Balochistan (region)


Balochistan (region)

Balochistan or Baluchistan is an arid region located in the Iranian Plateau in Southwest Asia and South Asia, between Iran, Pakistan and Afghanistan. The area is named after the numerous Baloch (or Baluch, Balouch, Balooch, Balush, Balosh, Baloosh, Baloush) tribes, an Iranian people, who moved into the area from the west around A.D. 1000. All natives are considered Balochi even if they do not speak Balochi; Pashto, Persian, and Brahui languages are also spoken in the region. The southern part of Balochistan is known as Makran.Now it is recognised by UNOas an Un-represented Nation.

Landscape

Balochistan's landscape is composed of barren, rugged mountains and fertile land. During the summer, some regions of Balochistan are the hottest in Pakistan. Most of the land is barren, and it is generally sparsely populated. In the south – the Makran – lies the desert through which Alexander the Great passed with great difficulty.

History

The original inhabitants of ancient Baluchistan were the aborigine tribes speaking languages related to Munda languages.Fact|date=February 2007 The Dravidians are thought to have migrated from the Iranian plateau and settled in Baluchistan and the Indus valley around 4000 BC.Fact|date=February 2007 The Brahui living in Baluchistan still speak a Dravidian language, thought to be a remnant from this earlier susbtrate. The Indo-European Indo-Aryan peoples, and other Indo-Iranian peoples, migrated from what is now Afghanistan and surrounding areas starting around 2000 BC, and settled in all regions of Pakistan.Fact |date= February 2007 Later, these Aryan groups would become the Pakhtuns and the various Nuristani, Dardic, and other tribes that currently populate the region.Fact|date=February 2007 Before the arrival of the Baloch, the region was populated by the Brahui people.Fact|date=February 2007. Nearly all of Baluchistan, and what is today the country of Pakistan was ruled by the Persian Achaemenid dynasty for over two hundred years beginning in 540 BC. In 326 BC, Alexander the Great defeated the Hindu king Puru (Porus, Paurava) at the Hydaspes near Jhelum and annexed the area to his Hellenistic empire. After Alexander's death and a brief period of Seleucid control, Baluchistan was part of the Persian empire.

From the 1st century to the 3rd century AD, the region was ruled by the Pāratarājas (lit. "Pārata Kings"), a dynasty of Indo-Scythian or Indo-Parthian kings. The dynasty of the Pāratas is thought to be identical with the Pāradas of the Mahabharata, the Puranas and other Indian sources. ["New light on the Paratarajas" p11]

They are essentially known through their coins, which typically exhibit the bust of the ruler on the obverse, with long hair within a headband), and a swastika within a Brahmi legend on the reverse (usually silver coins) or Kharoshthi (usually copper coins). The coins can mainly be found in the Loralai area of modern Pakistan.

Herodotus in 650 BC describes the "Paraitakenoi" as a tribe ruled by Deiokes, a Persian king, in northwestern Persia (History I.101). Arrian describes how Alexander the Great encountered the "Pareitakai" in Bactria and Sogdiana, and had them conquered by Craterus (Anabasis Alexandrou IV). The Periplus of the Erythraean Sea (1st century AD) describes the territory of the "Paradon" beyond the Ommanitic region, on the coast of modern Baluchistan. [ [http://people.bu.edu/ptandon/Paratarajas.pdf "New light on the Paratarajas" p29-30] ]

During the Arab conquest of the Persian empire in the 8th century, Muslim technocrats, bureaucrats, soldiers, traders, scientists, architects, teachers, theologians and sufis flocked from the rest of the Muslim world and many settled in Baluchistan and its tributary state until the rise of the Mughals. Numerous Baloch tribes, an Iranian people, moved into the area from the west in the 11th century to escape the Seljuk Turks. Western Baluchistan was conquered by Iran in the 19th century, and its boundary was fixed in 1872. Omani influence waned in the east and Oman's last possession, Gwadar, was bought by Pakistan in 1958. In 1998, Pakistan conducted nuclear tests in the Pakistani province of Baluchistan.

