Dakshina Kannada


Dakshina Kannada
ದಕ್ಷಿಣ ಕನ್ನಡ (Tulu) - Dakshina Kannada
—  district  —
ದಕ್ಷಿಣ ಕನ್ನಡ (Tulu) - Dakshina Kannada
Location of ದಕ್ಷಿಣ ಕನ್ನಡ (Tulu) - Dakshina Kannada
in Karnataka and India
Coordinates 12°36′N 75°18′E / 12.6°N 75.3°E / 12.6; 75.3Coordinates: 12°36′N 75°18′E / 12.6°N 75.3°E / 12.6; 75.3
Country India
Region Tulu Nadu
State Karnataka
Subdistrict(s) Mangalore, Bantwal, Puttur, Sullia, Belthangady
Headquarters Mangalore
Population

Density

1,897,730

390 /km2 (1,010 /sq mi)

Time zone IST (UTC+05:30)
Area 4,866 square kilometres (1,879 sq mi)

Dakshina Kannada (Tulu/Konkani/Kannada: ದಕ್ಷಿಣ ಕನ್ನಡ), also known as South Kanara, or South Canara), is a coastal district in the state of Karnataka in India. It is bordered by Udupi District to the north, Chikkamagaluru district to the northeast, Hassan District to the east, Kodagu to the southeast, and Kasaragod District in Kerala to the south. The Arabian Sea bounds it on the west. Mangalore is the headquarters and chief city of the district. Dakshina Kannada district has an area 4,866 square kilometres, and a population density of 390 persons per square kilometre. There are 354 villages in the district.

The district is divided into five talukas, Mangalore, Bantwal, Puttur, Sullia, and Belthangady. It used to include three northern talukas, Udupi, Kundapur and Karkal, but these were separated in August 1997 to form Udupi district. Dakshina Kannada, Udupi and Kasaragod taluk are often called Tulu Nadu, as Tulu is the majority language in the region. The Alupas who ruled this region between the 8th and 14th century CE as a feudatory of all the major Kannada empires of those times and it is for this reason that the Tulu speaking districts are a part of Karnataka state.

Important towns in Dakshina Kannada include Mangalore, Bantwal,Vittal, Puttur, Sullia, Moodabidri, Kadaba, Surathkal, Mulki and Dharmasthala.

Contents

Background

Monsoon scene of rural Dakshina Kannada

Before 1860, Dakshina Kannada was part of a district called Kanara, which was under a single administration in the Madras Presidency. In 1860, the British split the area into South Kanara and North Kanara, the former being retained in the Madras Presidency, while the later was made a part of Bombay Province in 1862.[1] Kundapura taluk was earlier included in North Kanara, but was re-included in South Kanara later.

During the Reorganisation of States in 1956, Kasaragod was split and transferred to the newly created Kerala state and Dakshina Kannada was transferred to Mysore state (present day Karnataka).

Later, the Karnataka Government, for the purpose of administration, split the greater Dakshina Kannada district into Udupi and present day Dakshina Kannada districts on 15 August 1997. Three taluks of former DK district namely Udupi, Karkala and Kundapura were made into new Udupi district.

The district is famous for red clay roof tiles (Mangalore tiles), cashew nut & its products, banking, education (professional and non professional) and of course for its exotic cuisine.

South Canara

South Canara was a district under the British empire, located at 13°00′N 75°24′E / 13.00°N 75.40°E / 13.00; 75.40Coordinates: 13°00′N 75°24′E / 13.00°N 75.40°E / 13.00; 75.40.[2] It was bifurcated in 1859 from Canara district. It was the undivided Dakshina Kannada district. It was renamed as Dakshina Kannada in 1947.

