94th Infantry Division (United States)
Infobox Military Unit
1918- 1918& 1921- 1942
94th Infantry Division,
1942- 1946& 1956- 1963
94th Command Headquarters (Divisional),
94th Army Reserve Command,
94th Regional Support Command,
94th Regional Readiness Command,
shoulder sleeve insignia 1942- 1956& 1991- 2009(top) 1923- 1942& 1956- 1991(lower)
1918active 1921- 1942reserve 1942- 1946active 1956- 2009reserve
Organized Res. Corps
regional reserve HQ
infantry 1918- 1967
combined arms & services
Puerto Rico 1918 Fort Custer, Michigan 1942- 1943
deployed to ETO
Hanscom AFB, MA
1968- 2002 Fort Devens, MA 2002- 2009
"Patton's Golden Nugget"
World War I World War II
previous=93rd Infantry Division
next=95th Infantry Division
The 94th Division was a unit of the
United States Armyin World War I, and of the Organized Reserve Corps in 1921until 1942.
The 94th Infantry Division was a unit of the
United States Armyin World War II, and of the United States Army Reservefrom 1956until 1963. It continued in the Army Reserve as the 94th Command Headquarters (Divisional) from 1963until the Army's realignment of reserve component combat arms into the Army National Guardin 1967.
The 94th Army Reserve Command (later redesignated 94th Regional Support Command and 94th Regional Readiness Command) was a regional command and control headquarters over most Army Reserve units throughout the six
New Englandstates of Maine, Vermont, New Hampshire, Connecticut, and Rhode Island. For forty years, beginning in the late 1960s, the United States Army Reserve was divided up into a varying number of regional, branch-immaterial commands. Originally designated "army resere commands" ("ARCOMs"), several were disbanded in and around 1995, while the remainder were redesignated "regional support commands" ("RSCs") at that time and re-dubbed "regional readiness commands" ("RRCs") in 2001. In addition to the RRCs, several mission-oriented commands were established, icluding such as training divisions and engineer commands. Like most RRCs, the 94th Regional Readiness Command is scheduled to be deactivated in fiscal year 2009as part of the Army Reserve's reorganisation into a functionally-based command structure reporting to respective major Army commands ("MACOMs").
The 94th ARCOM/RSC/RRC wore the
shoulder sleeve insigniaof the 94th Infantry Division but did not, according to the United States Army Center of Military History, perpetuate the lineage of the old division and was thus not entitled to the division's battle honors. Similarly, Army Regulation 840-10 dictates that the distinguishing flag of an RRC features a white-bordered, 38.1 cm (15 in.) tall rendering of the shoulder sleeve insignia on a plain blue background, rather than on the horizontally divided bi-colour background of red over blue as carried by an infantry division.
World War I
The 94th was originally formed as the 94th Division, based out of
Puerto Ricoin 1918. With the close of World War I, the division was disbanded.
1921the 94th Division was re-activated as an element of the Organized Reserve Corps ("ORC") and nicknamed the "Pilgrim Division" in reference to the rich cultural history. A shoulder sleeve insignia featuring a Native American with bow and arrow was authorized on 21 July 1922. This design was superseded 6 September 1923by one depicting the black silhouette of a Puritan carrying a blunderbusson his shoulder, on a gray circle (the wording of the new design's description was amended on 22 Decemberof the same year).
Like the other ORC divisions, the 94th was a authorised only a cadre organisation of officers; even then, the ORC units were perpetually under-strength and little equipment or funds with which to train.
World War II
Re-Formed from Whole Cloth
The ORC units were not mobilized as units. Rather, its officers were ordered to active duty individually, and were disbursed to existing Regular Army and
Army National Guardunits. The majority of mid-level officers (captains through lieutenant colonels) in the U.S. Army during the Second World War II were ORC officers. ["Twice The Citizen: A History of the United States Army Reserve, 1908-1995", Second and Expanded Edition, Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office (1997), p. 67.] As such, the 94th provided leaders to every theater in the war.
With virtually all of the division's personnel having gone off to war without it, the 94th Division existed only on paper when its shoulder sleve insignia was changed on
5 September 1942to a half-black, half-gray circle with the Arabic numerals9 and 4 superimposed in reverse colors. Ten days later, on 15 September 1942, the division was recomposed as the 94th Infantry Division at Fort Custernear Kalamazoo, Michigan.
15 September 1942.
6 August 1944.
*Campaigns: Northern France,
Rhineland, Ardennes-Alsace, Central Europe
*Days of combat: 209.
