2011. 

Further reading

  • du Pont, Pierre S. (1942). Genealogy of the Du Pont Family 1739–1942. Wilmington: Hambleton Printing & Publishing. 
  • Dutton, William S. (1942). Du Pont, One Hundred and Fifty Years. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons. 

External links


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Look at other dictionaries:

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