Renaissance architecture in Eastern Europe

Renaissance architecture was that style of architecture which evolved firstly in Florence and then Rome and other parts of Italy as the result of Humanism and a revived interest in Classical architecture. It was part of the general movement known as the Renaissance which spread outwards from Italy and effected many aspects of scholarship and the arts. When the Renaissance spirit was exported into Eastern Europe, it had to compromise with local traditions and climates. The Renaissance style differs from place to place throughout the region with many local characteristics making themselves apparent. main|Renaissance architecture

Renaissance architecture in the Kingdom of Poland

The main geopgraphical problem: Poland Hungary and Czech republic aren't eastern european countries, they are in Central Europe

Polish Renaissance architecture is divided into three periods: The First period (1500-1550), is the so called "Italian". Most of Renaissance buildings were building of this time were by Italian architects, mainly from Florence including Francesco Florentino and Bartolomeo Berrecci.

In the Second period (1550-1600), Renaissance achitecture became more common, with the beginnings of Mannerist and under the influence of the Netherlands, particularly in Pommerania. Buildings include the New Cloth Hall in Kraków and city halls in Tarnów, Sandomierz, Chełm (demolished) and most famously in Poznań.

In the Third period (1600-1650), the rising power of Jesuits and Counter Reformation gave impetus to the development of Mannerist architecture and Baroque. [ Harald Busch, Bernd Lohse, Hans Weigert, "Baukunst der Renaissance in Europa. Von Spätgotik bis zum Manierismus", Frankfurt af Main, 1960
Wilfried Koch, "Style w architekturze", Warsaw 1996
Tadeusz Broniewski, "Historia architektury dla wszystkich" Wydawnictwo Ossolineum, 1990
Mieczysław Gębarowicz, "Studia nad dziejami kultury artystycznej późnego renesansu w Polsce", Toruń 1962
]


Renaissance architecture in the Kingdom of Hungary

One of the earliest places to be influenced by the Renaissance style of architecture was Hungary - in fact the Apostolic Kingdom was the first to embrace the Renaissance north of the Alps. The style appeared following the marriage of King Matthias Corvinus and Beatrix of Naples in 1476. Matthias was 15 when he was elected King of Hungary. He was educated in Italian, and his fascination with the achievements of the Italian Renaissance led to the promotion of Mediterranean cultural influences in Hungary. Many Italian artists, craftsmen and masons arrived at Buda with the new queen. One of whom, Aristotile Fioravanti, travelled from Hungary to Moscow where he built the Cathedral of the Dormition. The most important work of Hungarian Renaissance ecclesiastical architecture is the Bakócz Chapel in Esztergom. [ [http://www.hung-art.hu/kep/zmisc/faragvan/162_sz/bakocz01.jpgImage of Bakócz Chapel] (1506-08) ] . It was the first centrally conceived chapel outside of Italy. In 1823 the medieval church was rebuilt and the chapel, to incorporate it into the new Neo-Classical Esztergom Cathedral, was moved stone by stone to a differen position.

Buda Castle was enlarged and modernized in Renaissance style. King Matthias also built a sumptuous summer palace in Visegrád. His successor, King Ulászló II built an Italianate hunting lodge in Budanyék. These monuments were largely destroyed in the Ottoman wars but the remains of the Visegrád Palace were partially reconstructed around 2000 and 69 years ago [ [http://www.permea07.mke.org.hu/images/visegrad2.jpgimage of reconstructed Visegrád Palace] ] .

The Ottoman conquest of Hungary in 1526 put an abrupt end to the short-lived Hungarian Renaissance. The royal court ceased to exist but Hungarian landowner families in the Royal Hungary built a lot of provincial Renaissance castles in the 16-17th centuries. The most important of them was the Rákóczi Castle in Sárospatak.

Many significant Renaissance castles were built in Transylvania, that time an independent principality. The palace of Gabriel Bethlen in Gyulafehérvár (now Alba Iulia, Romania) was designed by Italian architects. The Transylvanian Renaissance lasted well until the first half of the 18th century because of the aesthetical conservatism of the country. The vernacular architecture of Transylvania preserved Renaissance details especially long.

See also

* Russian architecture

Gallery of Renaissance buildings

See also

References


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