Charles I, Landgrave of Hesse-Kassel

Charles I, Landgrave of Hesse-Kassel
Charles I
Landgrave of Hesse-Kassel
Spouse Maria Amalia of Courland
Frederick I of Sweden
Sophie Charlotte
William VIII, Landgrave of Hesse-Kassel
Marie Luise, Princess of Orange
Georg Karl
Eleonore Antoine
Wilhelmine Charlotte
House House of Hesse-Kassel
Father William VI, Landgrave of Hesse-Kassel
Mother Hedwig Sophia of Brandenburg
Born 3 August 1654
Died 23 March 1730
Religion Calvinism

Karl I (August 3, 1654 – March 23, 1730) was Landgrave of Hesse-Kassel from 1670 till his death.

Born at Kassel, he was the son of Wilhelm VI of Hesse-Kassel and Hedwig Sophia of Brandenburg, daughter of Georg Wilhelm, Elector of Brandenburg. After the early death of his father, his mother ruled as regent until 1675. Then Karl ruled for the next 55 years.

Under his rule Kassel recovered faster from the Thirty Years' War than other regions in Germany. He built a relatively large army which he rented to the highest bidder in the War of Spanish Succession.

At the Revocation of the Edict of Nantes in 1685 in France, Karl welcomed the expelled Huguenots giving them freedom of worship. Some 4000 Huguenots settled in Kassel. Karl stimulated the metal-industry and was also interested in archaeology.

Marriage and children

Karl married his first cousin Maria Amalia of Courland (1653–1711), daughter of Jacob Kettler, Duke of Courland. They had seventeen children

  • Wilhelm (29 March 1674 - 25 July 1676)
  • Karl (24 February 1675 - 7 December 1677)
  • Friedrich (28 April 1676 - 5 April 1751), King of Sweden, Landgrave of Hesse-Kassel
  • Christian (2 July 1677 - 18 September 1677]
  • Sophie Charlotte (16 July 1678 - 30 May 1749) - married Frederick William, Duke of Mecklenburg-Schwerin (1675–1713)
  • Son (12 June 1679]
  • Karl (12 June 1680 - 13 November 1702)
  • William (10 March 1682 - 1 February 1760), Landgrave of Hesse-Kassel
  • Leopold (30 December 1684 - 10 September 1704)
  • Ludwig (5 September 1686 - 23 May 1706)
  • Marie Luise (7 February 1688 - 9 April 1765) - married Johan Willem Friso, Prince of Orange (1687–1711)
  • Maximilian (28 May 1689 - 8 May 1753) - married Friederike Landgravine of Hesse-Darmstadt (1698–1777)
  • Daughter (5 July 1690)
  • Georg Karl (8 January 1691 - 5 March 1755)
  • Eleonore Antoine (11 January 1694 - 17 December 1694)
  • Wilhelmine Charlotte (8 July 1695 - 27 November 1722)
  • Son (1696)


Preceded by
William VII
Landgrave of Hesse-Kassel
Succeeded by
Frederick I

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