Demographics

According to the 2011 census Dakshina Kannada has a population of 2,083,625,[3] roughly equal to the nation of Macedonia[4] or the US state of New Mexico.[5] This gives it a ranking of 220th in India (out of a total of 640).[3] The district has a population density of 457 inhabitants per square kilometre (1,180 /sq mi) .[3] Its population growth rate over the decade 2001-2011 was 9.8 %.[3] Dakshina Kannada has a sex ratio of 1018 females for every 1000 males,[3] and a literacy rate of 88.62 %.[3]

The people who first settled here were called Tuluvas. Bunts, Mogaveera, Billavas are the major communities of the Tuluva ethinic group. Other Tuluvas, Brahmins, Holeyas, Vokkaligas, the hill-tribes (Koragas), Muslims and the Mangalorean Catholics comprise rest of the population. The Brahmins belong chiefly to the Shivalli, Saraswat, Havyaka and Kotaha sub-sections. Tulu is the most widely spoken language of the district.

Religion in Dakshina kannada district
Hindu
  
78.59%
Muslim
  
12.07%
Christians
  
8.69%
Jains
  
1%
others
  
0.55%

Geography

Dakshina Kannada landscape

The district geography consists of sea shore in the west and Western Ghats in the east. The major rivers are Netravathi, Kumaradhara, Phalguni, Shambhavi, Nandini or Pavanje and Payaswini which all join Arabian sea. Vast areas of evergreen forests which once covered this district, have been destructed due to rapid and unplanned urbanisation and hectic commercial activities. Teak, Karmara (Ebony), Wild Jack, Bhogi and many other native trees have disappeared from many areas of Dakshina Kannada district. Unlike other villages of India, where cluster of houses surrounded by farm fields make a village. In Dakshina Kannada district, houses are in midst of farm field or garden or plantation of coconut or arecanut, many times houses in a village are separated by few hundred metres or yards. The typical scenario of house in midst of farm fields or garden or forest has been disappearing. The rapid increase in population,income and also breakup of joint family system has led to construction boom from 1990's.

Climate

Mangalore
Climate chart (explanation)
J F M A M J J A S O N D
 
 
0
 
31
21
 
 
0
 
31
22
 
 
0
 
32
24
 
 
3
 
32
25
 
 
15
 
35
26
 
 
94
 
28
24
 
 
98
 
27
23
 
 
59
 
27
23
 
 
26
 
28
23
 
 
20
 
30
23
 
 
7
 
31
23
 
 
1
 
31
22
Average max. and min. temperatures in °C
Precipitation totals in mm
Source: Weatherbase[6] For graphing purposes, the precipitation numbers of this graph are at a scale of 1:10.

Language

Language in Dakshina kannada district
Tulu
  
50%
Konkani
  
25%
Kannada
  
15%
Beary Bashe
  
07%
others
  
3%

Tulu and Konkani are the native languages of majority of people living in Dakshina Kannada district. Kannada,[7] is spoken by a substantial number of people as mother tongue.

Historic Sites

  • Moodabidri : Site of the ancient Jain temples and the Bhattaraka seat.
  • Krishnapura matha : One of the matha (monastery) belonging to ashta matha of udupi.
  • Dharmasthala : Popular temple of Lord Sri Manjunatheshwara is located here
  • Kadri : Famous temple of Lord Shiva
  • Kateel : Famous temple of Goddess Sri Dugra Parameshwari
  • Mundkur : Sri Durga Parameshwari Temple
  • Karinjeshwara Temple : Famous ancient temple of lord Shiva Parvati on a huge rock
  • Ullal : Excellent site seen for Sunset in the beach
  • Kukke Subramanya : Famous ancient temple of the serpent lord Subramanya is located here.
  • Mulki : Durgaparameshwari Temple
  • St Aloysius Chapel, Mangalore
  • Milagres Church, Mangalore
  • Sayyed Madani Mosque and Dargah,Ullal
  • Sultan Battery, Mangalore
  • Puttur:Popular temple of Lord Sri Mahalingeshwara is located here
  • Vittal:Famous ancient temple of the Panchalingeshwara temple is located here.
  • Uppinangadi: Sahasralingeshwara temple.
  • Kepu,Ananthadi,Balnadu:Famous for goddess ullalthi temple and its unique heritage

