Lupang Hinirang English: Chosen Land
National anthem of
Also known as
English: Beloved Country
Lyrics José Palma, 1899 Music Julián Felipe, 1898 Adopted 1898 Music sampleLupang Hinirang (Instrumental)
Originally written as incidental music, it did not have words when it was adopted as the national anthem of the Philippines and subsequently played during the proclamation of Philippine independence on June 12, 1898. During the American occupation of the Philippines, the colonial government banned the song from being played with the passage of the Flag Law. The law was repealed in 1919 and the song was translated into English and would be legalized as the "Philippine Hymn". The anthem was translated into Tagalog beginning in the 1940s. A 1956 Pilipino (standardised Tagalog) version, revised in the 1960s, serves as the present anthem.
Lupang Hinirang in Filipino or Tagalog means "Chosen Land" in English. Some English sources erroneously translate Lupang Hinirang as "Beloved Land" or "Beloved Country"; however, "Beloved Land" is a translation of the first line of Filipinas, which would be Tiérra adorada, and "Beloved Country" is likewise a translation of the first line of the current version of the anthem, which would be Bayang Magiliw. The anthem is also colloquially known as Bayang Magiliw.
The Lupang Hinirang began as an instrumental march which Emilio Aguinaldo commissioned for use in the proclamation of Philippine independence from Spain. This task was given to Julián Felipe and was to replace a march which Aguinaldo did not find to be satisfactory. The title of the new march was Marcha Filipina Magdalo ("Magdalo Philippine March") and was later changed to Marcha Nacional Filipina ("Philippine National March") upon its adoption as the national anthem of the First Philippine Republic on June 11, 1898, a day before the date when Philippine independence was to be proclaimed. It was played by the San Francisco de Malabon marching band during the proclamation on June 12, 1898.
In August 1899, José Palma wrote the poem Filipinas in Spanish. The poem was published for the first time in the newspaper La Independencia on September 3, 1899. It was subsequently adopted as the lyrics to the anthem.
Philippine law requires that the anthem always be rendered in accordance with the musical arrangement and composition of Julián Felipe, but the original holograph cannot be located. In the 1920s, the time signature was changed to 4/4 to facilitate its singing and the key was changed from the original C major to G.
During the 1920s, with the repeal of the Flag Law, which banned the use of all Filipino national symbols, the American colonial government decided to translate the national hymn from Spanish to English. The first translation was written around that time by Paz Marquez Benitez of the University of the Philippines, who was also a famous poet during that time. The most popular translation, called the "Philippine Hymn", was written by senator Camilo Osías and an American, Mary A. Lane. The "Philippine Hymn" was legalized by an act of the Philippine Congress in 1938.
Tagalog translations started appearing during the 1940s, with the first translation known as Diwa ng Bayan ("Spirit of the Country"), which was sung during the Japanese occupation of the Philippines, followed by the next most popular O Sintang Lupa ("O Beloved Land") by Julian Cruz Balmaceda, Ildefonso Santos, and Francisco Caballo. O Sintang Lupa was approved as the national anthem in 1948. Upon the adoption of Diwa ng Bayan, the song Awit sa Paglikha ng Bagong Pilipinas and the Japanese national anthem Kimigayo was replaced.
During the term of President Ramon Magsaysay, Education Secretary Gregorio Hernández formed a commission to revise the Tagalog lyrics. On May 26, 1956, the national anthem, Lupang Hinirang, was finally sung in Pilipino. Minor revisions were made in the 1960s, and it is this version, made by Felipe Padilla de León, which is in use today. The Filipino lyrics have been confirmed by a new national symbols law (Republic Act No. 8491 or the Flag and Heraldic Code of the Philippines) in 1998, but not the English and Spanish.
As historian Ambeth Ocampo has noted, some of the original meaning of the poem Filipinas has been lost in translation; for example, the original Hija del sol de oriente literally means "Daughter of the Orient (Eastern) Sun." It becomes "Child of the sun returning" in the Philippine Hymn and "Pearl of the Orient" in the present official version.
The translation of Lupang Hinirang was used by Felipe Padilla de Leon as his inspiration for Awit sa Paglikha ng Bagong Pilipinas, commissioned by the government of the Japanese Occupation of the Philippines during World War II, and adapted during the Martial Law period under Ferdinand Marcos.
