Dutch City and Fort of Malacca
De Stad en Kasteel Malacca
Dutch colony ← 1641–1825 → Flag Coat of arms Capital Malacca Town Language(s) Dutch, Malay Political structure Colony Governor - 1641–1642 Jan van Twist - 1824–1825 Hendrik S. van Son British Residents - 1795 Archibald Brown - 1803–1818 William Farquhar Historical era Imperialism - Established 14 January 1641 - British occupation 1795–1818 - Relinquished to the British according to the Anglo-Dutch Treaty of 1824 1 March 1825
Dutch Malacca (1641–1825) was the longest period of Malacca under foreign control. The Dutch ruled for almost 183 years with intermittent British occupation during the Napoleonic Wars ( 1795–1818 ). This era saw relative peace with little serious interruption from the Malay kingdoms due to the understanding earlier on forged between the Dutch and Sultanate of Johor in 1606. This time also marked the decline of the importance of Malacca. The Dutch preferred Batavia (present day Jakarta) as their economic and administrative center in the region and their hold in Malacca was to prevent the loss of the city to other European powers and subsequently the competition that would naturally come with it. Thus in the 17th century, with Malacca ceased to be an important port, the Johor Sultanate became the dominant local power in the region, due to the opening of its ports and the alliance with the Dutch.
Dutch conquest of Portuguese Malacca
In the early 17th century, the Dutch East India Company (Verenigde Oostindische Compagnie, VOC) began the campaign to destroy Portuguese power in the East. At that time, the Portuguese had transformed Malacca into an impregnable fortress (the Fortaleza de Malaca, controlling access to the sea lanes of the Straits of Malacca and the spice trade there. The Dutch started by launching small incursions and skirmishes against the Portuguese. The first serious attempt was the siege of Malacca in 1606 by the third VOC fleet from Holland with eleven ships, led by Admiral Cornelis Matelief de Jonge that lead to the naval battle of Cape Rachado. Although the Dutch were routed, the Portuguese fleet of Don Martin d'Alphonso de Castro, the Viceroy of Goa; suffered heavier casualties and the battle rallied the forces of the Sultanate of Johor in an alliance with the Dutch and later on with the Acehnese.
The Dutch with their local allies assaulted and wrested Malacca from the Portuguese in January 1641. This combined Dutch-Johor-Aceh efforts effectively destroyed the last bastion of Portuguese power, removing their influence in the Malay archipelago. As per the agreement with Johor in 1606, the Dutch took control of Malacca and agreed not to seek territories or wage war with the Malay kingdoms.
Administration of Malacca
Malacca was controlled as a colony of the VOC. All the chief administrators of Malacca were Dutch governors except for the brief period that the city was under British Residents during the Wars of Napoleon. The governors and residents list is as follows:
Governors of Malacca
Governors of Dutch Malacca (1641–1795)
Governors From Until Johan van Twist 1641 1642 Jeremias van Vliet 1642 1645 Arnout de Vlamingh van Oudtshoorn 1645 1646 Jan Thyszoon Payart 1646 1662 Jan Anthonisz van Riebeeck 1662 1665 Balthasar Bort 1665 1679 Jacob Joriszoon Pits 1679 1680 Cornelis van Quaelberg 1680 1684 Nikolaas Schaghen 1684 1686 Dirk Komans (1st time) 1686 1686 Thomas Slicher 1686 1691 Dirk Komans (2nd time) 1691 1692 Gelmer Vosberg 1692 1697 Goevert van Hoorn 1697 1700 Bernhard Phoonsen 1700 1704 Johan Grotenhuys (acting) 1704 1704 Karel Bolner 1704 1707 Pieter Rooselaar 1707 1709 Willem Six 1709 1711 Willem Moerman 1711 1717 Herman van Suchtelen 1717 1726 Johan Frederik Gobius 1726 1730 Pieter Rochus Pasques de Chavonnes 1730 1735 Roger de Lavez 1735 1741 Willem Bernard Albinus 1741 1748 Pieter van Heemskerk 1748 1753 Willem Dekker 1753 1758 David Boelen 1758 1764 Thomas Schippers 1764 1771 Jan Crans 1771 1775 Pieter Gerardus de Bruijn 1775 1788 Abraham Couperus 1788 1795
British Residents of Malacca (1795–1818)
Residents From Until Archibald Brown 1795 1795 Thomas Parr 1795 1796 Richard Tolson 1796 1797 David Campbell 1797 1798 Aldwell Taylor 1798 1803 Willem Jacob Cranssen -Dutch Governor 1802 William Farquhar 1803 1818
Restoration to the Dutch
Governors of Dutch Malacca (1818–1825)
Governors From Until Jan Samuel Timmermann Thijssen 1818 1822 A. Koek (acting) 1822 1824 Hendrik Stephanus van Son 1824 1825
Stad en Kasteel Malacca
The Dutch improved and expanded the Portuguese fortress and built walls to protect the harbor and expanded city. During their rule the famous city hall or Stadthuys was also constructed, which still stands today.
- De Witt, Dennis (2007). History of the Dutch in Malaysia. Malaysia: Nutmeg Publishing. ISBN 9789834351908.
Dutch Empire Colonies and trading posts of the Dutch East India Company (1602-1798)GovernoratesDirectoratesCommandmentsResidenciesSettlements with an opperhoofd Colonies and trading posts of the Dutch West India Company (1621-1792)Colonies in the AmericasTrading posts in Africa † Governed by the Society of Berbice · ‡ Governed by the Society of Suriname Settlements of the Noordsche Compagnie (1614-1642)Settlements Colonies of the Kingdom of the Netherlands (1815-1962)Until 1825Until 1853Until 1872Until 1945Until 1954Until 1962 † Became constituent countries of the Kingdom of the Netherlands; Suriname gained full independence in 1975, Curaçao and Dependencies was renamed to the Netherlands Antilles, which was eventually dissolved in 2010. Kingdom of the Netherlands (1954-Present)Constituent countriesPublic bodies of the Netherlands
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