** 1 Distinguished Unit Citation
Medal of Honor
** 54 Distinguished Service Crosses
** 2 Distinguished Service Medals
** 10 Legions of Merit
Bronze Star Medals
** Major General Harry J. Malony (September
1942through May 1945)
** Brigadier General Louis J. Fortier (June through July
** Major General Allison J. Barnett (
1 August 1945through 9 February 1946)
*Returned to U.S.:
6 February 1946
9 February 1946
Following a brief stay in
England, the 94th landed on Utah Beach, Franceon D plus 94, 8 September 1944, and moved into Brittanyto relieve the 6th Armored Division and assume responsibility for containing some 60,000 German troops besieged in there garrisons at the Channel ports of L'Orientand Saint-Nazaire. The 94th inflicted over 2,700 casualties on the enemy and took 566 prisoners before being relieved by the 66th Infantry Division on New Year's Day 1945.
As part of General Patton's
Third United States Army, the 94th Infantry Division ("94th ID") was known as "Patton's Golden Nugget". Moving west, the division relieved the 90th Infantry Division on 7 January 1945, taking positions in the Saar- MoselleTriangle south of Wasserbillig, facing the Siegfried Switch Line. Fresh for the fight, the 94th shifted to the offensive, 14 January, seizing Tettingenand Butzdorfthat day. The following day, the Nennig-Berg-Wies area was wrested from the enemy, but severe counterattacks followed, and Butzdorf, Berg, and most of Nennigchanged hands several times before being finally secured. On the 20th, an unsuccessful battalion attack against Orscholz, eastern terminus of the switch position, resulted in loss of most of two companies. In early February, the division took Campholz Woodsand seized Sinz. On 19 February 1945, supported by heavy artillery and air support, the division launched a full-scale attack with all three regiments, storming the heights of Munzigen Ridge, to breach the Siegfried Lineswitch-line defenses and clear the Berg-Munzingen Highway.
Moving forward, the 94th Infantry Division and the 10th Armored Division secured the area from
Orscholzand Saarburgto the confluence of the Saar and Moselle Rivers by 21 February 1945. Then, launching an attack across the Saar, the 94th established and expanded a bridgehead. By 2 March 1945, the division stretched over a 10-mile front, from Hocker Hillon the Saar through Zerf, and Lampadento Ollmuth. A heavy German attack near Lampadenachieved penetrations, but the line was shortly restored, and on 13 March, spearheading the XX Corps, the division broke out of the Ruwer Riverbridgehead by ford and bridge. Driving forward, the 94th reached the Rhine on 21 March, where it fought in the Battle for Ludwigshafen. Ludwigshafen was taken on 24 March, in conjunction with CCA of the 12th Armored Division.
The division then moved by rail and motor to the vicinity of
Krefeld, Germany, relieving the 102nd Infantry Division on 3 Apriland assuming responsibility for containing the western side of the Ruhr Pocketfrom positions along the Rhine. With the reduction of the pocket in mid-April, the division was assigned military government duties, first in the Krefeldand later in the Dusseldorfareas.
By mid-April, the division relieved the
101st Airborne Divisionand assumed military government duties, first in the Krefeldvicinity and later around Düsseldorf. It was in that status when hostilities were declared at an end on 7 May 1945. From mid-June until the end of November, the division served the military government in Czechoslovakia.
The 94th Infantry Division was inactivated on
9 February 1946.
=Assignments in the ETO=
27 July 1944: XIII Corps, Ninth Army.
28 August 1944: XIII Corps, Ninth Army, 12th Army Group.
23 September 1944: Ninth Army, 12th Army Group.
9 October 1944: 12th Army Group.
5 January 1945: 12th Army Group, but attached to OiseSection, Communication Zone, for supply.
6 January 1945: XX Corps, Third Army, 12th Army Group.
29 March 1945: XII Corps, Fifteenth Army, 12th Army Group.
94th Infantry Division
The division was reactivated in the
United States Army Reservein 1956. On 14 Mayof that year, the "9/4" shoulder sleeve insignia was recinded, and the former puritan shoulder sleeve insigia (with a minor change in the design) was reinstated.
94th command Headquarters (Divisional)
The division was redesignated the 94th Command Headquarters (Divisional) on
16 October 1963, and was deactivated in 1967as part of the compromise between U.S. Secretary of Defense Robert S. McNamarawho wanted to merge the Army Reserve into the Army National Guard, and the United States Congresswho wanted to maintain a the Army Reserve as it then existed. Under the compromise plan, all of the combat divisions and most separate combat brigades of the Army Reserve were deactivated with a corresponding increase in the National Guard; at the same time, non-divisional combat support and combat service support units were reallocated in the Army Reserve. ["Id." at 174-177.]