In the late 1990s, then Chief Executive Officer of the GMA Network, Menardo Jimenez, proposed that various recording artists record their respective versions of the national anthem; this is, however, prohibited by law.
Lupang Hinirang was not the first Filipino national anthem to be conceived. The composer and revolutionist Julio Nakpil composed Marangal na Dalit ng Katagalugan (Honorable Hymn of Katagalugan), which later called Salve Patria (Save our Motherland). Which was intended as the official anthem of the Katipunan, the secret society that spearheaded the Revolution. It is considered a national anthem because Andrés Bonifacio, the chief founder of the Katipunan, converted the organization into a revolutionary government - with himself as president - known as the Republika ng Katagalugan (Tagalog Republic) just before hostilities erupted. The Katipunan or Republika ng Katagalugan was superseded by Aguinaldo's Republica Filipina. The anthem, later renamed Himno Nacional, was never adopted by Aguinaldo for unspecified reasons. It should be noted that Katagalugan, in its usage in the anthem, meant the Philippines as a whole and not just the Tagalog-speaking Filipinos.
The following Spanish, Tagalog/Filipino and English versions of the national anthem have been given official status throughout Philippine history. However, only the latest and current Filipino version is officially recognized by law. The Flag and Heraldic Code, approved on February 12, 1998, specifies, "The National Anthem shall always be sung in the national language within or without the country", and provides fine and imprisonment penalties for violations.
Official Filipino lyrics:
Lupang Hinirang (1958, rev. 1960s)
Unofficial English translation:
Perlas ng Silanganan
Alab ng puso,
Sa Dibdib mo'y buhay.
Duyan ka ng magiting,
Di ka pasisiil.
Sa dagat at bundok,
Sa simoy at sa langit mong bughaw,
May dilag ang tula,
At awit sa paglayang minamahal.
Ang kislap ng watawat mo'y
Tagumpay na nagniningning,
Ang bituin at araw niya,
Kailan pa ma'y di magdidilim,
Lupa ng araw ng luwalhati't pagsinta,
Buhay ay langit sa piling mo,
Aming ligaya na pag may mang-aapi,
Ang mamatay ng dahil sa iyo.
Pearl of the Orient,
The burning [fervour] of the heart
In thy chest is alive.
Cradle Thou [art] of the valourous.
To the invaders,
Thou shalt never submit.
In [the] seas and [the] mountains,
in [the] air, and in skies of Thine azure,
There is beauty in the poem
And [in the] song for freedom beloved.
The sparkle of the flag of Thine
Is victory that is shining.
The Stars and Sun of it
Forevermore shall never dim.
Land of the sun, of glory, and loving,
Life is Heaven in Thine embrace.
'Tis our joy, when there be oppressors,
To die because of Thee.
Original Spanish version:
Official Commonwealth-era English version:
The Philippine Hymn (1938)
hija del sol de Oriente,
su fuego ardiente
en ti latiendo está.
Tierra de amores,
del heroísmo cuna,
no te hollarán jamás.
En tu azul cielo, en tus auras,
en tus montes y en tu mar
esplende y late el poema
de tu amada libertad.
Tu pabellón que en las lides
la victoria iluminó,
no verá nunca apagados
sus estrellas ni su sol.
Tierra de dichas, de sol y amores
en tu regazo dulce es vivir;
es una gloria para tus hijos,
cuando te ofenden, por ti morir.
Land of the morning,
Child of the sun returning,
With fervor burning,
Thee do our souls adore.
Land dear and holy,
Cradle of noble heroes,
Ne'er shall invaders
Trample thy sacred shore.
Ever within thy skies and through thy clouds
And o'er thy hills and sea,
Do we behold the radiance, feel the throb,
Of glorious liberty.
Thy banner, dear to all our hearts,
Its sun and stars alight,
O never shall its shining field
Be dimmed by tyrant's might!
Beautiful land of love, o land of light,
In thine embrace 'tis rapture to lie,
But it is glory ever, when thou art wronged,
For us, thy sons to suffer and die.
Official Japanese-era Tagalog version:
Diwa ng Bayan (1943)
Unofficial English translation:
Spirit of the Country
Na mutya ng silangan;
Buhay at yaman,
Sa banyagang kamay.
Sa iyong langit, bundok,
batis, dagat na pinalupig;
Nailibing na ang karimlan,
Ng kahapong pagtitiis.
