- Iberian language
region=Mediterranean coast of the
extinct=1st-2nd century AD
The Iberian language was the language of a people identified by Greek and Roman sources who lived in the eastern and southeastern regions of the
Iberian peninsula. The ancient Iberianscan be identified as a rather nebulous local culture between the 7th century BCand the 1st century BC. The Iberian language, like the rest of paleohispanic languages, became extinct by the 1st to 2nd centuries AD, after being gradually replaced by Latin. Iberian seems to be a language isolateand while its different scripts have been deciphered to various extents, the language itself remains unknown.
Links with other languages have been claimed, but they have not been clearly demonstrated. One such proposed link was with the
Basque language, but this theory is disputed and has not been supported by modern scholarship. [ [http://encarta.msn.com/encyclopedia_761568486/Iberians.html Iberians - MSN Encarta ] ] [ [http://encyclopedia.jrank.org/I27_INV/IBERIANS_Iberi_I_3r7Aes_.html IBERIANS (Iberi, "I(3r... - Online Information article about IBERIANS (Iberi, "I(3r ] ]
The Iberian language spread along the Mediterranean coast of the Iberian Peninsula.
In the north, the Iberian language reached the south of France up to the
Hérault river. Important written remains have been found in Ensérune, between Narbonneand Béziersin France, in an " oppidum" with mixed Iberian and Celtic elements. The southern limit would be Porcuna, in Jaén ( Spain), where splendid sculptures of Iberian riders have been found.
Towards inland the exact distribution of the Iberian language is uncertain. It seems that the culture reached the inland through the
Ebroriver ("Iberus" in Latin) up to Salduie(Zaragoza) but not farther.
Among the pre-Roman peoples of the Iberian Peninsula it is believed that the following spoke Iberian languages:
Ausetani(northeastern Catalonia), Ilergetes(Lleida and Huesca up to the Pyrenees), Indigetes(coast of Girona), Laietani(Barcelona), Cassetani(Tarragona), Ilercavones(Murcia and Levante up to Tarragona), Edetani(Valencia, Castellón and Teruel), Contestani(Valencia, Alicante, Cartagena and Albacete), Bastetani(Granada, Almería and Murcia) and Oretani(Jaén, Ciudad Real, Albacete and Cuenca). Turduliand Turdetaniare believed to be of Tartessian language.
The origin of the language is unknown. There are three main hypotheses to explain the origin of the language:
* Native hypothesis: assumes that Iberian language was the language of the native people who settled in the Iberian peninsula during the Neolithic. [ [http://historymedren.about.com/library/text/bltxtspain2.htm Spain - Historical Setting - Iberia ] ]
* African hypothesis: proposes that the language arrived from the north of Africa. This hypothesis links Iberian with the
* European hypothesis: a recent theory, links the arrival of Basques/
Aquitaniand Iberians to the Pyrenees and the Iberian peninsula with the arrival of the urnfield culture.
The oldest Iberian inscriptions date to the
4th century BCor maybe the 5th century BCand the latest ones date from the end of the 1st century BCor maybe the beginning of the 1st century AD. More than two thousand Iberian inscriptions are currently known. Most are short texts on ceramicwith personal names, which are usually interpreted as ownership marks. The longest Iberian texts were made on leadplaques; the longest is from Yátova(València) with more than six hundred signs.
Three different scripts have remained for the Iberian language:
Northeastern Iberian script
** Dual variant (
4th century BCand 3rd century BC)
** Non-dual variant (
2nd century BCand 1st century BC)
Southeastern Iberian script
Greco-Iberian alphabet(most of the aforementioned "Leads of La Serreta" are written in this version).
Northeastern (or Levantine) Iberian script
northeastern Iberian scriptis also known as the Iberian script, because it is the Iberian scriptmost frequently used (95% of the remaining texts (Untermann 1990)). The northeastern Iberian inscriptions had been found mainly in the northeastern quadrant of the Iberian Peninsula: mainly on the coast from Languedoc-Roussillonto Alicante, but with a deep penetration on the Ebrovalley. This script is almost completely deciphered.
paleohispanic scripts, with the exception of the Greco-Iberian alphabet, share a common distinctive typological characteristic: they present signs with syllabic value, for the occlusives and signs with monofonematic value for the rest of consonantsand vowels. From the writing systemspoint of view they are neither alphabetsnor syllabaries; they are mixed scripts that normally are identified as semi-syllabaries. About its origin there is no agreement among researchers: for some they are linked only to the Phoenician alphabet, while for others the Greek alphabetplayed a part.
