Aromatic L-amino acid decarboxylase
aromatic-L-amino-acid decarboxylase Ribbon diagram of a domestic pig DOPA decarboxylase dimer. Identifiers EC number 188.8.131.52 CAS number 9042-64-2 Databases IntEnz IntEnz view BRENDA BRENDA entry ExPASy NiceZyme view KEGG KEGG entry MetaCyc metabolic pathway PRIAM profile PDB structures RCSB PDB PDBe PDBsum Gene Ontology AmiGO / EGO Search PMC articles PubMed articles DOPA decarboxylase (aromatic L-amino acid decarboxylase) Identifiers Symbol DDC Entrez 1644 HUGO 2719 OMIM 107930 RefSeq NM_000790 UniProt P20711 Other data EC number 184.108.40.206 Locus Chr. 7 p11
It catalyzes several different decarboxylation reactions:
- L-DOPA to dopamine - a neurotransmitter
- 5-HTP to serotonin (5-HT) - also a neurotransmitter
- tryptophan to tryptamine - a precursor to many alkaloids found in plants and animals
As a rate-limiting step
In normal dopamine and serotonin (5-HT) neurotransmitter synthesis, AAAD is not the rate-limiting step in either reaction. However, AAAD becomes the rate-limiting step of dopamine synthesis in patients treated with L-DOPA (such as in Parkinson's Disease), and the rate-limiting step of serotonin synthesis in people treated with 5-HTP (such as in mild depression or dysthymia). AAAD is inhibited by Carbidopa outside of the blood brain barrier to inhibit the premature conversion of L-DOPA to Dopamine in the treatment of Parkinson's.
AAAD is the rate-limiting enzyme in the formation of biogenic trace amines.
Interactive pathway map
Click on genes, proteins and metabolites below to link to respective articles. 
The gene encoding the enzyme is referred to as DDC and located on chromosome 7 in humans. Single nucleotide polymorphisms and other gene variations have been investigated in relation to neuropsychiatric disorders, e.g., a one-base pair deletion at –601 and a four-base pair deletion at 722–725 in exon 1 in relation to bipolar disorder and autism.
- ^ PDB 1JS3; Burkhard P, Dominici P, Borri-Voltattorni C, Jansonius JN, Malashkevich VN (November 2001). "Structural insight into Parkinson's disease treatment from drug-inhibited DOPA decarboxylase". Nat. Struct. Biol. 8 (11): 963–7. doi:10.1038/nsb1101-963. PMID 11685243.
- ^ The interactive pathway map can be edited at WikiPathways: "NicotineDopaminergic_WP1602". http://www.wikipathways.org/index.php/Pathway:WP1602.
- ^ Lisa J. Scherer, John D. McPherson, John J. Wasmuth and J. Lawrence Marsh (June 1992). "Human dopa decarboxylase: Localization to human chromosome 7p11 and characterization of hepatic cDNAs". Genomics 13 (2): 469–471. doi:10.1016/0888-7543(92)90275-W. PMID 1612608.
- ^ A. D. Borglum, T. G. Bruun, T. E. Kjeldsen, H. Ewald, O. Mors, G. Kirov, C. Russ, B. Freeman, D. A. Collier & T. A. Kruse (November 1999). "Two novel variants in the DOPA decarboxylase gene: association with bipolar affective disorder". Molecular Psychiatry 4 (6): 545–541. doi:10.1038/sj.mp.4000559. PMID 10578236.
- ^ Marlene B. Lauritsen, Anders D. Borglum, Catalina Betancur, Anne Philippe, Torben A. Kruse, Marion Leboyer & Henrik Ewald (May 2002). "Investigation of two variants in the DOPA decarboxylase gene in patients with autism". American Journal of Medical Genetics 114 (4): 466–460. doi:10.1002/ajmg.10379. PMID 11992572.
Carbon-carbon lyases (EC 4.1) 4.1.1: Carboxy-lyasesPyruvate decarboxylase · Oxaloacetate decarboxylase · Acetoacetate decarboxylase · Malonyl-CoA decarboxylase · Glutamate decarboxylase · Ornithine decarboxylase · Lysine decarboxylase · Phosphoribosylaminoimidazole carboxylase · Histidine decarboxylase · Uridine monophosphate synthetase/Orotidine 5'-phosphate decarboxylase · Aromatic L-amino acid decarboxylase · Phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase · Pyrophosphomevalonate decarboxylase · Uroporphyrinogen III decarboxylase · RuBisCO · Phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase · Adenosylmethionine decarboxylase 4.1.2: Aldehyde-lyases 4.1.3: Oxo-acid-lyases 4.1.99: Other B enzm: 1.1/2/3/4/5/6/7/8/10/11/13/14/15-18, 2.1/2/3/4/5/6/7/8, 2.7.10, 2.7.11-12, 3.1/2/3/4/5/6/7, 220.127.116.11, 3.4.21/22/23/24, 4.1/2/3/4/5/6, 5.1/2/3/4/99, 6.1-3/4/5-6 monoamineglutamate→GABA arginine→NO choline→Acetylcholine
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