Sakit at luha, hirap,
Sisa at sumpa sa pagaamis;
ay wala nang lahat at naligtas,
Sa ibig manlupit.
Hayo't magdiwang lahi kong minamahal,
Iyong watawat ang siyang tanglaw;
At kung sakaling ikaw ay muling pagbantaan,
Aming bangkay ang siyang hahadlang.
Land that is blesséd,
that is Pearl of the East;
Nation in union
with [the whole of] nature.
The life and riches
Of the Filipino people
Taken and reclaimed
From foreign hands.
In Thy skies, mountains,
Springs, seas that were invaded
Buried already is the darkness
Of yesterday's suffering.
Pain and tears, hardship,
Difficulty and curse of oppression
Are all gone and [we] are saved
From those who wish to be cruel [to us].
Let us celebrate, my beloved race,
With Thy flag as our guiding light;
And if ever Thou are once more threatened,
Our corpses will stand in the way.
Official post-World War II Tagalog version:
O Sintang Lupa (1948)
Unofficial English translation:
O Beloved Land
O sintang lupa,
Perlas ng Silanganan;
Diwang apoy kang
Sa araw nagmula.
Pugad ng kagitingan,
Di ka papaslang.
Sa iyong langit, simoy, parang.
Dagat at kabundukan,
Laganap ang tibok ng puso
Sa paglayang walang hanggan.
Sagisag ng watawat mong mahal
Ningning at tagumpay;
Araw't bituin niyang maalab
Ang s'yang lagi naming tanglaw.
Sa iyo Lupa ng ligaya't pagsinta,
Tamis mabuhay na yakap mo,
Datapwa't langit ding kung ikaw ay apihin
Ay mamatay ng dahil sa 'yo.
O beloved land,
Pearl of the Orient,
A fiery spirit art thou
Coming from the sun.
Land of our affection,
Cradle of bravery,
To the conquerors
Thou shall never fall.
Through thy skies, air, meadows,
Seas and mountains,
Widespread is the heartbeat
For eternal freedom.
Thy dear flag symbolizes
Brilliance and victory;
Its radiant sun and stars
Will always be our guiding light.
In thee, land of joy and affection,
Sweet life in thine embrace.
Though heaven will it be too, if thou art oppressed
To die because of thee.
Usage and legal regulation
Article XVI, Section 2 of the present Philippine Constitution specifies that "The Congress may, by law, adopt a new name for the country, a national anthem, or a national seal, which shall be truly reflective and symbolic of the ideals, history, and traditions of the people. Such law shall take effect only upon its ratification by the people in a national referendum." At present, the 1998 Republic Act (R.A.) 8491. (the Flag and Heraldic Code of the Philippines) regulates the usage of the Philippine national anthem. It also contains the complete lyrics of Lupang Hinirang.
R.A. 8491 specifies that Lupang Hinirang "shall be in accordance with the musical arrangement and composition of Julian Felipe." However, when literally followed, this means that the national anthem should only be performed by a pianist or by a brass band, as these were the only versions that were produced by Julian Felipe. Moreover, because the original version was composed in duple time (i.e. in a time signature of 2/4) as compared to the present quadruple time (4/4), it is uncertain if this will either slow down or even double the music's speed, making it difficult for singers to keep up with the music. Regardless of this, the national anthem is still sung with the lyrics. R.A. 8491 also states that Lupang Hinirang "shall always be sung in the national language" regardless if performed inside or outside the Philippines, and specifies that the singing must be done with fervor.
The National Anthem is usually played during public gatherings in the Philippines or in foreign countries where the Filipino audience is sizable. R.A. 8491 also provides that it be played at other occasions as may be allowed by the National Historical Institute. R.A. 8491 prohibits its playing or singing for mere recreation, amusement, or entertainment except during the following occasions:
- International competitions where the Philippines is the host or has a representative;
- Local competitions;
- During the "signing off" and "signing on" of radio broadcasting and television stations; and
- Before the initial and last screening of films and before the opening of theater performances.
R.A. 8491 specifies fine or imprisonment penalties for any person or juridical entity which violates its provisions. A public or government official or employee who fails to observe the regulations of R.A. 8491 may face administrative sanctions in addition to the penalties imposed by law. This also applies to persons connected with government-held corporations, public schools, and state colleges and universities.
