The Tempest (Sullivan)
incidental musicis a set of movements for Shakespeare's play composed by Arthur Sullivanin 1861-62. This was Sullivan's first major piece of composition, and its success quickly brought him to the attention of the musical establishment in England.
Sullivan wrote his incidental music to Shakespeare’s play as his graduation piece while a conservatory student at
Leipzig. Felix Mendelssohnwas much admired by the tutors at the Leipzig Conservatoire, and Sullivan's music, following the pattern of Mendelssohn's famous score for " A Midsummer Night's Dream", was chosen for inclusion in the Conservatoire’s end-of-year concert at the Leipzig Gewandhauson April 6 1861, while Sullivan was still 19 years old. At that concert, six items from the score were played, conducted by the composer: Introduction, Ariel’s Song, Entr’acte, Grotesque Dance, Entr’acte and Epilogue, Dance of Nymphs and Reapers.
After Sullivan's return to England, early in 1862, music critic
Henry F. Chorleyhosted a private performance of "The Tempest" in his home, where George Grove, at that time Secretary to The Crystal Palace, heard the piece. Grove was sufficiently impressed to arrange for a performance the work by the unknown composer at "The Crystal Palace","See" Preface to the score of " The Masque at Kenilworth" by Robin Gordon-Powell, Archivist & Music Librarian of the Sir Arthur Sullivan Society, published by The Amber Ring in 2002] where it was taken up by August Manns, conductor of The Crystal Palace concerts.
Sullivan revised and extended the music to twelve movements, which were given in full at a concert on
April 5 1862at the Crystal Palace, with a linking narration written by Chorley and spoken by Arthur Matthison. The solo singers were May Banks and Robertina Henderson. The work was an immediate success, with five numbers being encored. The score was favourably reviewed by " The Times" and even more favourably by "The Athenaeum", which was the publication for which Chorley was critic. So great was the success of the concert that it was repeated the following week, and Sullivan's reputation as an extremely promising composer was made overnight.
Musical analysis and subsequent performances
As might be expected in the work of such a young composer, the influence of earlier composers is marked. Gervase Hughes detects the influence of
Ludwig van Beethovenin the Introduction, Robert Schumannin the Act IV Overture. Percy Young suggests Liszt(an acquaintance of Sullivan's) and Berliozas influences. Hughes, Young and Arthur Jacobs agree that the most conspicuous influence is Mendelssohn. In early 1863, Charles Halléincluded the work in two concerts with his Manchesterorchestra, which also included Mendelssohn’s "A Midsummer Night’s Dream" music, where Sullivan's piece was received enthusiastically. The Manchester Guardianwas strong in its praise for Sullivan's work. In October 1864 it was used, as Sullivan had intended, in a production of the play at Prince's Theatre in Manchester.
In the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, Mendelssohn's music for "A Midsummer Night’s Dream" was regularly used in theatrical productions. The same is not true of Sullivan's "The Tempest" music, although he later was commissioned to write incidental music for productions of other Shakespeare plays staged by
Henry Irvingand others.Shepherd, Marc. [http://www.cris.com/~oakapple/gasdisc/sullinci.htm#tempest "The Tempest, incidental music (1861)",] "A Gilbert and Sullivan Discography" (2005)]
In his review of the 2008 recording by the
Kansas City Symphony, Rob Barnett writes, "This music is smooth, full of lissom invention and generally in the style of Schumann and Mendelssohn.... Truly charming is the skipping flute figuration in 'Banquet Dance'. The orchestra is just as successful in the... 'Dance of Nymphs and Reapers'. Mendelssohn is certainly engaged in the Act IV overture. The Act V Prelude with its shivering-plodding string pizzicato and epic lassitude is another magnificent effort."Barnett, Rob. [http://www.musicweb-international.com/classrev/2008/July08/Sullivan_Sibelius_RR115cd.htm Review of the 2008 recording,] "Music Web International" (July 2008)]
*Introduction Act I
*Song: Come unto these yellow sands (Ariel to Ferdinand)
*Song: Full fathom five thy father lies (Ariel to Ferdinand)Act II
*Melodrama and Song: While you here do snoring lie (Ariel to Gonzalo)Act III
*Banquet Dance Act IV
*Masque of Iris, Ceres, Juno
*Duet: Honour, riches, marriage blessings (Juno and Ceres to Ferdinand and Miranda)
*Dance of nymphs and reapers Act V
*Song: Where the bee sucks (Ariel to Prospero)
"The Tempest" has been recorded both in full and in selections. The full score was first recorded in 1955 by the Vienna Orchestral Society conducted by
F. Charles Adler, better known for his performances of the works of Anton Brucknerand Gustav Mahler. The recording was well-regarded and was reissued on CD in 1999 on the "Sounds on CD" label. [Shepherd, Marc. [http://www.cris.com/~oakapple/gasdisc/sullinst-adler.htm Issue history of the 1955 recording,] "A Gilbert and Sullivan Discography" (2005)] In 2008, another complete recording was issued by the Kansas City Symphony, Michael Sternconductor (the son of Isaac Stern), on the Reference Recordings label (RR-115CD). Rob Barnett calls the recording excellent in his review of the recording for "Music Web".
*Hughes, Gervase: "The Music of Arthur Sullivan", Macmillan, London 1960
*Jacobs, Arthur: "Arthur Sullivan", OUP, Oxford, 1986 ISBN 0-19-282033-8
*Rowse, A L (ed): "The Annotated Shakespeare", Orbis, London, 1978 ISBN 0-85613-073-7
*Young, Percy M: Note to EMI recording CSD 3713 of numbers from "The Tempest", 1972
*Young, Percy M: "Sir Arthur Sullivan", J M Dent & Sons, London 1971 ISBN 0-460-03932-2
* [http://diamond.boisestate.edu/gas/other_sullivan/tempest/index.html "The Tempest"] at the G&S Archive, including Midi files and the score
* [http://www.cris.com/~oakapple/gasdisc/sullinci.htm#tempest "The Tempest"] at the G&S Discography
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