Grand Alliance (HDTV)

The Grand Alliance (GA) was a consortium created in 1993 at the behest of the Federal Communications Commission (FCC) to develop the American HDTV specification, with the aim of pooling the best work from different companies. It consisted of AT&T, General Instrument Corporation, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Philips Consumer Electronics, David Sarnoff Research Center, Thomson Consumer Electronics, and Zenith Electronics Corporation. The Grand Alliance DTV system is the basis for the ATSC standard.

Recognizing that earlier proposed systems demonstrated particular strengths in the Advisory Committee on Advanced Television Service (ACATS) testing and evaluation process, the Grand Alliance system was proposed to combine theadvantages of all of the previously proposed terrestrial digital HDTV systems. At the time of its inception, the Grand Alliance HDTV system was specified to include:
* Flexible picture formats with a header/descriptor approach, allowing the inclusion of both 1050 and 787.5 raster formats.
* Progressive scanning and square pixel capabilities in both raster formats.
* Interlaced scanning and rectangular pixel formats.
* Video compression based on MPEG-2, with additional syntax elements that represent contributions from each previously proposed system.
* A packetized, prioritized data format, providing flexibility of services and extensibility.

Audio and transmission systems had not been decided at the time of the GA agreement. Five channel audio was specified, but a decision among the Dolby AC-3, multi-channel MPEG-1 Layer II (MP2) audio, and MIT "AC" systems had not yet been made. Candidate transmission approaches included QAM, Spectrally-Shaped QAM, 6 VSB (with trellis code) and 4/2 VSB. COFDM had been proposed by third parties, but was rejected as not being mature, and not offering fringe-area coverage equivalent to analog transmission. A thorough analysis of service area, interference characteristics, transmission robustness and system attributes would be performed to determine the "best approach."

In the end, 1080- and 720-line resolutions were implemented, together with 8-VSB modulation and Dolby AC-3 audio. However, the selection of transmission and audio systems was not without controversy. The choice of 8-VSB was later criticised by several groups as being inferior to COFDM under conditions of multipath. Improvements in receiver designs would later render this apparently moot. With MP2 originally faltering during GA testing, the GA issued a statement finding the MP2 system to be "essentially equivalent" to Dolby, but only after the Dolby selection had been made. Later, a story emerged that MIT had entered into an agreement with Dolby whereupon the university would be awarded a large sum if the MP2 system was rejected. Following a five-year lawsuit for breach of contract, MIT and its GA representative received a total of $30 million from Dolby, after the litigants reached a last-minute out-of-court settlement.Facts|date=January 2008

Grand Alliance Chronology

* 1987 - Advisory Committee on Advanced Television Service is formed
* 1990 - Simulcast principle advocated by the FCC
* 1990 - Four competing digital HDTV systems announced
* 1992 - Systems tested at Advanced Television Test Center (ATTC)
* 1992 - All competitors announce planned improvements
* 1993 - ACATS "Special Panel" recommends retesting
* 1993 - Grand Alliance forms, "collaborative" phase begins
* 1994 - Grand Alliance system undergoes ATTC verification testing
* 1995 - ATSC Standard A/53 is published, incorporating Grand Alliance System
* 1996 - FCC Adopts ATSC A/53 as standard for the transmission of digital television, but excludes requirements with respect to scanning formats, aspect ratios, and lines of resolution
* 1997 - Academy of Television Arts & Sciences presents Primetime Engineering Emmy Award to Grand Alliance companies for developing and standardizing the transmission and technology for digital TV.


* Citation
title = Technology: Could HDTV's answer be a 'grand alliance'?
url =
author = Randall M. Sukow
periodical = Broadcasting & Cable
accessdate = 2007-03-04
, March 1, 1993.

* Citation
title = A/53: ATSC Digital Television Standard
url =
publisher = Advanced Television Systems Committee
accessdate = 2007-03-04
, December 27, 2005.

* Citation
title = Fourth Report and Order in MM Docket No. 87-268, FCC 96-493
url =
publisher = Federal Communications Commission
accessdate = 2007-03-04
, December 24, 1996.

* Citation
url =
publisher = FCC Office of Engineering and Technology
accessdate = 2007-03-04
, September 30, 1999.

* Citation
title = MIT Getting Millions For Digital TV Deal
url =
author = Keith J. Winstein
periodical = The Tech
accessdate = 2007-03-04
, November 8, 2002.

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