- Gulf of Saint Lawrence
Gulf of Saint Lawrence (French: "golfe du Saint-Laurent"), the world's largest
estuary, is the outlet of North America's Great Lakesvia the Saint Lawrence Riverinto the Atlantic Ocean.
The river flows into the gulf through the
Jacques Cartier Straitbetween the Côte-Nordregion of Quebec and the north shore of Anticosti Island, and the Honguedo Straitbetween the south shore of Anticosti Island and the Gaspé Peninsula.
The gulf is bounded on the north by the
Labrador Peninsula, to the east by Newfoundland, to the south by the Nova Scotia peninsulaand Cape Breton Island, and to the west by the Gaspé and New Brunswick. It contains Anticosti Island, Prince Edward Island, and the Magdalen Islands.
Besides the Saint Lawrence River itself, semi-major tributaries of the Gulf of Saint Lawrence include the
Miramichi River, the Natashquan River, the Restigouche River, the Margaree River, and the Humber River. Arms of the Gulf include the Chaleur Bay, Miramichi Bay, St. George's Bay, Bay of Islands, and Northumberland Strait.
The gulf has provided a historically important marine fishery for various
First Nationsthat have lived on its shores for millennia and used its waters for transportation.
The first documented voyage by a European in its waters was by French explorer
Jacques Cartierin 1534; the Cartier expedition is reported to have been the first known encounter between Europeans and First Nations inhabiting the Gulf of St. Lawrence basin, which occurred in present-day New Brunswick on July 7, 1534.
The gulf flows into the Atlantic through the
Strait of Belle Islebetween Labradorand Newfoundland, the Cabot Straitbetween Newfoundland and Cape Breton Island, and the Strait of Cansobetween Cape Breton Island and peninsular Nova Scotia. It should be noted that since construction of the Canso Causewayin 1955, the Strait of Canso does not permit free-flowing exchange of waters between the gulf and the Atlantic.
St. Paul Island, Nova Scotia, off the northeast tip of Cape Breton Island, is referred to as the "Graveyard of the Gulf" for its many shipwrecks; access to the island is controlled by the Canadian Coast Guard. Bonaventure Islandon the eastern tip of the Gaspé Peninsula, Île Brionand Rochers-aux-Oiseaux(Bird Rock) northeast of the Magdalen Islands[ [http://www.tourismeilesdelamadeleine.com/magdalen-islands/decouvrirLArchipel_parcsReservesEtAutresSitesNaturels_ang.cfm Archipelago tourism] ] are important migratory birdsanctuaries administered by the Canadian Wildlife Service.
The Government of Canada maintains
national parks in the Gulf of St. Lawrence estuary at Forillon on the eastern tip of the Gaspé, Prince Edward Island on the north shore of the island, Kouchibouguac on the northeast coast of New Brunswick, Cape Breton Highlands on the northern tip of Cape Breton Island, Gros Morne on Newfoundland's west coast, and a national park reserve in the Mingan Archipelagoon Quebec's Côte-Nord.
The five provinces bordering the gulf also maintain various provincial parks, some of which preserve coastal features.
The Laurentian Channel is a feature of the gulf floor that was formed during previous glaciations, where the
continental shelfwas eroded by the St. Lawrence River during periods of global sealevel minimums. Over the last century, the bottom waters of the channel have become hypoxic. [Gilbert et al. (2005) "Limnology and Oceanography" 50(5):1654]
The large extension of the continental shelf southeast of Newfoundland is known as the
Grand Banks, and is the focus of fishing and oil exploration. Portions of the Grand Banks lie outside Canada's Exclusive Economic Zone. The easternmost portion of the shelf is known as the Flemish Cap, and it lies completely in international fishing waters. Submarine canyons and fans can be found off the Scotian shelf.
* [http://www.glf.dfo-mpo.gc.ca/os/goslim-gigsl/index-e.php The Gulf of St. Lawrence - A Unique Ecosystem] ,
Department of Fisheries and Oceans
* [http://www.erudit.org/revue/gpq/2001/v55/n2/008298ar.pdf Timing and position of late Wisconsinan ice-margins on the upper slope seaward of Laurentian Channel]
* [http://www.osl.gc.ca/en/index.html St. Lawrence Observatory ]
Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.
Look at other dictionaries:
Gulf of Saint Lawrence — noun an arm of the northwest Atlantic Ocean off the southeastern coast of Canada • Syn: ↑Gulf of St. Lawrence • Instance Hypernyms: ↑gulf • Part Holonyms: ↑Atlantic, ↑Atlantic Ocean … Useful english dictionary
Gulf of St. Lawrence — noun an arm of the northwest Atlantic Ocean off the southeastern coast of Canada • Syn: ↑Gulf of Saint Lawrence • Instance Hypernyms: ↑gulf • Part Holonyms: ↑Atlantic, ↑Atlantic Ocean … Useful english dictionary
Saint Lawrence (disambiguation) — Saint Lawrence or Saint Laurence (also St. Lawrence , St Laurence ) is a title applied to many things named after Saint Lawrence, the 3rd century Christian martyr. Saint Laurent is the French equivalent and San Lorenzo is the Italian and Spanish… … Wikipedia
Saint Lawrence River — Infobox River | river name = Saint Lawrence River caption = Map of the St. Lawrence/Great Lakes Watershed origin = Lake Ontario mouth = Gulf of Saint Lawrence/Atlantic Ocean basin countries = Canada (Ontario, Quebec) United States (Illinois,… … Wikipedia
Saint Lawrence River — River, southern Quebec and southeastern Ontario, Canada. It flows northeast out of Lake Ontario into the Gulf of Saint Lawrence and is about 760 mi (1,225 km) long. It passes through the Thousand Islands and for about 120 mi (195 km) forms the… … Universalium
Saint Lawrence — noun 1. Roman martyr; supposedly Lawrence was ordered by the police to give up the church s treasure and when he responded by presenting the poor people of Rome he was roasted to death on a gridiron (died in 258) • Syn: ↑Lawrence, ↑St. Lawrence,… … Useful english dictionary
Saint Lawrence River — noun a North American river; flows into the Gulf of Saint Lawrence and the North Atlantic • Syn: ↑Saint Lawrence, ↑St. Lawrence, ↑St. Lawrence River • Instance Hypernyms: ↑river • Part Holonyms: ↑ … Useful english dictionary
Saint Lawrence — geographical name river 760 miles (1223 kilometers) E Canada in Ontario & Quebec bordering on the United States in New York, flowing from Lake Ontario NE into the Atlantic, & forming at its mouth a wide bay (the Gulf of Saint Lawrence) … New Collegiate Dictionary
Saint Lawrence,Gulf of — Saint Lawrence (sānt), Gulf of An arm of the northwest Atlantic Ocean off southeast Canada bordered by New Brunswick, Nova Scotia, Newfoundland, and Quebec. It is connected with the Atlantic by Cabot Strait and the Straits of Canso and Belle Isle … Universalium
Saint Lawrence River and Seaway — ▪ river, North America Introduction hydrographic system of east central North America. It connects the North River (source of the St. Louis River, in the U.S. state of Minnesota, which flows into Lake Superior) with Cabot Strait, leading into… … Universalium