High Holidays

High Holidays

"This article refers to the Jewish holidays. For other uses, see here."

, more properly known as the Yamim Noraim ( _he. ימים נוראים "Days of Awe"), may mean:
#strictly, the holidays of Rosh Hashanah ("Jewish New Year") and Yom Kippur ("Day of Atonement");
#by extension, the period of ten days including those holidays, known also as the Ten Days of Repentance ("Aseret Yemei Teshuvah"); or
#by a further extension, the entire 40-day penitential period in the Jewish year from Rosh Chodesh Elul to Yom Kippur, traditionally taken to represent the forty days Moses spent on Mount Sinai before coming down with the second ("replacement") set of the Tablets of stone.

Many prefer the term High Holy Days because it emphasizes the personal, reflective, introspective aspects of this period, while Holidays suggests a time of communal celebrations of events in the history of the Jewish people - Purim and Passover as examples.

The days preceding Rosh Hashanah (Jewish new year)

The Hebrew month preceding Rosh Hashanah, Elul, is designated as a month of introspection and repentance. In preparation for the Jewish New Year, special prayers are recited. Psalm 27 is added at the end of morning and evening prayers, and the shofar (ram's horn) is blown at the end of morning services on weekdays (except for the eve of Rosh Hashanah itself). Among Sephardi Jews, Selichot are recited at dawn on weekdays throughout the month. Also, many complete the entire Book of Psalms twice during the month. It is customary to increase the giving of charity and to ask forgiveness from friends.

At midnight on the Saturday night before Rosh Hashanah, Ashkenazi Jews begin reciting "selichot". On the following days, however, they generally recite the "selichot" before the regular morning prayers. On the eve of Rosh Hashanah, extra prayers are recited and many fast until noon.

Rosh Hashanah

Rosh Hashanah (ראש השנה "rōsh hashānāh", beginning of the year) is the Jewish New Year, and falls on the first and second days of the Jewish month of Tishri (September/October). The Mishnah, the core work of the Jewish Oral Torah, sets this day aside as the new year for calculating calendar years and sabbatical and jubilee years.

Rabbinic literature describes this day as a day of judgment. God is sometimes referred to as the "Ancient of Days." Some descriptions depict God as sitting upon a throne, while books containing the deeds of all humanity are opened before Him.

Prayer services are longer than on a regular Shabbat or other Jewish holidays, and include (on weekdays) the blowing of the shofar. On the afternoon of the first (or the second, if the first was Saturday) day, a ritual called tashlich is performed, in which sins are "cast" into open water, such as a river, sea, or lake.

The Ten Days of Repentance

The "ten days of repentance" include Rosh Hashanah, Yom Kippur and the days in between, during which time Jews should meditate on the subject of the holidays and ask for forgiveness from anyone they have wronged.cite web |url=http://www.myjewishlearning.com/holidays/Rosh_Hashana/TO_HighHolidays.htm |title=My Jewish Learning: The High Holiday Period |accessdate=2008-09-21] They include the Fast of Gedaliah, on the third day of Tishri, and Shabbat Shuvah, which is the Sabbath between Rosh Hashanah and Yom Kippur. Shabbat Shuvah has a special Haftarah, and traditionally the rabbi gives a long sermon on that day.

It is held that, while judgment on each person is pronounced on Rosh Hashanah, it is not made absolute until Yom Kippur. The Ten Days are therefore an opportunity to mend one's ways in order to alter the judgment in one's favor.

Yom Kippur

Yom Kippur (יום כפור "yom kippūr", "Day of Atonement") is the Jewish festival of the Day of Atonement. The Hebrew Bible calls the day "Yom Hakippurim" (Hebrew, "Day of the Atonement/s").

