Hurricane Tanya (1995)

Infobox Hurricane
Name=Hurricane Tanya
Type=hurricane
Year=1995
Basin=Atl
Image location=Hurricane Tanya (1995).jpg


Formed=October 26, 1995
Dissipated=November 3, 1995
1-min winds=75
Pressure=972
Da

Inflated=
Fatalities=1 direct
Areas=Azores
Hurricane season=1995 Atlantic hurricane season

Hurricane Tanya was the final storm of the very active 1995 Atlantic hurricane season. It developed in the subtropical central Atlantic Ocean and remained at relatively high latitudes, affecting the Azores at the end of its lifespan. It was the nineteenth and final named storm and twelfth hurricane of the 1995 season.

Tanya developed late on October 26 south-southeast of Bermuda and had a fairly erratic path across the north Atlantic. It strengthened into a tropical storm on October 27 and into a hurricane on October 30, changing course several times between north and east. As it accelerated eastward on November 1, it lost tropical characteristics. At the same time, the storm impacted the Azores with significant wind damage reported.

Meteorological history

The system originated out of a tropical wave that moved off the western coast of Africa in the middle of October. The wave closely followed the path of Tropical Storm Sebastien and was unable to develop in the tropical Atlantic as it moved westward. It never organized itself until October 25 while south-southeast of Bermuda. However, the Dvorak technique was still unable to classify the system until October 26 as the low-cloud swirl became better organized while moving northward in the central Atlantic. That evening, a closed circulation was found, and it was classified as Tropical Depression Twenty-One. On the morning of October 27, it strengthened into a tropical storm, becoming the 19th storm of the season.

cite web
author=National Hurricane Center
year=1996
title=Preliminary Report: Hurricane Tanya
publisher=NOAA
accessdate=2006-12-13
url=http://www.nhc.noaa.gov/1995tanya.shtml

] Operationally, it was not declared a tropical cyclone until that point, when it was immediately declared Tropical Storm Tanya.

cite web
author=National Hurricane Center
year=1995
title=Tropical Storm Tanya Discussion #1
publisher=NOAA
accessdate=2006-12-13
url=http://www.nhc.noaa.gov/archive/storm_wallets/atlantic/atl1995/tanya/tropdisc/nal2195.004

]

Immediately after becoming a tropical storm, Tanya's movement became hindered by a nearby upper-level low, and it quickly turned eastward before virtually stalling early on October 28.

cite web
author=National Hurricane Center
year=1995
title=Tropical Storm Tanya Discussion #4
publisher=NOAA
accessdate=2006-12-13
url=http://www.nhc.noaa.gov/archive/storm_wallets/atlantic/atl1995/tanya/tropdisc/nal2195.004

] The upper-level low also influenced Tanya in giving it some subtropical characteristics, including a comma-shaped cloud band and maximum winds far from the center of the storm at the time. Despite that, the storm gradually strengthened as it remained over warm waters of about 81 °F (27 °C). That afternoon, it gained full tropical characteristics, as an eye tried to form in the central dense overcast.

cite web
author=National Hurricane Center
year=1995
title=Tropical Storm Tanya Discussion #5
publisher=NOAA
accessdate=2006-12-13
url=http://www.nhc.noaa.gov/archive/storm_wallets/atlantic/atl1995/tanya/tropdisc/nal2195.005

] The eye became clearly defined (although small in size) early on October 29 and Tanya was upgraded to a hurricane as it turned northward in response to the nearby low.

cite web
author=National Hurricane Center
year=1995
title=Hurricane Tanya Discussion #9
publisher=NOAA
accessdate=2006-12-13
url=http://www.nhc.noaa.gov/archive/storm_wallets/atlantic/atl1995/tanya/tropdisc/nal2195.009

]

That afternoon, while slowly tracking north, Tanya levelled off as a low-end Category 1 hurricane. However, a cold front to the west forced Tanya to accelerate in a more easterly track on October 30.