Famous people of Baluchistan

Historical Personalities
* Noori Naseer Khan
* Khan Mehrab Khan
* Mir Chakar Khan Rind
* Shah Mureed
* Mir Shahdad Jo Qubo
* Mir Sher Muhammad Talpur
* Mir Sohrab Khan Talpur
* Mir Ali Murad Khan Talpur
* Mir Ali Murad Khan Talpur II
* Mir Ali Nawaz Khan Talpur
* Darya Khan Rind
* Shahpur Chakar
* Mir Allahyar Talpur
* Punnun
* Hazrat Babajan
Eastern Balochistan
* Mir Abdul Aziz Kurd
* Ghaus Bakhsh Bizenjo
* Nawab Nowroz Khan
* Sardar Abdul qadir Mengal
* Prince Karim Khan
* Mir Shahbaz Khan Nosherwani
* Zafarullah Khan Jamali
* Mir Mahmood Aziz Kurd
* Sardar Fateh Mohammed Khan Umrani
* Ataullah Mengal
* Sardar Mohammed Akbar Khan Umrani
* Akbar Bugti
* Khair Bakhsh Marri
* Jumma Khan Marri
* Sherbaz Khan Mazari
* Farooq Leghari
* Mir Gul Khan Naseer
* Mir Balach Marri
* Mir Khalil Ahmed Mengal
* General Rahimuddin Khan
* Asif Ali Zardari
* Sardar Asif Mengal
* Sardar Fateh Mohammad Hasni
* Gen(R) Abdul Qadir Baloch
* Amir-ul-Mulk Mengal
* Mir Suleman Dawood Khan
* Prince Muhammad Musa Khan Baloch
* Prince Muhammad Isa Khan Baloch
* Ghulam Mustafa Jatoi
* Azad Baloch
* Beeberg Baloch
* Iftikhar Muhammad Chaudhry
* Mir Faisal Khalil Mengal
* Ramzi Yousef
* Khalid Shaikh Mohammed
* Abdul Rashid Ghazi Mazari
* Abdul Raziq Bugti
Western Balochistan
* Mir Dost Mohammad Baranza
* Abdulmalak Rigi
* Yaqoub Mehrnehad
* Rostam Mirlashari
Northern Balochistan
* Abdul Kariam

Baluchistan Separatist Movements

Regional
* Baluchi Liberation Front
* Balochistan Liberation Front
* Jundallah
Eastern Balochistan
* Balochistan Liberation Army
* Bugti militia
* Balochistan Liberation Front
* Baloch Republican Army
* Baloch Students Organization
* Baluch People's Liberation Front
* Popular Front for Armed Resistance
* Baloch Students Organization- Awami
* Baluchi Liberation Front
* Baloch National Movement
* Parrari
Western Balochistan
* Dad Shah
* Baluchi Autonomist Movement
* Baluchi Liberation Front
* Azam Miro
* Jundallah
Northern Balochistan
* Front of Nimruz
Mir Abdul Qayyum Qambrani

Baluchistan Political Parties

* Balochistan National Party
* Jamhoori Wattan Party
* Balochistan National Movement
* Baloch Students Organization
* Baloch Students Organization- Awami
* Baluchi Autonomist Movement
* Millat Party
* Awami National Party

References

* [http://images.google.co.uk/imgres?imgurl=http://www.culturebase.net/inc/mediaimage.php%3Ffile%3Dartist_3058_rostam.jpg&imgrefurl=http://www.culturebase.net/artist.php%3F3058&h=176&w=176&sz=42&hl=en&start=2&um=1&tbnid=Z1vWmO1EJ7N6NM:&tbnh=100&tbnw=100&prev=/images%3Fq%3DRostam%2BMirlashari%26um%3D1%26hl%3Den%26sa%3DN]

See also

* Balochistan (Iran) main|History of Iranian Balochistan
* Balochistan (Pakistan)
* Conflict between Pakistan and Baloch warlords in Balochistan
* Mehergarh
* Bolan Pass
* Seistan Force
* [http://fr.wikipedia.org/wiki/Baba_Kot Baba Kot]


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