Cultures,Traditions and rituals

Yakshagana stage

Dakshina Kannada can be said as land of culture, tradition and rituals. Even today, most people of the district follow traditions, customs and rituals. The district has many temples of Hindu gods and goddess, which are ancient and have deep spiritualism attached to them. The people of Dakshina Kannada worship the serpent god (Subramanya). According to legend, the district was reclaimed by Parashurama from the sea. Hence worship of serpent is done to original inhabitats. Nagaradhane or Snake worship is practised according to the popular belief of the Naga Devatha to go underground and guard the species on the top.[8] Worship of spirits is prevalent in these areas. Rituals like Bhuta Kola are done to satisfy the spirits. Kambla, a form of buffalo race on muddy track in the paddy field, is organised. Cock fight (Kori Katta in Tulu) is another pastime of rural agarian people, but unfortunately has turned in to gambling.

Yakshagana is the popular folk art of this district. The Yakshagana is a night-long dance and drama performance practiced in Tulu Nadu with great fanfare.[9][10] Pilivesha (Tiger dance) is a unique form of folk dance in the region fascinating the young and the old alike, which is performed during Dasara and Krishna Janmashtami.[11] Karadi Vesha (Bear Dance) is one more popular dance performed during Dasara.[12] Kambala or buffalo race is conducted in water filled paddy fields.

Transportation

Dakshina Kannada has good network of roads. Bus services are run by both private players & the state run KSRTC. The district had public limited (public listed) companies running transport business even before independence of India in 1947. The district has three national highways connecting to different parts of Karnataka state and India. NH-17 connects district with Udupi, Karwar, Mumbai, Goa and Kochi. NH-13 connects Shivamogga and Sholapur with the Dakshina Kannada. NH-48 connects district with Bengaluru,Hassan and Sakleshpura.Recently the state highway connecting Mangalore to Mudigere has been declared as national highway -234 . The NH-234 will connect Mangalore in Karnataka state to Villipuram in Tamil Nadu via Charmadi, Mudigere, Belur, Halebeedu Chintamani and Vellore.[13]

The first railway line was laid around 1907 A.D. connecting city of Mangalore with Azhikal. This railway line helped to connect district with other places of then Madras presidency. The Konkan Railway connects Dakshina Kannada with Maharastra, Goa, Gujarat, Delhi, Rajasthan and Kerala by train. There are direct trains from Mangalore to Mumbai, Thane, Chennai, Goa and Trivandrum. Many trains starting from Kerala to Gujarat, Rajasthan and Delhi pass through this district. Recently train services have started to Bangalore via Hassan and Kukke Subramanya. The Dakshina Kannada district has a seaport at Panambur. It is one of the major sea ports on western coast of India. The district is connected by air through Mangalore International Airport at Bajpe.

Agriculture

Arecanut plantation in DK

Agriculture once a major occupation of the people of Dakshina Kannada district, has now taken back seat because of influx of money from natives settled in other districts, states and countries. Significant number of people from this district work in Gulf (Middle East) countries and other states of India. Farms and fields are converted into residential plots and commercial (shopping) complexes. Horticulture though made some strides, has not prospered because of high labour cost and non availability of labour. Automation is not possible because of small holding of lands by farmers and undulating geography of land. The main crops of Dakshina Kannada district are Paddy, Coconut, Arecanut, Black Pepper and Cocoa. Rice is generally cultivated three seasons in a year, Karthika or Yenel (May–October), Suggi (October to January) and Kolake (January to April).[14] This is subjected to availability of water for the rice or paddy crop. Urad or Black gram is grown in some areas during season of Suggi. Cultivation of vegetables and fruits in fields and gardens for own consumption and selling has declined substantially. The district has APMC market in various taluks for the procurement of agriculture produce. The Karnataka Milk Federation has a milk processing plant at Kulshekara in Mangalore. The plant process milk procured from the cattles owned by farmers of the district.