outheastern (or Meridional) Iberian script
southeastern Iberian scriptis a semi-syllabarytoo, but it is more similar to the Tartessian script than to the northeastern Iberian script. The southeastern Iberian inscriptions had been found mainly in the southeastern quadrant of the Iberian Peninsula: eastern Andalusia, Murcia, Albacete, Alicanteand Valencia. This script is not completely deciphered.
alphabetis a direct adaptation of an Ionic variant of a Greek alphabetto the specificities of the Iberian language. The inscriptions that use the Greco-Iberian alphabet have been found mainly in Alicanteand Murcia.
Current extent of linguistic knowledge
Very little is known for certain about Iberian. The investigation of the language is past its initial phase of transcription and compiling of material, and is currently in the phase of identifying grammatical elements in the texts.
The hypotheses currently held are unconfirmed, and will remain so with some degree of certainty unless the discovery of a
bilingualtext allows linguists to confirm these deductions.
Iberian has five
vowels, the same as in Spanish or Basque, /a/, /e/, /i/, /o/, /u/, the front vowels (a, e, i) appearing more frequently than the back vowels. Although there are indications of a nasal vowel (<Unicode|ḿ>), this is thought to be an allophone. It does not seem that there were differences in vowel length if judged by Greek transcriptions; if this is correct then Iberian uses the long "Unicode|ē" (Greek Unicode|ῆτα "Unicode|ēta") as opposed to the short epsilon (Greek Unicode|ἔψιλόν "Unicode|épsilón").
It seems that
diphthongswere declined by [vowel] + [closed vowel] , attesting to the /ai/ (śaitabi), /ei/ (neitin), and /au/ (lauŕ). Untermann observed that the diphthong /ui/ could only be found in the first cluster.
The possibility has been found for the
semivowels/j/ (in words such as "aiun" o "iunstir") and /w/, although this only in loanwords such as "diuiś" from Gaulish. This has cast doubt that semivowels really existed in Iberian outside of foreign borrowings (and diphthongs).
*Vibrants: the vibrants
and Unicode|<ŕ>. There is unanimity among linguists studying Iberian that Unicode|<ŕ> is a simple vibrant, the alveolar flap, IPA|/ɾ/. Correa has advanced the hypothesis that Unicode|<ŕ> is a simple vibrant and a compound vibrant, i.e. the alveolar trill, IPA|/r/. More recent hypotheses have proposed that is an uvular fricative, IPA|/ʁ/ (Ballestar) or a retroflexvibrant, IPA|/ɽ/ (Rodriguez). Neither "r" appears at the start of a word, the same as with Basque.
*Sibilants: there are two sibilants
Unicode|<ś>. The distinction is unclear. Ballester theorizes that IPA|/s/ and Unicode|<ś> is the voiceless alveolo-palatal fricative, IPA|/ɕ/. Rodriguez proposes that Unicode|<ś> is the alveolar IPA|/s/ and IPA|/ʦ̪/ or palatal IPA|/ʧ/ (similar to English "ch" as in "chat"). This theory coincides with the observation made by Correa that follows the adaptions made of Gallic names in Iberian texts. It is worth noting that Basque also has two sibilants: "s" as apical alveolar and "z" as laminal alveolar, which could correspond to Unicode|<ś> and *Laterals: the lateral: , is normally interpreted as /l/. This is extremely rare in final position and it could be that the distribution is on occasions complementary with Unicode|<ŕ>: ("aŕikal"-er" / "aŕikaŕ"'-bi").
is a normal alveolar /n/
rarely appears in initial position. Velaza proposes that it could be a variant of /n/, backed by the example of iumstir/iunstir. José A. Correa advances the possibility that it may be a geminated or strong nasal. Rodríguez Ramos notes the idea that it could be a variant of /n/ in cases that it nasalizes the preceding vowel.
**There is a certain controversy over the letter Unicode|<ḿ>. While it's thought that it's some type of nasal, there is no certainty as to the exact value. Several linguists have proposed the value /na/, based on similarities with texts written in the Greek Alphabet, as there are similarities between the suffixs "Unicode|-ḿi" / "-nai", and in the onomastic elements "Unicode|-ḿbar-" / "-nabar-". Another part of this theory seems to contradict itself with the transcription of "Unicode|ḿbar-beleś" into Latin as VMARBELES. Correa proposes that this is a labialized nasal. It is not even clear that the sign is always pronounced in the same form. Ramos considers it a nasalized vowel, produced by progressive nasalization.
