South-East Asian theatre of World War II
Infobox Military Conflict
conflict=South-East Asian Theatre
World War IIand Pacific War
British India, Thailand, French Indochina, British Malaya, SingaporeThe South-East Asian Theatre of World War IIwas the name given to the campaigns of the Pacific Warin India, Thailand, Indochina, Malaya and Singapore. Conflict in the theatre began when the Empire of Japaninvaded Thailand and Malaya from bases located in Indochina on December 8, 1941. The main landing at Singora (now Songkhla) on the east side of the Isthmus of Krapreceded the bombing of Pearl Harbor by several hours. Action in the theatre officially ended on September 9, 1945.
Initial Japanese successes
The Allies suffered many disastrous defeats in the first six months of the war. Two major British warships, HMS "Repulse" and HMS "Prince of Wales" were sunk by a Japanese air attack off Malaya on
December 10, 1941. Following the invasion, the government of Thailandformally allied itself with Japanon December 21. Japaninvaded Hong Kongin the Battle of Hong Kongon December 25. January saw the invasions of Burmaand the Dutch East Indiesand the capture of Manilaand Kuala Lumpur.
Southern Expeditionary Army Group's 1st Raiding Regiment (also known as the 1st Parachute Brigade) was used with good effect in the seizure of Sumatra(see Battle of Palembang).
Malaya and Singapore
Japanese forces met stiff resistance from III Corps of the Indian Army, the
Australian 8th Divisionand British units during the Battle of Malaya, but Japan's superiority in air power, tanks and infantry tactics drove the Allied units back. After being driven out of Malaya, Allied forces in Singapore, under the command of Lieutenant General Arthur Percival, surrendered to the Japanese on February 15, 1942; about 130,000 Allied troops became prisoners of war. The fall of Singapore was the largest surrender in British military history.
The Japanese Indian Ocean raid
Indian Ocean raidwas a naval sortie by the Fast Carrier Strike Force of the Imperial Japanese Navyfrom 31 Marchto 10 April 1942against Allied shipping and bases in the Indian Ocean. Following the destruction of the ABDACOM forces in the battles around Java in February and March, the Japanese sortied into the Indian Ocean to destroy British seapower there and support the invasion of Burma. The raid was only partially successful. It did not succeed in destroying Allied naval power in the Indian Ocean but it did force the British fleet to relocate from Ceylonto Kilindininear Mombasain Kenya, as their more forward fleet anchorages could not be adequately protected from Japanese attack. The fleet in the Indian Ocean was then gradually reduced to little more than a convoy escort force as other commitments called for the more powerful ships. From May 1942, it was also used in the invasion of Madagascar — an operation aimed at thwarting any attempt by Japan to use bases on the Vichy Frenchcontrolled territory.
Japanese occupation of the Andaman and Nicobar Islands
Andaman and NicobarIslands (8,293 km² on 139 islands), are a group of islands situated in the Bay of Bengalat about 780 miles from Kolkata, 740 miles from Chennaiand 120 miles from Cape Nargisin Burma. On March 231942 a Japanese invasion force seized the islands and occupied them until the end of the war.
December 29, 1943, political control of the islands was theoretically passed to the Azad Hindgovernment of Subhas Chandra Bose. Bose visited Port Blairto raise the tricolour flag of the Indian National Army. After Bose's departure the Japanese remained in effective control of the Andamans, and the sovereignty of the "Arzi Hukumat-e Hind" was largely fictional [ C.A. Bayly & T. Harper "Forgotten Armies. The Fall of British Asia 1941-5" (London) 2004 p325 ] . The islands themselves were renamed "Shaheed" and "Swaraj", meaning "martyr" and "self-rule" respectively. Bose placed the islands under the governorship of Lt Col. A.D. Loganathan, and had limited involvement with the administration of the territory.
*The retreat of
*The formation of the
British Fourteenth Army(The "Forgotten Army")
*The Japanese attack on
*The Allied counter offensives
** Road to
Orde Wingateand the Chindits
US forces in the China Burma India Theatre
Northern Combat Area Command(NCAC)
Fourteenth Air Force
Tenth Air Force
Twentieth Air Force( Operation Matterhorn)
*The Allied logistical airlift from India in to China over
One of the major logistical efforts of the war was "flying the Hump" over the Himalayas and the building of the Ledo Road from India to China as a replacement for the
Air war in South East Asia
RAF Far East Air Force
RAF Third Tactical Air Force
Bombing of South East Asia, 1944-45
RAF battle honours:
*CEYLON 1942Qualification: For operations against Japanese aircraft and naval units by squadrons based in Ceylon during the Japanese attacks of April 1942.