In the Hebrew calendar, the ninth day of Tishri is known as "Erev Yom Kippur" (Yom Kippur eve). Yom Kippur itself begins around sunset on that day and continues into the next day until nightfall, and therefore lasts about 25 hours.cite web |url=http://www.jewishvirtuallibrary.org/jsource/Judaism/holiday4.html |title=Jewish Virtual Library - Yom Kippur |accessdate=2008-09-21]

Jews fast throughout Yom Kippur and attend synagogue for most of the day. There are five prayer services, one in the evening (sometimes known as "Kol Nidre" from one of the main prayers) and four consecutively on the day.

Modern observances

High Holiday seats

Generally, throughout most of the year, Jewish worship services are open to all, regardless of affiliation, and membership or payment of any fee is not requirement in order to attend. However, the high holidays are usually peak attendance days for synagogues and temples, often times filling or over-filling synagogues. Many American synagogues charge a fee for seats on the high holidays. [cite news |url=http://joi.org/bloglinks/JTA_org%20--%20Shuls%20consider%20free%20High%20Holiday%20tix.htm |publisher=JTA |title=Praying without Paying' is becoming a more popular option among shuls |first=Sue |last=fishkoff |date=2007-08-20] Since synagogues do not usually pass a collection plate as Jews are forbidden to touch money on the sabbath, these seat reservations are often an important revenue stream. [cite news |url=http://www.boston.com/news/local/articles/2008/09/21/jewish_high_holidays_come_at_a_high_cost/ |title=Jewish high holidays come at a high cost |date=2008-09-21 |accessdate=2008-09-21 |last=Dunn |first=Gabrielle |publisher=The Boston Globe]

Hoshana Rabbah

There is a Kabbalistic belief that, though judgment is made absolute on Yom Kippur, it is not registered until the seventh day of Sukkot, known as Hoshana Rabbah. The service for this day therefore contains some reminiscences of those for the High Holy Days, and it is treated as a last opportunity to repent of sins that may have been missed on Yom Kippur.

ee also

*Jewish holidays


External links

* [http://www.jewishnewyear.org High holidays Guide]
* [http://www.encyclopaediajudaica.com/sample-articles/article_view.php?sid=festivals Festivals - Encyclopaedia Judaica]
* [http://www.reformjudaism.org.uk/faqs/festivals/what-is-yom-kippur.html Brief information on Yom Kippur from the UK Movement for Reform Judaism]

Jewish and Israeli holidays

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Look at other dictionaries:

  • High Holidays — Альбом Хор Турецкого Дата выпуска 1999 Жанр Литургия …   Википедия

  • High Holidays — or High Holy Days plural noun The Jewish festivals of Rosh Hashanah and Yom Kippur • • • Main Entry: ↑high …   Useful english dictionary

  • High Holidays — n. the period encompassing Rosh Hashana and Yom Kippur in the Jewish calendar: also High Holy Days * * * …   Universalium

  • High Holidays — n. the period encompassing Rosh Hashana and Yom Kippur in the Jewish calendar: also High Holy Days …   English World dictionary

  • High Holidays — High′ Hol′idays n. pl. jud the Jewish holidays of Rosh Hashanah and Yom Kippur Also called High′ Ho′ly Days …   From formal English to slang

  • High Holidays — period of Jewish holidays that includes Rosh Hashana and Yom Kippur …   English contemporary dictionary

  • High Holidays — (also High Holy Days) plural noun the Jewish festivals of Yom Kippur and Rosh Hashana …   English new terms dictionary

  • High Holidays (альбом) — High Holidays Альбом Хор Турецкого Дата выпуска 1999 Жанр …   Википедия

  • High Holidays (Frasier) — Infobox Television episode | Title = High Holidays Series = Frasier Season = 11 Episode = 11 Airdate = 9th December 2003 Production = 231 1015 Guests = Musetta Vander (Natalie) Marisa Guterman (Andi) Writer = Christopher Lloyd [cite web |url=http …   Wikipedia

  • High Holidays (disambiguation) — The term High Holidays or High Holy Days may refer to:*The Jewish holidays of Rosh HaShana and Yom Kippur, collectively known as the High Holidays. *A band called High Holy Days *An episode of the television show Frasier: High Holidays …   Wikipedia

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