*Plosives: there are five plosives.
:The evidence indicates the non-existence of the phoneme /p/ as it is not documented in either the Greek alphabet nor in the dual Iberian systems. It is only found in Latin inscriptions naming native Iberians and is thought to be an allophone of /b/.:It has been indicated that the phoneme /b/ would on occasions be pronounced similar to /w/ (this would be explained by the frequency of the sign /bu/), as such it could have a nasalized pronunciation.
The best-known are the following.
:"-ar": applied to proper names to mark possession.:"-en": of a similar or identical use to "-ar". "-en" or "aren" are used for Basque genitives.:"-ka": seems to indicate the person who receives something:"-te": seems to indicate the agent, or ablative:"-sken": found on coins, applied to the names of a city or tribe to indicate origin or a plural genitive :"-k": has been proposed on occasions to mark the plural. "-k" is a plural mark in Basque.
Thanks to the Latin Inscription of the plaque of Ascoli, which includes a list of Iberian leaders which was analyzed by Hugo Schuchardt, the forms of Iberian proper names have been unraveled. Iberian names are formed by two interchangeable elements, each usually formed of two syllables, which are written together. For example, the element "iltiŕ" can be found in the following names: "iltiŕaŕker", "iltiŕbaś", "iltiŕtikeŕ", "tursiltiŕ", "baiseiltiŕ" or "bekoniltiŕ". This discovery was a giant step: from this moment it was possible to indicate with confidence the names of persons in the texts.
The components of names are: "abaŕ", "aibe", "aile", "ain", "aitu", "aiun", "aker", "albe", "aloŕ", "an", "anaŕ", "aŕbi", "aŕki", "aŕs", "asai", "aster", "atin", "atun", "aunin", "auŕ", "austin", "baiser", "balaŕ", "balke", "bartaś", "baś", "bastok", "bekon", "belauŕ", "beleś", "bels", "bene", "beŕ", "beri", "beŕon", "betan", "betin", "bikir", "bilos", "bin", "bir", "bitu", "biuŕ", "bolai", "boŕ", "bos", "boton", "ekes", "ekaŕ", "eler", "ena", "esto", "eten", "eter", "iar", "iaun", "ibeś", "ibeis", "ike", "ikoŕ", "iltiŕ", "iltur", "inte", "iskeŕ", "istan", "iunstir", "iur", "kaisur", "kakeŕ", "kaltuŕ", "kani", "kaŕes", "kaŕko", "katu", "keŕe", "kibaś", "kine", "kitaŕ", "kon", "koŕo", "koŕś", "kuleś", "kurtar", "lako", "lauŕ", "leis", "lor", "lusban", "nalbe", "neitin", "neŕse", "nes", "niś", "nios", "oŕtin", "sakaŕ", "sakin", "saltu", "śani", "śar", "seken", "selki", "sike", "sili", "sine", "sir", "situ", "soket", "sor", "sosin", "suise", "taker", "talsku", "tan", "tanek", "taneś", "taŕ", "tarban", "taŕtin", "taś", "tautin", "teita", "tekeŕ", "tibaś", "tikeŕ", "tikirs", "tikis", "tileis", "tolor", "tuitui", "tumar", "tuŕś", "turkir", "tortin", "ulti", "unin", "uŕke", "ustain", "ḿbaŕ", "nḿkei".
In some cases linguists have encountered simple names, with only one element for a suffix: BELES, AGER-DO and BIVR-NO are not in the plaque of Ascoli, "neitin" in Ullastret and "lauŕ-to", "bartas-ko" or "śani-ko" in other Iberian texts. More rarely there have been indications of an
infix, which can be "-i-", "-ke-" or "-ta-" (Unterman used "oto-iltiŕ" in front of "oto-ke-iltiŕ" or with AEN-I-BELES). In rare cases Untermann also encountered an element "is-" or "o-" prefacing a proper name ("is-betartiker"; "o-tikiŕtekeŕ"; O-ASAI).
In the elements that formed Iberian names it's common to encounter patterns of variation: as in eter/eten/ete with the same variations as "iltur"/"iltun"/"iltu"; "kere"/"keres" as "lako"/"lakos" ; or "alos"/"alor"/"alo" and "bikis"/"bikir"/"biki").