*BURMA 1944-1945Qualification: For operations during the 14th Army's advance from Imphal to Rangoon, the coastal amphibious assaults, and the Battle of Pegu Yomas, August 1944 to August 1945.
Indian Ocean naval campaigns 1942-45
The earliest successes were gained by mine laying and submarine warfare. The Japanese minesweeping capability was never great, and when confronted with new types of mines they did not adapt quickly. Japanese shipping was driven from the Burmese coast using this type of warfare. British submarines based in Ceylon operated against Japanese shipping.
It was only after the war in Europe was clearly coming to an end that large British forces were dispatched to the Indian Ocean again. Following the neutralisation of the German fleet in late 1943 and early 1944, forces from the
Home Fleetwere released, and the success of Operation Overlordin June meant even more craft could be sent, including precious amphibious assault shipping.
During late 1944, as more British aircraft carriers came into the area a series of strikes were flown against oil targets in
Sumatra, such as Operation Meridian. The USS "Saratoga" was lent for the first attack by the United States. The oil installations were heavily damaged by the attacks, aggravating the Japanese fuel shortages due to the American blockade. The final attack was flown as the carriers were heading for Sydney to become the British Pacific Fleet.
After the departure of the main battle forces the Indian Ocean was left with escort carriers and older battleships as the mainstay of its naval forces. Nevertheless, during those months important operations were launched in the recapture of Burma, including landings on Ramree and Akyab and near Rangoon.
Allied command structure
At the start of the war the British had two commands with responsibilities for possessions in the theatre. India Command under General Sir
Archibald Wavellthe Commander-in-Chief (CinC) of the Army of Indiaand the Far East Command, first under Air Chief Marshal Robert Brooke-Pophamand then from December 23, 1941 commanded by Lieutenant-General Sir Henry Royds Pownall.
India Command was responsible for India, Ceylon, and for some of the time Burma. The Far East Command based in Singapore was responsible for
Hong Kong, Malaya, Singapore and other British Far East possessions including, for some of the time, Burma.
A month after the outbreak of war with
Japanon December 7, 1941, the Alliedgovernments jointly appointed the British Commander-in-Chief (CinC) of the Army of India, General Sir Archibald Wavell, as Supreme Allied Commander of all "American-British-Dutch-Australian" (ABDA) forces in South East Asia and the Pacific, from Burma to the Dutch East Indies.
However, advances made by the Japanese over the next month split the ABDA forces in two. After transferring the forces in Burma to the India Command, on
February 25, 1942Wavell resigned as commander of the ABDA and resumed his position of CinC of the Army of India. Responsibility for the South West Pacific Areapassed to US General Douglas MacArthuras "Supreme Allied Commander South West Pacific".
From February 1942 until November 1943 the India Command was responsible for the South East Asian Theatre. General Wavell was made
Viceroy of Indiaand General Claude Auchinleckbecame Commander-in-Chief of the India Command on the 20th June, 1943. In August 1943 the Allies formed a new South East Asian Command to take over strategic responsibilities for the theatre.
The reorganisation of the theatre command took about two months. On
October 4 Winston Churchillappointed Admiral Lord Louis Mountbatten supreme Allied commander of the South East Asia Command(SEAC). The American General Joseph Stilwellwas the first deputy supreme Allied commander. On November 15, Auchinleck handed over responsibility for the conduct of operations against the Japanese in the theatre to Mountbatten.
Initially SEAC commanded:
British Eastern Fleet(based in Ceylon)
British 11th Army Group(Commonwealth land forces; HQ in New Delhi)
*Air HQ India (New Delhi)
*China Burma India Theater (CBI), (all US forces in theatre; HQ in New Delhi).
In October 1944, CBI was split into US Forces China Theater (USFCT) and India-Burma Theater (USFIBT).
