- Radical environmentalism
Radical environmentalism, is a grassroots branch of the larger
environmental movementthat emerged out of an ecocentrism-based frustration with the co-option of mainstream environmentalism. It is the ideology behind the radical environmental movement.
As a movement
The radical environmental movement aspires to what scholar Christopher Manes calls "a new kind of environmental activism: iconoclastic, uncompromising, discontented with traditional conservation policy, at time illegal ..." Radical environmentalism presupposes a need to reconsider Western ideas of religion and philosophy (including
capitalism, patriarchyand globalization) sometimes through "resacralising" and reconnecting with nature.Manes, Christopher, 1990. "Green Rage: Radical Environmentalism and the Unmaking of Civilization", Boston: Little, Brown and Co.]
The movement is typified by
leaderless resistanceorganisations such as Earth First!, which subscribe to the idea of taking " direct action" in defense of "mother earth" including civil disobedience, ecotageand monkeywrenching. Movements such as the Earth Liberation Front(ELF) and Earth Liberation Army(ELA) also take this form of action, although focus on economic sabotage and guerrilla warfare, rather than civil disobedience. [ [http://www.carkeys.co.uk/features/everything_else/914.asp SUV Armageddon Approaching?] , "Car Keys", 29th August 2003.] Radical environmentalists include notably earth liberationists, as well as; animal liberationists, bioregionalists, green anarchists, deep ecologists, ecopsychologists, ecofeminists, neo-Pagans, Wiccans, Third Positionists, anti-globalisationand anti-capitalistprotesters.
Environmental Life Force, Earth First!, Earth Liberation Front(ELF), Earth Liberation Army(ELA) Plane Stupidand Camp for Climate Action":"Timeline of Animal Liberation Front actions: 1976-1999, 2000-2004 and 2005-Present:"Further information: Ecotage, Monkeywrenching, Earth liberation"
Earth First!: a Monkey wrench and stone hammer.]
Whilst many people believe that the first significant radical environmentalist group was
Greenpeace, which made use of direct actionbeginning in the 1970s to confront whalingships and nuclear weapons testers, Weyler, Rex. "Greenpeace: How a Group of Journalists, Ecologists and Visionaries Changed the World". Rodale, 2004)] others within the movement, argues as Earth Liberation Front(ELF) prisoner Jeff "Free" Luers, suggests that the movement was established centuries ago. He often writes that the concept of "eco-defence" was born shortly after the existence of the human race, claiming it is only recently that within the modern development of human society, and individuals losing touch with the earth and its wild roots, that more radical tactics and political theories have emerged. [http://shiftshapers.gnn.tv/blogs/9306/A_Brief_Description_of_Radical_Environmentalism A Brief Description of Radical Environmentalism] , Jeff Luers, "4 Struggle Magazine", 26th September 2005.] [ [http://www.freefreenow.org/jw_writings.html Writings from Jeff Luers] , "Free Jeff Luers".]
The alternative tactic of using explosive and
incendiary devices was then established in 1976, by John Hannaand others as the Environmental Life Force(ELF), also now known as the "original ELF". The group conducted a campaign of armed actions in northern Californiaand Oregon, later disbanding in 1978 following Hanna's arrest for placing incendiary devices on seven crop-dusters at the Salinas, Californiaairport on May Day, 1977. [http://www.originalelf.org Original ELF] ] It wasn't until over a decade and a half later that this form of guerrilla warfareresurfaced using the same acronym.
Earth First!was founded by Dave Foremanand others to confront environmental destruction, primarily of the American West. Inspired by the Edward Abbeynovel "The Monkey Wrench Gang", Earth First! made use of such techniques as treesitting[ [http://www.penbay.org/ef/treesit_first1985.html Earth First's first treesitting civil disobedience action] , "Earth First! 1985", Oregon, June 1985.] and treespiking[ [http://www.things.org/~jym/ef/tree-spiking-memo.html Tree Spiking Memo] , "Earth First!", April 1990.] to stop loggingcompanies, as well as other activities targeted towards mining, roadconstruction,cite book | title = Earth First! and the Anti-Roads Movement: Radical Environmentalism and Comparative Social Movements | last = Wall | first = Derek | year = 1999 | publisher = Routledge ] suburban development and energy companies.The organization were committed to nonviolent ecotagetechniques from the group's inception, with those that split from the movement in the 1990s including the Earth Liberation Front(ELF) in 1992, naming themselves after the Animal Liberation Front(ALF) who formed in the 1970s. [ [http://greenfield.fortunecity.com/tree/16/fire.html ELF Burns Down Vail] , "FIRE", December 1999.] Three years later in Canada, inspired by the ELF in Europethe first "Earth Liberation" direct actionoccurred, but this time as the Earth Liberation Army(ELA), a similar movement who use ecotage and monkeywrenchingas a tool, although no guidelines had been published.