94th Army Reserve Command
Under the aforementioned compromise plan agreed to by the Congress and the Defense Department, the fourteen area corps were deactivated; in their place, eighteen army reserve commands ("ARCOMs") were established. Commanded by a reserve major general, each ARCOM served as a regional non-tactical peacetime headquarters for unrelated support units. Each ARCOMs was, in turn, assigned to one of five continental U.S. armies ("CONUSAs") under Continental Army Command ("CONARC"). On
22 April 1968, the number and shoulder-sleeve insignia of the former 94th Division were re-allocated to the new 94th U.S. Army Reserve Command ("ARCOM"), headquartered at Hanscom Air Force Base, Massachusettsand subordinate to First United States Army.
Two company-level units within the 94th ARCOM served in the
Vietnam War: Headquarters & Headquarters Company, 513th Maintenance Battalion (Direct Support); and the 241st Military Intelligence Detachment.
94th ARCOM units participated annually in
Exercise REFORGER(from REturn of FORces to GERmany) and Operation Bright Starthroughout the Cold War. These exercises were intended to ensure that NATO and the United States military had the ability to quickly deploy forces to West Germanyand Egyptin the event of a conflict with the Soviet Union.
In 1980, the peacetime Army Reserve
chain of commandwas overlaid with a CAPSTONE wartime trace. In an expansion of the roundout and affiliation program begun ten years earlier, CAPSTONE purported to align every Army Reserve unit with the active and reserve component units with which they were anticipated to deploy. [James T. Currie and Richard B. Crossland, "Twice The Citizen: A History of the United States Army Reserve, 1908-1995" (2nd revised & expanded edition), Washington, DC: Office of the Chief, Army Reserve (1997), pp. 254-255.] Units maintained lines of communication with the units -- often hundreds or thousands of miles away in peacetime -- who would presumably serve above or below them in the event of mobilisation. This communcication, in some cases, extended to coordinated annual training opportunities.
Many of the 94th's units and individual soldiers rotated through
Hondurasin the 1980s. Operation Fuertes Caminos("strong roads") provided villagers with roads on which to move their crops to market, while providing invaluable real-world training and experience to reserve engineers, medical personnel, logisticians and others.
Operation Nordic Shield was held in the summer of 1987. Units of the 94th ARCOM; principally the 187th Infantry Brigade (Separate), the 167th Support Group (Corps) and their subordinate
battalions and companies; deployed to Canadian Forces BaseGagetown in southern New Brunswick, to simulate the defense of Icelandagainst Warsaw Pactforces, the CAPSTONE mission of both the 187th and 167th.
Units under the 94th Army Reserve Command participated in a series of mobilisation exercises in the 1980s, including the Selected Reserve Call-Up (23-
25 October 1987), Golden Thrust '88 (November 1988), and Proud Eagle 90 ( 12 Octoberthrough 2 November 1989). Each of these was designed to evaluate not only the units' ability to prepare to mobilise, but to examine the mobilisation processes, systems, and logistical coordination so as to find and correct the unanticipated flaws.
1990- 1991, over 1,000 soldiers from the 94th ARCOM served overseas in support of Operation Desert Shield and Desert Storm. Despite the commonly held belief that CAPSTONE traces were set in stone, the process of selecting units to mobilise and deploy largely ignored CAPSTONE.
Post Cold War
94th Regional Support Command
The ARCOM's Puritan shoulder sleeve insignia reverted again to the "9/4" design on
27 November 1991.
Operation Nordic Shield II was held in the summer of 1992. As they did five years before, units of the 94th ARCOM; principally the 1987th Infantry Brigade (Separate), the 167th Support Group (Corps) and their subordinate
battalions and companies; deployed to Canadian Forces BaseGagetown in southern New Brunswick, to simulate the defense of Icelandagainst Warsaw Pactforces, the CAPSTONE mission of both the 187th and 167th. Part of the 1992 exercise included lanes training as part of the United States Army Forces Command's "Bold Shift" initiative to reinforce unit war-fighting task proficiency.
1995, the 94th ARCOM was redesignated the 94th Regional Support Command (RSC) and removed to from Hanscom Air Force Base to Fort Devens, Massachusetts.
The 94th RSC deployed soldiers to
Hondurasand Guatemalain 1999in support of [Operation New Horizon] , and later to the Balkansin support of Operation Joint Guardianand Operation Joint Forge.
Continuing with Operation New Horizon, the command deployed members of the 94th Military Police Company to Rambala-Bocas del Toro,
Panamáin spring 2007.
Global War on Terror
After 11 September 2001, the 94th RSC deployed soldiers in support of Operations Noble Eagle,
Enduring Freedomand Iraqi Freedom. Mission areas include Continental United States("CONUS"), Afghanistan, Uzbekistan, Iraq, Kuwait, the Horn of Africaand Guantanamo Bay, Cuba.
