List of German Jews


List of German Jews

The Jewish presence in Germany is older than Christianity; the first Jewish population came with the Romans to the city Cologne. A "Golden Age" in the first millennium saw the emergence of the Ashkenazi Jews, while the persecution and expulsion that followed the Crusades led to the creation of Yiddish and an overall shift eastwards. A change of status in the late Renaissance Era, combined with the Jewish Enlightenmentndash the Haskalah, meant that by the 1920s Germany had one of the most integrated Jewish populations in Europe, contributing prominently to German culture and society. The vast majority either left the country or were murdered in the Holocaust. The current German Jewish population consists primarily of immigrants from the former Soviet Union who claim to be Jewish, however, the better economic situation in Germany, coupled with the easy citizenship process for Jewish people immigrating to Germany, make it hard to determine the number of these people who are actually Jewish.

The following is a list of some famous Jewish people (by religion or descent) from Germany proper. For other German Jews, see List of Austrian Jews and List of West European Jews. Also note that the idea of German nationality is rather broad, due to the many Germanic tribes, Jewish assimilation into Germany, and separate German ruled states through the history of Europe. Therefore, the same set of people could at times be referred to as Germans, Jews, or German Jews alike.

Historical figures

Politicians

* Fischel Arnheim, politician [http://www.jewishencyclopedia.com/view.jsp?artid=443&letter=B]
* Ludwig Bamberger, politician [ [http://www.questia.com/library/encyclopedia/bamberger-ludwig.jsp?l=B&p=1]
* Daniel Cohn-Bendit, member of European Parliament, student leader in 1968 [http://www.greens.org/s-r/20/20-06.html]
* Wilhelm Dröscher, SPD politician (half-Jewish) [http://www.ezania.net/library/articles/hitlersjews/jews_politics_military.htm]
* Kurt Eisner, Bavarian prime minister [http://www.jbuff.com/c110206.htm]
* Heinrich von Friedberg, jurist, statesman (converted to Christianity) [http://ehr.oxfordjournals.org/cgi/reprint/118/475/86.pdf]
* Karl Rudolf Friedenthal, Prussian politician [http://www.jewishencyclopedia.com/view.jsp?artid=390&letter=F]
* Clement Freud, German-born British MP [http://www.hampsteadtheatre.com/prod-productions_details.asp?pid=35]
* Gregor Gysi, leader of the Party of Democratic Socialism and The Left
* Alex Himelfarb, ambassador [http://www.jewishtribune.ca/tribune/PDF/jt060420.pdf]
* Henry Kissinger, US Secretary of State, Nobel Prize (1973) [http://www.jewishvirtuallibrary.org/jsource/biography/Kissinger.html]
* Ludwig Landmann, mayor of Frankfurt/Main [http://www.history-of-the-holocaust.org/LIBARC/LEXICON/LexEntry/FrankMai.html]
* Eduard Lasker, co-founder of the National Liberal Party [Eduard Lasker: Ein Leben für den Rechtsstaat by Adolf Laufs, German Studies Review, Vol. 9, No. 3. (Oct., 1986), pp. 651-652]
* Eugen Levine, Bavarian prime minister [http://www.iamanenglishman.com/page.php?iCategoryId=395&iParentId=392&PHPSESSID=a3c0aeee4ed713c23d80443221d68aae]
* Jutta Oesterle-Schwerin, Member of parliament, Green party, Feminist party [Germany's Greens and Israel: "The Theme is too Much" by Diana Johnstone, MERIP Middle East Report, No. 149, Human Rights in the Middle East. (Nov. - Dec., 1987), pp. 44-45]
* Helmut Schmidt, German Chancellor, (his father was of Jewish ancestry)
* Eduard von Simson, President of the Reichstag, President of the Reichsgericht [http://www.polybiblio.com/americanist/286TB.html]
* Hugo Preuss, author of Weimar constitution
* Walter Rathenau, Foreign Minister of the Weimar Republic [Walter Rathenau: Industrialist, Banker, Intellectual, and Politician; Notes and Diaries 1907-1922 by Von Strandmann]
* Herbert Weichmann, mayor of Hamburg [http://bucerius.haifa.ac.il/abstracts-migration.doc]
* Jeanette Wolff, West Berlin politician [http://www.jewishgen.org/databases/Holocaust/0107_Dortmund.html]
* Walter Wolfgang, German-born politician [http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/main.jhtml?xml=/news/2005/09/29/uwolfgang.xml&sSheet=/portal/2005/09/29/ixportaltop.html]

