Name = Adrenochrome
ImageFile = Adrenochrome-Line-Structure.png
IUPACName = 2,3-Dihydro-3-hydroxy-1-methyl-1H-indole-5,6-dione
Section1 = Chembox Identifiers
CASNo = 54-06-8
SMILES = O=C1C=C2C(O)CN(C)C2=CC1=O
Section2 = Chembox Properties
Density = 3.264 g/cm³
BoilingPt = (decomposes, 115-120 °C)
Adrenochrome, chemical formula C9H9NO3, is a
pigmentobtained by the oxidationof adrenaline( epinephrine). Adrenochrome monosemicarbazone, also known as carbazochrome, is a hemostatic, meaning it reduces capillary bleeding.
Studies in the mid-twentieth century have indicated that adrenochrome is metabolized as one of two other substances,
dihydroxyindoleor adrenolutin. Dihydroxyindole may balance the anxiety and depression effects of adrenaline to reduce tension and irritability. Defective processing of adrenochrome, however, primarily produces the toxic adrenolutin instead, which combines with adrenochrome. The adrenochrome-adrenolutin combination was hypothesized by Abram Hofferand Humphry Osmondto result in disruption of the brain's normal chemical processes resulting in schizophrenia.Fact|date=May 2007 This hypothesis could never be confirmed and has long been abandoned by medicine.
Adrenochrome is synthesized "
in vivo" by the oxidation of epinephrine. " In vitro", silver oxide(Ag2O) is used as an oxidizing agent. [MacCarthy, Chim, Ind. Paris 55,435(1946)]
There has been a substantial amount of controversy about whether adrenochrome can be classified as a
Psychotropic drug. [http://www.erowid.org/chemicals/adrenochrome/adrenochrome.shtml] . According to a work by A. Hoffer and H. Osmond, psychoactive effects of adrenochrome include euphoria, confusion, changed train of thought, and inability to concentrate.Hoffer, A. and Osmond, H. "The Hallucinogens" (Academic Press, 1967).]
Adrenochrome in popular culture
"Movies and books"
Hunter S. Thompsonmentions adrenochrome in his book "Fear and Loathing in Las Vegas." In the book it is derived from a living donor's adrenal gland(removing the gland kills the donor; it cannot be taken from a corpse). As such, it is purported to be very exotic, and very intense: "the first wave felt like a combination of mescalineand methedrine". Thompson reported a significant perceived rise in body temperature that led to paralysis. The adrenochrome scene also appears in the novel's film adaptation. In the DVD commentary, director Terry Gilliamadmits that his and Thompson's portrayal is fictional hyperbole. In fact, Gilliam insists that the drug is entirely fictional and seems unaware of the existence of a substance with even a similar name.
In the televised
Inspector Lewismystery "Whom the Gods Would Destroy" (2007), Lewis investigates a series of murders that revolve around the death of a prostitute some 20 years earlier. The prostitute had been murdered by a group of then-Oxford students (Sons of Twice Born) for the purpose of experiencing the high attained from adrenochrome.
Aldous Huxleymentions adrenochrome early in his book " The Doors of Perception" relating it to lysergic acidand mescaline.
In the "
Discworld" novel " Sourcery" a character is described thus: "He looked like someone who had just eaten a handful of pineal glands and washed them down with a pint of adrenochrome. He looked so high you could bounce intercontinental TV off him."
White Wolf's AberrantRPG Soma is a drug which provides temporal superpowers and is derived from Adrenochrome.
The Sisters of Mercyrecorded a song called "Adrenochrome", which appeared on the album " Some Girls Wander By Mistake". Otephas also recorded a song called "Adrenochrome Dreams", which appeared on the album " the Ascension". The song is highly psychedelic, narrating a discontinuous dream.
" [http://amp.dascene.net/downmod.php?index=15721 Adrenochrome] " was the title of a MOD format music file produced by the artist [http://amp.dascene.net/detail.php?view=1665 Dax] .
The Groovie Ghouliesreleased an album called "Appetite For Adrenochrome", although the main themes of the album are based in 1950s era monster movies rather than drug use.
* [http://webeye.ophth.uiowa.edu/eyeforum/atlassearch1.htm?ComparisonType1_1=LIKE&Value1_1=adrenochrome&FieldName1=Diagnosis&NumCriteriaDetails1=1&PageID=2&GlobalOperator=AND&NumCriteria=1 Adrenochrome deposits] resulting from the use of epinephrine-containing eye drops used to treat glaucoma from the [http://webeye.ophth.uiowa.edu/eyeforum/atlassearch1.htm Iowa Eye Atlas] (searched for diagnosis = adrenochrome)
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Look at other dictionaries:
Adrénochrome — Général Nom IUPAC 3 hydroxy 1 méthyl 2,3 dihydro 1H indole 5,6 dione No CAS … Wikipédia en Français
adrenochrome — [ə drē′nō krōm΄] n. a red biochemical, C9H9NO3, oxidized from epinephrine and having a hemostatic effect * * * a·dre·no·chrome (ə drēʹnō krōm , nə ) n. A naturally occurring chemical formed during the oxidation of epinephrine. [adrenaline +… … Universalium
adrenochrome — [ə drē′nō krōm΄] n. a red biochemical, C9H9NO3, oxidized from epinephrine and having a hemostatic effect … English World dictionary
adrenochrome — noun Date: circa 1913 a red colored mixture of quinones derived from epinephrine by oxidation … New Collegiate Dictionary
adrenochrome — noun An oxidation product of adrenaline or epinephrine; its semicarbazone is used as a drug to reduce bleeding … Wiktionary
adrenochrome — ad·re·no·chrome ə drē nə .krōm n a red colored mixture of quinones derived from epinephrine by oxidation and yielding a product like melanin on further oxidation … Medical dictionary
adrenochrome — adreno·chrome … English syllables
adrenochrome — əˈdrenəˌkrōm, ēn noun ( s) Etymology: adren + chrome : a red colored mixture of quinones derived from epinephrine by oxidation and yielding a melaninlike product on further oxidation … Useful english dictionary
Appetite for Adrenochrome — is the first full length album from The Groovie Ghoulies and was released in 1989.The album was recorded at Enharmonic Studios, Sacramento, CA.Line up:Kepi Ghoulie vocals and guitarRudge guitar Vetty bass John Philip Sosa drumsThe album also… … Wikipedia
Abram Hoffer — (born 1917) is a Canadian psychiatrist known for his work in the development of biochemically based therapies based on the use of nutrition and vitamins in the treatment of schizophrenia mdash; known as orthomolecular psychiatry. This general… … Wikipedia