Commerce and Industry

The district is called as Cradle of Indian banking and is the most industrialized district in Karnataka.

Major nationalised banks of India like Canara Bank, Corporation Bank, Syndicate Bank, Vijaya Bank and private sector Karnataka Bank evolved from this district.

Red clay tile (Mangalore Tiles), Cashew processing factories and Beedi industry once flourished in this district. Service sector is booming with setting up of professional education institutes and information technology related services (IT & ITES).

As the district is on the shore of Arabian sea, fishing is one of the major occupation of many people. The major fishing places are Bunder (Old harbour), Panambur, Surathkal, Kotekar and Sasihitlu.

The major industries in Dakshina Kannada are concentrated around Mangalore viz. Mangalore Chemical and Fertilizers Ltd. (MCF), Kudremukh Iron Ore Company Ltd. (KIOCL), Mangalore Refinery and Petrochemicals Ltd (MRPL), BASF, ELF GAS, etc. There is a chocolate manufacturing plant at Puttur run by co-operative CAMPCO.

Major information technology and outsourcing companies have started locating their facilities in Mangalore. viz. Infosys, Lasersoft infosystems Ltd., MPhasis BPO, etc. Wipro also plans to set up its development facility soon in Mangalore. Three dedicated IT parks are currently under construction. Two such parks are under construction, one Export Promotion Industrial Park (EPIP) at Ganjimutt and a second IT SEZ near Mangalore University. A third IT SEZ is being proposed at Ganjimutt. Another IT SEZ of 2 million square feet (180,000 m2) is under construction at Thumbe by the BA group. This will include a business centre, convention centre, mall and helipad facility.[15] The Oil and Natural Gas Corporation ONGC plans to set up a multiproduct SEZ (Special economic Zone) with an investment of over Rs. 35,000 crore.[16]

Education and Research

House in Dakshina Kannada

The Dakshina Kannada district is in fore front in education.Primary and secondary education has reached every section of society. The district's literacy rate is far above national average. In the higher education (Degree and above), Dakshina Kannada district has made tremendous progress. The professional education has made a mark in the country. Students from different parts of India flock to Dakshina Kannada and Udupi districts because of high standards of education. A host of educational institutes offering courses in Medicine, Engineering, Pharmacy, Nursing, Hotel & catering, Law and Management are located in this district. There is college of fisheries.[17] located at Yekkur near Kankanady. The district is home to many research institutes like National Research Centre for Cashew at Puttur. Another is a Central Plantation Crops Research Institute at Vitla.

Demand for a separate Tulunadu state

The Tuluvas of Southern India are a separate culture from the Kannadigas within India. From India's independence and the following reorganization of states, the Tuluvas had been demanding official language status for Tulu and a separate state for themselves comprising Dakshina Kannada and Udupi Districts of Karnataka and Kasaragod District of North Kerala. Though a bit subdued in between, this demand has grown stronger in recent years. Several organizations like the Tulu Rajya Horata Samiti have taken up the cause of the Tuluvas and frequent meetings and demonstrations are held across towns in Tulunadu (like Mangalore, Udupi etc.) to voice their demands of inclusion of Tulu as an official language in the Eight Schedule of the Constitution and teaching of Tulu in schools in Tulu Nadu, and ultimately the creation of Tulunadu state for Tulu ethnic people.[18][19][20][21]