Activists

* Hedwig Dohm-Schleh, feminist, author [http://www.pinn.net/~sunshine/whm2003/dohm3.html]
* Nahum Goldmann, president of World Jewish Congress [http://www.jewishvirtuallibrary.org/jsource/biography/goldmann.html]
* Josel of Rosheim, court Jew & Jewish advocate [Jewish Encyclopedia]
* Paul Spiegel, leader of the Zentralrat der Juden [http://www.abc.net.au/news/newsitems/200605/s1627204.htm]

Religious figures

Rabbis

* Felix Adler
* Hermann Adler
* Nathan Marcus Adler
* Samuel Adler (rabbi)
* Amnon of Mainz (Amnon of Mayence, Mentz), medieval rabbi, paytan
* Yair Bacharach
* Eric Bachrach
* Leo Baeck, Reform rabbi & scholar
* Jacob ben Asher, medieval rabbi (German-born?)
* Isaac ben Jacob Bernays/Isaac Bernays (27 November, 1792 Weisenau (now Mainz), - 1 May, 1849, Hamburg), Jewish theologian
* Jakob Bernays (11 September, 1824 Hamburg - 26 May, 1881 Bonn), classical philologist ("Klassischer Philologe"), philosophy historian ("philosopheriehistoriker")
* Carlebach family
** Ephraim Carlebach
** Felix Carlebach
** Joseph Carlebach
** Shlomo Carlebach
* Mordecai ben Hillel
* Immanuel Jakobovits, Chief Rabbi of Great Britain [http://www.aojs.org/HaRav.asp]
* Asher ben Jehiel, medieval rabbi and Talmudist, father of Jacob ben Asher
* Eliezer ben Joel HaLevi
* Gershom ben Judah
* Julius Landsberger, rabbi [:de:Julius Landsberger| [de]
* Yehuda ben Meir
* Eliezer ben Nathan, medieval rabbi
* Yaakov ben Yakar
* Wolf Breidenbach
* Israel Bruna (born at Bruenn)
* Yosef Burg
* David Einhorn, Reform rabbi
* Jacob Emden
* Ettlinger pedigree
* David Fränkel
* Hugo Chanoch Fuchs
* Abraham Geiger, Reform rabbi
* Jakob Guttmann (rabbi)
* Julius Guttmann
* Isaak (Yitzhak) Heinemann (1876, Frankfurt-am-Main - 1957, Jerusalem), Judaist
* Yom-Tov Lipmann Heller
* Levi Herzfeld, 19th century proponent of moderate reform [http://www.jewishencyclopedia.com/view.jsp?artid=717&letter=C]
* Susannah Heschel
* Samson Raphael Hirsch, Orthodox rabbi
* Samuel Holdheim, Reform rabbi
* Walter Homolka
* Israel Isserlin
* Regina Jonas, Reform rabbanith
* Kaufmann Kohler, Reform rabbi
* Pinchas Lapide
* Isaac Leeser, rabbi and Bible translator
* Yaakov ben Moshe Levi Moelin
* Gunther Plaut
* Petachiah of Ratisbon, medieval rabbi, traveller
* Judah ben Samuel of Regensburg
* Elazar Rokeach
* Meir of Rothenburg
* Shimon Schwab
* Moses Sofer
* Moritz Spanier (1853-1938), Jewish theologian
* Hermann Tietz (rabbi) (born on Posen district)
* Abraham of Worms

