Gene doping is defined by the
World Anti-Doping Agencyas "the non-therapeutic use of cells, genes, genetic elements, or of the modulation of gene expression, having the capacity to improve athletic performance". [http://www.wada-ama.org/rtecontent/document/2008_List_En.pdf] A complex ethicaland philosophicalissue is what defines "gene doping", especially in the context of bioethicaldebates about human enhancement.cite book| author = Miah, Andy| title = Genetically Modified Athletes: Biomedical Ethics, Gene Doping and Sport| publisher = Routledge| year = 2004| id = ISBN 0-415-29880-6] An example of gene doping could involve the recreational use of gene therapies intended to treat muscle-wasting disorders. Many of these chemicals may be indistinguishable from their natural counterparts. In such cases, nothing unusual would enter the bloodstreamso officials would detect nothing in a blood or urine test.
The historical development of policy associated with gene doping began in 2001 when the
International Olympic Committee(IOC) Medical Commission met to discuss the implications of gene therapy for sport. It was shortly followed by the World Anti-Doping Agency(WADA), which met in 2002 to discuss genetic enhancement at Cold Spring Harbor Laboratoryin New York. Also in 2002, the United States President’s Council on Bioethics met twice to discuss the ethics of genetic technology related to sport. In 2003, WADA decided to include a prohibition of gene dopingwithin their World Anti-Doping Code, which is formalized in its 2004 World Anti-Doping Code. Further, the American Association for the Advancement of Science(AAAS) met in 2003 and 2004 to discuss the science and ethics of gene transfer technology for sport.
World Anti-Doping Agency(WADA) has already asked scientists to help find ways to prevent gene therapy from becoming the newest means of doping. In December 2005, the World Anti-Doping Agencyhosted its second landmark meeting on gene doping, which took place in Stockholm. At this meeting, the delegates drafted a declaration on gene doping which, for the first time, included a strong discouragement of the use of genetic testing for performance.
The first product to be associated with genetic doping emerged on the approach to the Turin 2006 Olympic Winter Games, where
repoxygenwas discussed as a possible substance in use at the Games.
World Anti-Doping Agency
List of doping cases in cycling
* [http://www.msu.edu/~folandwa/gd_index.html Gene Doping Documentary from Michigan State University]
* [http://www.wada-ama.org/en/t1.asp World Anti-Doping Agency Website]
* [http://www.GMathletes.net Genetically Modified Athletes: Biomedical Ethics, Gene Doping and Sport (Routledge, 2004)] , by
* [http://www.bioethicsport.org.uk Bioethics & Sport Blog]
* [http://www.sciam.com/article.cfm?chanID=sa008&articleID=000E7ACE-5686-10CF-94EB83414B7F0000&pageNumber=3&catID=2 Scientific American July 2004 - Gene Doping]
* [http://www.media.paisley.ac.uk/andymiah/Miah2002GeneDopingGlasaBk.pdf Miah, A. (2003) Gene Doping: Sport, Values & Bioethics. In Glasa, J. (Ed.) The Ethics of Human Genetics. Strasburg, Council of Europe, pp.171-180]
* [http://www.fast.paisley.ac.uk Forum for the Analysis of Sport Technology]
* [http://www.sciam.com/article.cfm?chanID=sa006&articleID=000E7ACE-5686-10CF-94EB83414B7F0000 Scientific American Magazine (July 2004 Issue) Gene Doping]
* The social aspects of Gene Doping is discussed in the [http://www.rusiriusradio.com/2007/06/29/show-117-weekend-edition-cyborgs-revolution-steve-wozniak/ RU Sirius Show #117 6.29.07] with Steve Wozniak and WorldChanger Jamais Cascio.
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