The ELF gained national attention for a series of actions which earned them the label of eco-terrorists, [ [http://prfamerica.org/EarthLiberationFrontNo1onFBIList.html Earth Liberation Front is now FBI's No. 1 Domestic Terrorist Threat] , "Property Rights of America Foundation Inc", March 2001.] [http://www.earthliberationfront.com/elf_news.htm ELF News] , "Earth Liberation Front" including the burning of a
skiresort in Vail, Coloradoin 1998, and the burning of an SUV dealership in Oregonin 1999. In the same year the ELA had made headlines by setting fire to the Vail Resortsin Washington, D.C., causing $12 million in damages. [ [http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m1571/is_36_15/ai_56063251 waste & abuse - controversy over a temporary dirt road built by Vail Resortsand its effect on wetlands] , "BNet", September 27th 1999.] The defendants in the case were later charged in the FBI's " Operation Backfire", along with other arsons and cases, which were later named by environmentalists as the Green Scare; alluding to the Red Scare, periods of fear over communist infiltration of U.S. [http://www.fbi.gov/page2/jan06/elf012006.htm Eco-Terror Indictments: "Operation Backfire" Nets 11] , FBI, January 20th 2006.] [ [http://www.freedom4um.com/cgi-bin/readart.cgi?ArtNum=69570 Resentencing date set for Jeff Luers] , "Freedom4um", 29th December 2007.] Following the September 11, 2001 attacksseveral laws were passed increasing the penalty for ecoterrorism, and hearings were held in Congress discussing the activity of groups such as the ELF. To date no one has been killed as a result of an ELF or ALF action since both groups forbid harming human or non-human life. Bron Taylor, 1998. Religion, Violence and Radical Environmentalism: From Earth First! to the Unabomber to the Earth Liberation Front, Terrorism and Political Violence 10(4):1-42] It was then announced in 2003 that " eco-terrorist" attacks, known as " ecotage", had increased from the ELF, ELA and the "Environmental Rangers", another name used be activists when engaging in similar activity. [ [ [http://www.enterstageright.com/archive/articles/1101/1101ecoterrorist.htm The eco-terrorist anthrax connection] , "ESR", October 21st 2001.]
In 2005 the FBI announced that the ELF, is America's greatest domestic terrorist threat, responsible for over 1,200 "criminal incidents" amounting to tens of millions of dollars in damage to property,Best, Steven and Best & Nocella. "Igniting a Revolution: Voices in Defense of the Earth",
Lantern Books, 2006, p. 47.] with the United States Department of Homeland Securityconfirming this regarding the ALF and ELF. [http://www.cnn.com/2005/US/05/19/domestic.terrorism/index.html FBI, ATF address domestic terrorism] , " CNN", May 19th 2005.] Plane Stupidthen was launched in 2005, in an attempt to combat the growing airport expansions in the UK using direct actionwith a year later the first Camp for Climate Actionbeing held with 600 people attending a protest called "Reclaim Power" converging on Drax Power Station in North Yorkshireand attempted to shut it down. There were thirty-eight arrests, with four breaching the fence and the railway line being blocked. [cite paper|url=http://news.independent.co.uk/environment/article1223134.ece|title=The Battle of Drax: 38 held as protest fails to close plant|work= The Independent|date= 2006-09-01] [cite web|url=http://www.guardian.co.uk/climatechange/story/0,,1862662,00.html|title=In the shadow of Drax, not so much a fight as a festival|work= The Guardian|date= 2006-09-01]
New religious movement
Radical environmentalism has been called a
new religious movementby Bron Taylor (1998). Taylor contends that "Radical environmentalism is best understood as a new religious movement that views environmental degradation as an assault on a sacred, natural world." Bron Taylor. "Religion, Violence and Radical Environmentalism: From Earth First! to the Unabomber to the Earth Liberation Front", 1998. 10(4):1-42] [Taylor, Bron, 2005. Radical Environmentalism, "The Encyclopedia of Religion and Nature", pp 1326-1335. ISBN 1-84371-138-9]
Conservative political pundit
Ann Coulter[ [http://www.americasfuture.net/bookmonitor/2006/2006-9-06.html The Church of Liberalism] , "Book Monitor", 2006.] and novelists Michael Crichtoncite web| url = http://cdfe.org/religion.htm | title = Environmentalism as Religion| author = Crichton, Michael | publisher = "Center for the Defense of Free Enterprise" | date = September 15, 2003| accessdate = 2007-10-13] and Tom Clancy[ [http://www.timesdaily.com/apps/pbcs.dll/section?category=NEWS&template=wiki&text=Radical_environmentalism Radical environmentalism] , "Times Daily".] also depict it as a religion, among other things referring to its adherents as "Druids," and fictional as a theory.
*Best, Steven and Nocella, Anthony J. "Igniting A Revolution: Voices in Defense of the Earth",
AK Press, 2006. ISBN 1-904859-56-9
*Wall, Dereck. "Earth First! and the Anti-Roads Movement: Radical Environmentalism",
Routledge, 1999. ISBN 0415190649
*List, Peter. "Radical Environmentalism: Philosophy and Tactics", Wadsworth Pub. Co., 1993. ISBN 0534177905
*Davis, John. "The Earth First! Reader: Ten Years of Radical Environmentalism", Gibbs Smith, 1991. ISBN 0879053879
* de Steiguer, J.E. 2006. "The Origins of Modern Environmental Thought." The University of Arizona Press. Tucson. 246 pp.
* Taylor, Bron, ed. Ecological" Resistance Movements: The Global Emergence of Radical and Popular Environmentalism". Albany, New York: State University of New York Press, 1995.
* Taylor, Bron, "Radical Environmentalism" and "Earth First! and the Earth Liberation Front" in B. Taylor, ed., "Encyclopedia of Religion and Nature" London: Continuum International. These entries provide extensive bibliographies and are available online at [http://www.religionandnature.com/ern/sample.htm] . Additional articles by Taylor about radical environmentalism, including those that explore its history and political impacts, are also available online. [http://www.religionandnature.com/bron/pdf/RadicalEnvironmentalismArts.pdf]
Notes and references
* [http://www.freefreenow.org/jw_writings.html#Radical A Brief Description of Radical Environmentalism] ,
Jeff Luers, April 2005
* [http://www.greens.org/ Green Parties World Wide]
* [http://environmentblogs.org Environment Blogs]
* [http://www.greenisthenewred.com GreenIsTheNewRed.com]
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