cite web
author=National Hurricane Center
year=1995
title=Hurricane Tanya Discussion #12
publisher=NOAA
accessdate=2006-12-13
url=http://www.nhc.noaa.gov/archive/storm_wallets/atlantic/atl1995/tanya/tropdisc/nal2195.012

] It remained fairly well organized with a distinct eye as it became wedged in a narrow zone of warm air between the cold front to the west and the upper-level low to the northeast. Despite slightly cooler water, Tanya strengthened a bit more that afternoon, reaching its peak intensity of 85 mph (135 km/h) with a 972 mbar central pressure as the forward speed increased.

cite web
author=National Hurricane Center
year=1995
title=Hurricane Tanya Discussion #14
publisher=NOAA
accessdate=2006-12-13
url=http://www.nhc.noaa.gov/archive/storm_wallets/atlantic/atl1995/tanya/tropdisc/nal2195.014

] That intensity held up until late on October 31, when Tanya began to weaken as it travelled over cooler waters and the eye became obscured.

cite web
author=National Hurricane Center
year=1995
title=Hurricane Tanya Discussion #19
publisher=NOAA
accessdate=2006-12-13
url=http://www.nhc.noaa.gov/archive/storm_wallets/atlantic/atl1995/tanya/tropdisc/nal2195.019

]

Early on November 1, while still a hurricane, Tanya began to lose tropical characteristics as it tracked rapidly northeast towards the Azores.

cite web
author=National Hurricane Center
year=1995
title=Hurricane Tanya Discussion #20
publisher=NOAA
accessdate=2006-12-13
url=http://www.nhc.noaa.gov/archive/storm_wallets/atlantic/atl1995/tanya/tropdisc/nal2195.020

] That morning, it weakened to a tropical storm, although the wind field became larger at the same time.

cite web
author=National Hurricane Center
year=1995
title=Tropical Storm Tanya Discussion #21
publisher=NOAA
accessdate=2006-12-13
url=http://www.nhc.noaa.gov/archive/storm_wallets/atlantic/atl1995/tanya/tropdisc/nal2195.021

] That evening, Tanya was declared fully extratropical as it passed the Azores.

cite web
author=National Hurricane Center
year=1995
title=Tropical Storm Tanya Discussion #23
publisher=NOAA
accessdate=2006-12-13
url=http://www.nhc.noaa.gov/archive/storm_wallets/atlantic/atl1995/tanya/tropdisc/nal2195.023

] The remnant cyclone turned north, before being absorbed by another extratropical cyclone early on November 3.

Impact, naming and records

The Azores were quite hard hit by the storm, which had just been declared extratropical when it hit the region. Damage was particularly severe on the islands of Faial, Pico, Terceira and São Jorge. Extensive property damage was reported, including many sunk boats, many houses were damaged and some destroyed and significant agricultural damage. Many trees and power lines were also knocked down, cutting electricity and hampering communications in the area. The highest wind gusts reported in the Azores were around 105 mph (170 km/h). After the storm, a resolution was submitted to the European Parliament by the Government of Portugal and a disaster area was declared in the islands.

One Spanish fisherman drowned and several people were injured.

cite web
author=European Parliament
year=1995
title=Resolution on Hurricane Tanya
publisher=European Union
accessdate=2006-12-13
url=http://www.europarl.eu.int/dg7/calendrier/data/pv_adopt/en/text/951116EN.htm#2805

]

There were many reports of tropical storm-force winds from ships in the north Atlantic. One ship, with the call sign GBSA, encountered Tanya's winds twice and reported the strongest winds from any ship, 71 mph (112 km/h).

When Tanya was named on October 27, it was the first "T" storm ever recorded to form in the Atlantic. It has since happened again in 2005 with Tammy. As the storm was not tropical at the time of impact, the name was not retired, and went unused in 2001 and 2007 season.

ee also

* List of Atlantic hurricanes
* 1995 Atlantic hurricane season

References

External links

* NHC's [http://www.nhc.noaa.gov/1995tanya.html Preliminary Report] on Hurricane Tanya


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