November 12, 1944Eleventh Army Group redesignated by Allied Land Forces South East Asia (ALFSEA) combining Commonwealth and US forcesFact|date=September 2007, with an HQ at Kandy. On December 1ALFSEA HQ moved to Barrackpore, India.
August 15, 1945responsibility for the rest of the Dutch East Indieswas transferred from the South West Pacific Area to SEAC.
SEAC was disbanded on
November 30, 1946.
11th Army Group
British 11th Army Group ( November
1943– November 12 1944) was on paper the main Commonwealth army force in South East Asia which directed
*British Fourteenth Army
British Army in Ceylon(Ceylon Army)
Northern Combat Area Commandunder the command of Joseph Stilwell.
November 12 1944the 11th Army Group was redesignated Allied Land Forces South East Asia, still under SEAC, because it was felt that an inter-Allied command was better than the purely British headquarters. Command problems with General Stilwell and his interactions with the U.S. Joint Chiefs of Staffhad precipitated the change.
Japanese command structure
Imperial Japanese ArmyUnit controlling all army land and air units in South East Asia and the South West Pacific was the Southern Expeditionary Army headquartered in Saigon, Indochina. It was commanded by General Count Hisaichi Terauchi, who commanded it from 1941 to 1945. The Japanese also deployed the South Seas Force, a combined force of Army and Special Naval Landing Forcepersonnel. The Southern Army's major field commands were the Japanese 14th Army, the Japanese 15th Army, the Japanese 16th Armyand the Japanese 25th Army. These consisted of 11 infantry divisions, six independent infantry brigades, and six tank regiments, plus artillery and support troops. The Japanese extensively used bicycle infantry, which allowed them quick movement over vast distances.
British Indian Army
Indian National Army
Burma National Army
Military history of Britain during World War II#The Far East
Pacific Theater of Operations
Second Sino-Japanese War
* cite book
last = Bayly
first = Christopher
coauthors = Tim Harper
year = 2007
title = Forgotten Wars: Freedom and Revolution in Southeast Asia
publisher = Belknap Press
id = ISBN 0674021533
last = Drea
first = Edward J.
year = 1998
title = In the Service of the Emperor: Essays on the Imperial Japanese Army
publisher = University of Nebraska Press
location = Nebraska
id = ISBN 0-8032-1708-0
Jon Latimer, "Burma: The Forgotten War", London: John Murray, 2004. ISBN 978-0719565762 * William Slim, "Defeat Into Victory", London: Cassell, 1956.
* Seki, Eiji. (2006). [http://books.google.com/books?id=u5KgAAAACAAJ&dq=Mrs.+Ferguson%27s+Tea-set,+Japan,+and+the+Second+World+War&client=firefox-a "Mrs. Ferguson's Tea-Set, Japan and the Second World War: The Global Consequences Following Germany's Sinking of the SS Automedon in 1940."] London:
Global Oriental. 10-ISBN 1-905-24628-5; 13- ISBN 978-1-905-24628-1 (cloth) [reprinted by University of Hawaii Press, Honolulu, 2007 -- [http://www.uhpress.hawaii.edu/cart/shopcore/?db_name=uhpress&page=shop/flypage&product_id=4475&PHPSESSID=75b7d372eb6f6c4d747ec0a150c42ead previously announced as "Sinking of the SS Automedon and the Role of the Japanese Navy: A New Interpretation"] .]
William Slim, "Defeat Into Victory", London: Cassell, 1956.
* [http://www.ibiblio.org/pha/policy/1942/420127a.html Parliamentary Debates, House of Commons Official Report, Jan. 27, 1942. on the Far Eastern theatre and A.B.D.A]
* [http://www.army.mil/cmh-pg/books/wwii/Sp1941-42/chapter6.htm STRATEGIC PLANNING FOR COALITION WARFARE 1941-1942: Chapter VI: ARMY DEPLOYMENT AND THE WAR AGAINST JAPAN December 1941-March 1942]
* [http://www.awm.gov.au/atwar/remembering1942/singapore/transcript.htm Australian War Memorial: Remembering 1942 The fall of Singapore, 15 February 1942]
* [http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/war/wwtwo/burma_campaign_01.shtml BBC Article on the Burma Campaign]
* [http://www.nimitz-museum.org/cbiprimer.htm Forgotten Warriors: China-Burma-India]
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