* [http://www.webpersonal.net/jrr/index.htm Iberian Epigraphy by Jesús Rodríguez Ramos]
* [http://iespontdesuert.xtec.cat/iberico.html Searcher of regular expressions in Iberian texts by Eduardo Orduña Aznar]
* [http://www.proel.org/alfabetos/iberico.html Interesting reproductions of many different inscriptions and its transcription. Iberian alphabets. In Spanish]
* [http://www.arqueotavira.com/Mapas/Iberia/Populi.htm Detailed map of the Pre-Roman Peoples of Iberia (around 200 BC)]
* Anderson, James, M. (1988): "Ancient Languages of the Hispanic Peninsula", University Press of America, New-York, ISBN 978-0819167316.
* Ballester, Xaverio (2005): [http://www.dpz.es/ifc2/publi/fichapublic.asp?recid=2622 «Lengua ibérica: hacia un debate tipológico»,] , "Palaeohispanica" 5, pp. 361-392.
* Correa, José Antonio (1994): [http://www.uned.es/sel/pdf/jul-dic-94/24-2-Correa.pdf «La lengua ibérica»] , "Revista Española de Lingüística" 24/2, pp. 263-287.
* Ferrer i Jané, Joan (2006): [http://stel.ub.edu/llati/files/Ferrer%20i%20Jané%20-%20Nova%20lectura%20de%20la%20inscripció%20ibèrica%20de%20la%20Joncosa%20-%20V23.pdf «Nova lectura de la inscripció ibèrica de La Joncosa (Jorba, Barcelona)»] , "Veleia" 23, pp. 129-170.
* Gorrochategui Churruca, Joaquín María (1993): La onomástica aquitana y su relación con la ibérica, "Lengua y cultura en Hispania prerromana : actas del V Coloquio sobre lenguas y culturas de la Península Ibérica : (Colonia 25-28 de Noviembre de 1989)" (Francisco Villar and Jürgen Untermann, eds.), ISBN 84-7481-736-6 , pp. 609-634
* Hoz, Javier de (2001): «Hacia una tipología del ibérico», "Religión, lengua y cultura prerromanas de Hispania", pp. 335-362.
* Moncunill Martí, Noemí (2007): [http://www.tesisenxarxa.net/TESIS_UB/AVAILABLE/TDX-1004107-105220//NMM_TESI.pdf "Lèxic d'inscripcions ibèriques (1991 - 2006)] ", doctoral dissertation, UB-Barcelona.
* Orduña Aznar, Eduardo (2005): [http://www.dpz.es/ifc2/publi/fichapublic.asp?recid=2622 Sobre algunos posibles numerales en textos ibéricos] , "Palaeohispanica" 5, pp. 491-506.
* Orduña Aznar, Eduardo (2006): [http://iespontdesuert.xtec.cat/tesis.pdf "Segmentación de textos ibéricos y distribución de los segmentos"] , doctoral dissertation, UNED-Madrid (unpublished doctoral dissertation ).
* Quintanilla Niño, Alberto (1998): "Estudios de Fonología Ibérica", Vitoria-Gasteiz, ISBN 84-8373-041-3.
* Rodríguez Ramos, Jesús (2002): [http://ddd.uab.es/pub/faventia/02107570v24n1p115.pdf Acerca de los afijos adnominales de la lengua íbera] , "Faventia" 24/1, pp. 115-134, ISSN 0210-7570.
* Rodríguez Ramos, Jesús (2002): [http://dialnet.unirioja.es/servlet/fichero_articulo?codigo=263566&orden=65367 La hipótesis del vascoiberismo desde el punto de vista de la epigrafía íbera] , "Fontes linguae vasconum: Studia et documenta", 90, pp. 197-218, ISSN 0046-435X.
* Rodríguez Ramos, Jesús (2004): "Análisis de Epigrafía Íbera", Vitoria-Gasteiz, ISBN 84-8373-678-0.
*Silgo Gauche, Luis (1994): "Léxico Ibérico" Estudios de lenguas y epigrafía Antiguas - ELEA, ISSN 1135-5026, Nº. 1, pags. 1-271.
* Untermann, Jürgen (1990): "Monumenta Linguarum Hispanicarum. III Die iberischen Inschriften aus Spanien", Wiesbaden.
* Untermann, Jürgen (1998): [http://dialnet.unirioja.es/servlet/oaiart?codigo=200990 La onomástica ibérica] , "Iberia" 1, pp. 73-85.
* Velaza, Javier (1996): "Epigrafía y lengua ibéricas", Barcelona.
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