In December 2002, the 94th RSC moved into its final Headquarters at Fort Devens, Massachusetts.
94th Regional Readiness Command
In August 2003, the 94th RSC was redesignated the 94th Regional Readiness Command (RRC).
At its end, the 94th Regional Readiness Command was made up of more than 6,000 citizen-soldiers serving with in fifty-six units located throughout
The 94th RRC mobilized and deployed over twenty units and more than 2,500 soldiers in support of the Global War on Terror.
Shoulder Sleeve Insignia (SSI)
* Native American design: Featured a Native American with bow and arrow.
* Puritan design:
** Description: On a disc silver gray, edged with a .32 cm (1/8-inch) black border, depicting the black silhouette of a Puritan carrying a
flintlock blunderbusson his shoulder.
* "9/4" design:
** Description: a black Arabic numeral "9" on the silver gray and a silver gray Arabic numeral "4" on the black. The diameter is 6.35 cm (2 1/2 in.).
** Symbolism: The insignia represents the numerical designation of the unit.
** A design featuring a Native American with bow and arrow was authorized for the 94th Division on
21 July 1922.
** The above design was superseded by approval of the design of a Puritan carrying a blunderbuss on his shoulder on
6 September 1923.
** The above approval was amended to change the wording of the description on
22 December 1923.
** The Puritan design was superseded by design featuring the
Arabic numerals"9" and "4" on 5 September 1942.
** The "9/4" design was rescinded (cancelled) on
14 May 1956. The same letter reinstated the Puritan shoulder sleeve insignia, with a minor change in the design, for the 94th Infantry Division.
** The Puritan design was redesignated for the 94th Command Headquarters (Divisional) on
16 October 1963.
** The Puritan design was authorized for the 94th Army Reserve Command on
22 April 1968.
** The Puritan design was rescinded (cancelled) on
27 November 1991. The same letter reinstated the "9/4" design.
** The insignia was redesignated effective
16 July 2003for the 94th Regional Readiness Command.
* Description: A gold color metal and enamel device, 2.86 cm (1 1/8 in.) in height overall, consisting of a nonagon divided diagonally from lower left to upper right, the upper area light gray and the lower area black, bearing overall a blue oblong with long axis vertical, charged with a gold silhouette of the bust of a Puritan with
flintlock blunderbusson his shoulder.
* Symbolism: The diagonally divided gray and black background refers to the shoulder sleeve insignia worn by the 94th Infantry Division during
World War II, and by the 94th ARCOM/RSC/RRC in 1991-2009. The geometric four-sided figure commemorates the four European campaign honors. Blue is the color used for infantry. The bust of the Puritan with flintlock blunderbuss is from the shoulder sleeve insignia worn during the period 1923- 1942and 1956- 1991. It represents the history and traditions of the area with which past and present organizations have always identified. The nine sides of the device and the four sides of the oblong also allude to the numerical designation of the unit.
* Background: The distinctive unit insignia was originally authorized for the 94th U.S. Army Reserve Command on
4 June 1970. It was reassigned and authorized for 94th U.S. Army Regional Support Command on 16 April 1996. The insignia was redesignated effective 16 July 2003for the U.S. Army 94th Regional Readiness Command.
* "Pilgrim Division" (pre-World War II)
* "Neuf-Cats" (official, derived from the French "neuf quatre", meaning "nine four")
* "Patton's Golden Nugget" (un-official while assigned to Third U.S. Army in 1945)
* Only one unit, the
Londonderry, New Hampshire-based 94th Military Police Company [http://www.army.mil/cmh-pg/lineage/branches/mp/0094mpco.htm] , retains direct lineage to the 94th Infantry Division's organic structure.
* In 1963, a separate Infantry Brigade was organized in the US Army Reserve using the lineage of the division's 1st Brigade. As a separate brigade, however, it was granted its own
shoulder sleeve insignia. The 187th Infantry Brigade was inactivated in 1994.
*"The Army Almanac: A Book of Facts Concerning the Army of the United States" U.S. Government Printing Office, 1950 at http://www.army.mil/cmh-pg/lineage/cc/cc.htm
* [http://www.lonesentry.com/gi_stories_booklets/94thinfantry/index.html "On the Way: The Story of the 94th Infantry Division"]
*James T Currie and Richard B. Crossland, "Twice The Citizen: A History of the United States Army Reserve, 1908-1995", Second and Expanded Edition, Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office (1997).
* [http://www.94thinfdiv.com 94th Infantry Division Association]
* [http://www.battleofthebulge.org/fact/fact_sheet_of_the_94th_infantry.html Fact Sheet of the 94th Infantry Division] from http://www.battleofthebulge.org
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