- Sum of Logic
The "Summa Logicae" is a textbook on
logicby William of Ockham. It was written around 1323.
Systematically, it resembles other works of medieval logic, organised under the basic headings of the Aristotelian
Predicables, Categories, terms, propositions, and syllogisms. These headings, though often given in a different order, represent the basic arrangement of all scholastic textbooks.
This work is important in that it contains the main account of Ockham's
nominalism. The nominalists of the fifteenth century (such as Swineshead, Heytesbury, Gersonand D'Ailly) looked upon him as the founder of their school.
Book I: On Terms
(i) Chapters 1-17 deal with terms: what they are, and how they are divide into categorematic, abstract and concrete, absolute and connotative, 'first intention' and 'second intention'. Ockham also introduces the issue of universals here.
(ii) Chapters 18-25 deal with the five
(iii) Chapters 26-62 deal with the Categories of Aristotle, known to the medieval philosophers as the 'Praedicamenta'. The first chapters of this section concern definition and description, the notions of subject and predicate, the meaning of terms like 'whole', 'being' and so on. The later chapters deal with the ten Categories themselves, as follows: Substance (42-3), Quantity (44-9), Relation (50-4), Quality (55-6), Action (57), Passion (58), Time (59), Place (60), Position (61), Habit (62).
(iv) Chapters 63-77 onwards deal with the theory of supposition.
Book II: On Propositions
(i) On categorical propositions (1-20)
(ii) On the conversion of propositions (21-9)
(iii) On hypothetical propositions (30-7)
Book III: On Syllogisms
Part I On Syllogisms
(i) On categorical syllogisms (1-19)
(ii) On modal syllogisms (20-30)
(iii) On mixed syllogisms (31-64)
(iv) On syllogisms containing exponible propositions
Part II On Demonstration
These 41 chapters are a systematic exposition of Aristotle's
Part III On the Consequences
These 37 chapters are a systematic exposition of Aristotle's Topics.
Part IV On Obligation (7 chapters)
Part V On the Liar Antinomy (1 chapter)
Part VI On fallacies (in 18 chapters)
Links and Reference
* [http://www.iupui.edu/~peirce/writings/v2/w2/w2_32/v2_32.htm Peirce's translation and commentary]
* [http://www.pvspade.com/Logic/docs/ockham.pdf Spade's translation of parts of Summa book I]
* [http://www.amazon.com/dp/1890318507 Michael Loux's translation of Book I]
* "Ockham's Theory of Propositions": Part II of the Summa Logicae, translated by Alfred J. Freddoso and Henry Schuurman and introduced by Alfred J. Freddoso (Notre Dame, IN: University of Notre Dame Press, 1980), Reprinted: South Bend, IN: St. Augustine's Press, 1998
* Parallel [http://email@example.com/logicalform/ockhamlogicalform.htm Latin-English translation] of chapters 1, 3, 12 and 13 of the "Summa Logicae " by Edward Buckner, in the
* [http://home.riise.hiroshima-u.ac.jp/~akyah59/ock.sl.index.html Books I and II online] (Latin only)
Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.
Look at other dictionaries:
Logic and the philosophy of mathematics in the nineteenth century — John Stillwell INTRODUCTION In its history of over two thousand years, mathematics has seldom been disturbed by philosophical disputes. Ever since Plato, who is said to have put the slogan ‘Let no one who is not a geometer enter here’ over the… … History of philosophy
Logic optimization — a part of logic synthesis, is the process of finding an equivalent representation of the specified logic circuit under one or more specified constraints. Generally the circuit is constrained to minimum chip area meeting a prespecified delay.… … Wikipedia
Logic gate — A logic gate is an idealized or physical device implementing a Boolean function, that is, it performs a logical operation on one or more logic inputs and produces a single logic output. Depending on the context, the term may refer to an ideal… … Wikipedia
Logic — 1) The Science of Logic Finds Ordinary Language to Be an Obstacle My initial step . . . was to attempt to reduce the concept of ordering in a sequence to that of logical consequence, so as to proceed from there to the concept of number. To… … Historical dictionary of quotations in cognitive science
sum — [[t]sʌ̱m[/t]] ♦♦♦ sums, summing, summed 1) N COUNT: oft N of n A sum of money is an amount of money. Large sums of money were lost... Even the relatively modest sum of ₤50,000 now seems beyond his reach. 2) N COUNT A sum is a simple calculation… … English dictionary
Sum addressed decoder — In CPU design, a Sum Addressed Decoder or Sum Addressed Memory (SAM) Decoder is a method of reducing the latency of the CPU cache access. This is achieved by fusing the address generation sum operation with the decode operation in the cache… … Wikipedia
Outline of logic — The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to logic: Logic – formal science of using reason, considered a branch of both philosophy and mathematics. Logic investigates and classifies the structure of statements and… … Wikipedia
formal logic — the branch of logic concerned exclusively with the principles of deductive reasoning and with the form rather than the content of propositions. [1855 60] * * * Introduction the abstract study of propositions, statements, or assertively used … Universalium
applied logic — Introduction the study of the practical art of right reasoning. The formalism (formal logic) and theoretical results of pure logic can be clothed with meanings derived from a variety of sources within philosophy as well as from other… … Universalium
Combinational logic — Not to be confused with combinatory logic, a topic in mathematical logic. In digital circuit theory, combinational logic (sometimes also referred to as combinatorial logic) is a type of digital logic which is implemented by boolean circuits,… … Wikipedia