See also

  • South Canara

References

  1. ^ "Imperial Gazetteer of India, South Kanara". dsal.uchicago.edu. http://dsal.uchicago.edu/reference/gazetteer/pager.html?objectid=DS405.1.I34_V14_363.gif. Retrieved 4 September 2009. 
  2. ^ Patsy Lozupone, Bruce M. Beehler, Sidney Dillon Ripley.(2004).Ornithological gazetteer of the Indian subcontinent, p. 82.Center for Applied Biodiversity Science, Conservation International. ISBN 1881173852.
  3. ^ a b c d e f "District Census 2011". Census2011.co.in. 2011. http://www.census2011.co.in/district.php. Retrieved 2011-09-30. 
  4. ^ US Directorate of Intelligence. "Country Comparison:Population". https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/rankorder/2119rank.html. Retrieved 2011-10-01. "Macedonia 2,077,328 July 2011 est." 
  5. ^ "2010 Resident Population Data". U. S. Census Bureau. http://2010.census.gov/2010census/data/apportionment-pop-text.php. Retrieved 2011-09-30. "New Mexico - 2,059,179" 
  6. ^ "Mangalore, India". Weatherbase. http://www.weatherbase.com/weather/weather.php3?s=48234&refer=&units=metric. Retrieved 2008-03-19. 
  7. ^ "Imperial Gazetteer of India, South Kanara". dsal.uchicago.edu. http://dsal.uchicago.edu/reference/gazetteer/pager.html?objectid=DS405.1.I34_V14_365.gif. Retrieved 4 September 2009. 
  8. ^ "Nagarapanchami Naadige Doddadu". Mangalorean.Com. http://mangalorean.com/news.php?newstype=broadcast&broadcastid=50662. Retrieved 28 January 2008. 
  9. ^ "Yakshagana". SZCC, Tamil Nadu.. Archived from the original on 17 August 2007. http://web.archive.org/web/20070817224137/http://www.szcc.tn.nic.in/07_folktheatre/karnataka/Yakshagana/yakshagana.html. Retrieved 7 December 2007. 
  10. ^ Plunkett, Richard (2001). South India. Lonely Planet. pp. 53. ISBN 1864501618. http://books.google.com/books?id=JmL9KqczbRYC&pg=PA53&lpg=PA53&dq=yakshagana+unique#PPA53,M1. 
  11. ^ Pinto, Stanley G (26 October 2001). "Human `tigers' face threat to health". Times of India. http://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/articleshow/354160109.cms. Retrieved 7 December 2007. 
  12. ^ Stephen D'Souza. "What's in a Name?". daijiworld.com. http://www.daijiworld.com/chan/exclusive_arch.asp?ex_id=726. Retrieved 4 March 2008. 
  13. ^ NH-234 "DK's New NH to connect three states". timesofindia.com. http://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/city/mangalore/DKs-new-NH-to-connect-three-states-/articleshow/5857031.cms NH-234. Retrieved 16 November 2011. 
  14. ^ "South Kanra". http://dsal.uchicago.edu/reference/. http://dsal.uchicago.edu/reference/gazetteer/pager.html?objectid=DS405.1.I34_V14_368. Retrieved 4 September 2006. 
  15. ^ "Two more plans for EPIP cleared". Chennai, India: The Hindu. 31 August 2006. http://www.hindu.com/2006/08/31/stories/2006083118290300.htm. Retrieved 29 September 2006. 
  16. ^ "ONGC's huge outlay for Mangalore SEZ". Chennai, India: The Hindu. 19 September 2006. http://www.hindu.com/2006/09/20/stories/2006092006341700.htm. Retrieved 29 September 2006. 
  17. ^ "College of Fisheries, Mangaluru". http://www.kvafsu.kar.nic.in.+31 August 2006. http://www.kvafsu.kar.nic.in/College%20of%20Fisheries.htm. Retrieved 7 September 2009. 
  18. ^ http://74.125.153.132/search?q=cache:TF4m2ofQx1UJ:www.deccanherald.com/Archives/oct222006/district1955220061020.asp+tulu+separate+state&cd=6&hl=en&ct=clnk&gl=in
  19. ^ News headlines
  20. ^ "Tulu organisations to meet soon". The Hindu (Chennai, India). 6 March 2008. http://www.hindu.com/2008/03/06/stories/2008030658140300.htm. 
  21. ^ Beltangady Litterateur Kudyady Vishwanath Rai Voices Need for Tulunadu State

External links


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