- Flag of the Philippines
- Oath of Allegiance (Philippines)
- Pledge of Allegiance to the Philippine Flag
- ^ Pomeroy, William J. (Published 1992). The Philippines: Colonialism, Collaboration, and Resistance. International Publishers Co.. p. 10. ISBN 0717806928. http://books.google.com/?id=vQPpEa02N5kC&pg=PA10&dq=Philippines+%22flag+law%22. Retrieved 26 January 2008 ; excerpted quote: "In 1909 an entire band was sent to prison for playing the Philippine National Anthem at a festival in Quiapo, Manila.", citing Agoncillo, Teodoro A. (2005). The Revolt of the Masses: The Story of Bonifacio and the Katipunan. Quezon City: University of the Philippines Press
- ^ Colleen A. Sexton (2006). Philippines in Pictures. Twenty-First Century Books. p. 69. ISBN 9780822526773. http://books.google.com/?id=ffGdShrIrQAC
- ^ Marshall Cavendish Corporation (September 2007). World and Its Peoples: Malaysia, Philippines, Singapore, and Brunei. Marshall Cavendish. p. 1242. ISBN 9780761476429. http://books.google.com/?id=72VwCFtYHCgC
- ^ a b The original text, as published in Barcelona, Spain in 1912: Palma, José (1912). Melancólicas : coleccion de poesías. Manila, Philippines: Liberería Manila Filatélica. (Digital copy found online at HathiTrust Digital Library on 2010-03-31)
- ^ a b Contemporary restatements of and comments about the original text:
^ "The Making of Filipinas". The Philippines Centennial. msc.edu.ph. http://www.msc.edu.ph/centennial/filipinas.html. Retrieved 2008-11-12
^ "The Philippine National Anthem". Filipinas Heritage Library. filipinaslibrary.org.ph. http://www.filipinaslibrary.org.ph/filipiniana/nationalanthem.asp. Retrieved 2010-03-30
- ^ a b c d e f g "Flag and Heraldic Code of the Philippines". The LawPhil Project. http://www.lawphil.net/statutes/repacts/ra1998/ra_8491_1998.html. Retrieved March 30, 2010.
- ^ a b c d Ocampo, Ambeth R. (May 24, 2005). The right way to sing the National Anthem. Philippines Daily Inquirer. Archived from the original on May 26, 2005. http://web.archive.org/web/20050526123412/http://news.inq7.net/opinion/index.php?index=2&story_id=38046&col=80 (archived from the original on 26 May 2005)
- ^ Cribb, Robert; Narangoa Li (2003-07-22). mperial Japan and National Identities in Asia, 1895-1945. Routledge. pp. 28. ISBN 0700714820. http://books.google.com/?id=DGQMKex16AsC&pg=PA269&dq=%22Diwa+ng+Bayan%22&q=%22Diwa%20ng%20Bayan%22.
- ^ spelled with an F since 1973, affirmed in 1987 - see respective Constitutions
- ^ Ocampo, Ambeth R. (1995). Mabini's Ghost. Pasig City, Philippines: Anvil Publishing.
- ^ Guerrero, Milagros C.. "Andres Bonifacio and the 1896 Revolution". National Commission for culture and the Arts (NCCA). Archived from the original on 18 January 2008. http://web.archive.org/web/20080118020717/http://www.ncca.gov.ph/about_cultarts/articles.php?artcl_Id=5. Retrieved 26 September 2007. (archived from the original) on 2008-01-18).
- ^ a b c This translation is not intended to be sung, as the words do not correspond with the music.
- ^ This translation is recommended for accurate translation of only currently official Philippine version of the Philippine national anthem into other language editions of Wikipedia. In addition, this text differs from that of the Philippine Hymn of 1938, since the latter is a direct translation from the original Spanish version Filipinas.
- ^ Official lyrics, according to CA 382.
- ^ "The Philippines Flag and the National Anthem". eSerbisyo. Government of the Republic of the Philippines. 2008. http://www.eserbisyo.gov.ph/Default.aspx?ssid=84&aid=1760. Retrieved 2010-05-04.
- ^ a b This translation is intended for illustrating the evolution of the Philippine national anthem.
- ^ O Sintang Lupa, sintunado.com.
- ^ "1987 Constitution of the Republic of the Philippines". RP Government. Archived from the original on 30 September 2007. http://web.archive.org/web/20070930160301/http://www.gov.ph/aboutphil/a16.asp. Retrieved 26 September 2007.
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