Kootenai (tribe)

ethnic group
group=Kootenai


poptime=1984
popplace=United States (Idaho, Montana, Washington), Canada (British Columbia)
rels=Christianity, other
langs=English, Kootenai
related=

The Kootenai (also spelled Kutenai) or Ktunaxa (pronounced in English as IPA|/k.tuˈnæ.hæ/) are an indigenous people of North America. They are one of three tribes of the Confederated Salish and Kootenai Tribes of the Flathead Nation in Montana, and they form the Ktunaxa Nation in British Columbia. There are also populations in Idaho and Washington in the United States. [ [http://factfinder.census.gov/servlet/DTTable?_bm=y&-show_geoid=Y&-tree_id=4001&-_showChild=Y&-context=dt&-errMsg=&-all_geo_types=Y&-mt_name=DEC_2000_SF1_U_P001&-mt_name=DEC_2000_SF1_U_P003&-redoLog=false&-transpose=N&-search_map_config=|b=50|l=en|t=4001|zf=0.0|ms=sel_00dec|dw=33.18084626058803|dh=17.656425207351308|dt=gov.census.aff.domain.map.EnglishMapExtent|if=gif|cx=-114.142375|cy=45.4946445|zl=9|pz=9|bo=318:317:316:314:313:323:319|bl=362:393:358:357:356:355:354|ft=350:349:335:389:388:332:331|fl=403:381:204:380:369:379:368|g=25000US1800&-PANEL_ID=p_dt_geo_map&-_lang=en&-geo_id=25000US1800&-CONTEXT=dt&-format=&-search_results=27300US1800160219039199999&-CHECK_SEARCH_RESULTS=N&-ds_name=DEC_2000_SF1_U Kootenai Reservation, Idaho] United States Census Bureau] The Flathead Reservation is home to the Bitterroot Salish and Pend d'Oreilles tribes as well.

The tribes constitute a distinct stock (Kitunahan). There is evidence that they formerly lived in the eastern plains and were driven into the mountains by the Blackfeet.



thumb|220px| Kootenai girls, photographed by Edward S. Curtis in 1911.

History

Originally the tribe is said to have lived in the plains, east of the Rockies, but were driven out by the Blackfoot. [CathEncy|wstitle=Kutenai Indians]

On September 21, 1975, the Kootenai Tribe headed by Chairwoman Amy Trice declared war on the United States government. Their first act was to post soldiers on each end of the highway that runs through the town and they forced people, at gunpoint, to pay a toll to drive through the land that had been the tribe’s aboriginal land. The money would be used to house and care for elderly tribal members. Most tribes in the United States are forbidden to declare war on the U.S. government because of treaties, but the Kootenai Tribe never signed a treaty. The dispute resulted in the concession by the United States government and a land grant of convert|12.5|acre|m2 that would become what is now the Kootenai Reservation. [ [http://www.uidaho.edu/idahonatives/kootenai/ Idaho’s forgotten war] ] In 1976 the tribe issued "Kootenai Nation War Bonds" that sold at $1.00 each. The bonds were dated 20 September, 1974 and contained a brief declaration of war on the United States. These War Bonds were signed by Amelia Custack Trice, Tribal Chairwoman and Douglas James Wheaton, Sr., Tribal Representative. The bonds themselves were printed on heavy paper stock and were created and signed by well known Western Artist, Emilie Touraine.

Member Nations

The Ktunaxa are members of seven bands or nations, five of which are in British Columbia, Canada and two are in the United States. [ [http://www.ktunaxa.org/who/index.html Who We Are] - Ktunaxa Nation]

*unicode|ʔakisq̓nuk/Columbia Lake Band (near Windermere, British Columbia)
*unicode|ʔaq̓am/St. Mary's Band (near Cranbrook, British Columbia)
*unicode|ʔakink̓umⱡasnuqⱡiʔit/Tobacco Plains Band (near Grasmere, British Columbia)
*unicode|Yaqan nuʔkiy/Lower Kootenay Band (near Creston, British Columbia)
*unicode|Kyaknuqⱡiʔit/Shuswap Band (near Invermere, British Columbia)
*unicode|ʔaq̓anqmi/Kootenai Tribe of Idaho (near Bonners Ferry, Idaho)
*unicode|K̓upawi¢q̓nuk/Ksanka Band (Elmo, Montana)

Kootenai Indian Reservation

The Kootenai Indian Reservation lies in central Boundary County, Idaho, about 40 km south of the Canadian border, and about 3 km west-northwest of the city of Bonners Ferry. It has a land area of only 0.076575 km² (18.922 acres) and a 2000 census resident population of 75 persons.

ee also

* Kutenai language
* Confederated Salish and Kootenai Tribes of the Flathead Nation
* Salish Kootenai College
* Kootenay
* Jennifer Porter
* Kaúxuma Núpika
* Kootanae House early fur trade post associated with the Kootenai tribe

Literature

* Boas, Franz, and Alexander Francis Chamberlain. Kutenai Tales. Washington: Govt. Print. Off, 1918.
* Chamberlain, A. F., "Report of the Kootenay Indians of South Eastern British Columbia," in "Report of the British Association for the Advancement of Science", (London, 1892)
* Finley, Debbie Joseph, and Howard Kallowat. "Owl's Eyes & Seeking a Spirit: Kootenai Indian Stories". Pablo, Mont: Salish Kootenai College Press, 1999. ISBN 0917298667
* Linderman, Frank Bird, and Celeste River. Kootenai Why Stories. Lincoln, Neb: University of Nebraska Press, 1997. ISBN 0585315841
* Maclean, John, "Canadian Savage Folk", (Toronto, 1896)
* Tanaka, Béatrice, and Michel Gay. "The Chase: A Kutenai Indian Tale". New York: Crown, 1991. ISBN 0517586231
* Turney-High, Harry Holbert. "Ethnography of the Kutenai". Menasha, Wis: American Anthropological Association, 1941.

References

External links

* [http://www.ktunaxa.org/ Official website of the Ktunaxa Nation]


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