cholars

* Hugo Bergmann (born in Prague)
* Max Bodenheimer
* Moses Buttenweiser (1862-1939), Bible scholar [Encyclopaedia Judaica, [http://www.ajcarchives.org/AJC_DATA/Files/Vol_36__1934_1935.pdf] ]
* David Cassel
* Immanuel Oscar Menahem Deutsch (1829-1873), Semitic scholar and orientalist [Encyclopaedia Britannica, 1911 ed.] ]
* Ismar Elbogen
* Emil Ludwig Fackenheim
* Jonas Fränkel
* Heinrich Graetz, Jewish historian (born in Posen)
* Manuel Joël, Jewish philosopher
* Isaak Markus Jost, Jewish historian
* Marcus Kalisch, Biblical scholar [http://www.1911encyclopedia.org/Marcus_Kalisch]
* Jakob Klatzkin
* Arthur Liebert [http://www.polity.co.uk/content/BPL_Images/Content_store/Sample_chapter/9780745624860%5C001.pdf]
* Israel Lewy
* Moses Mendelssohn, Jewish Enlightenment philosopher
* David Rosin
* Gershom Scholem, Jewish scholar & historian
* Ernst Simon
* Friedrich Weinreb (born in Lemberg)
* Benedict Zuckermann
* Leopold Zunz, Jewish scholar

Other

* Michael Solomon Alexander, first Anglican bishop of Jerusalem (born Jewish; see British Dictionary of National Biography)
* Abraham of Augsburg, a Christian German proselyte
* Moritz Henle, composer of liturgical music and cantor of the Jewish reform movement
* Ridley Haim Herschell, missionary [Concise Dictionary of National Biography: "born in Prussian Poland of Jewish parents"]
* Ayya Khema, Buddhist teacher (born Jewish)
* Adolf Lasson
** Georg Lasson
* Johannes Pfefferkorn, antisemitic controversialist (born Jewish)
* Friedrich Adolf Philippi
* Johann Peter Spaeth (Moses Germanus Ashkenazi), a Christian German proselyte
* Edith Stein, canonized nun, Holocaust victim (born Jewish)
* Joseph Wolff, missionary [Concise Dictionary of National Biography: "born of Jewish parents"]

cientific Figures

Natural Scientists

* Max Abraham, physicist
* Adolf von Baeyer, industrial chemist, Nobel Prize (1905) (Jewish mother) [http://www3.interscience.wiley.com/cgi-bin/fulltext/106585573/PDFSTART]
* Norbert Berkowitz, physicist [http://www.edukits.ca/multiculturalism/student/immigration_jewish.html]
* Sir Hans Bethe, nuclear physics, Nobel Prize (1967) [http://www.news.cornell.edu/Chronicle/05/3.10.05/Bethe.html]
* Sir Walter Bodmer, medical researcher [ [http://www.abc.net.au/rn/science/ss/stories/s1499065.htm Radio National Australia interview with Sir Walter] : "I’m half Ashkenazy Jewish myself" Accessed 21 Feb 2007]
* Max Born, quantum mechanics, Nobel Prize (1954) [http://www.adherents.com/people/pb/Max_Born.html]
* Heinrich Caro, industrial chemist [http://www3.interscience.wiley.com/cgi-bin/fulltext/88510865/PDFSTART]
**Nikodem Caro, industrial chemist [http://www.degussa-history.com/geschichte/en/personalities/nikodem_caro/]
* Albert Einstein, theoretical physics, Nobel Prize (1921) [http://www.jafi.org.il/education/100/people/BIOS/ein.html]
* Erwin Finlay-Freundlich, astronomer [http://www-ah.st-andrews.ac.uk/mgstud/reflect/peter.html]
* James Franck, quantum physics, Nobel Prize (1925) [http://www.owlnet.rice.edu/~mishat/franck.html]
* Adolph Frank, industrial chemist [http://www.davidsconsultants.com/jewishhistory/history.php?index=entries]
* Herbert Fröhlich, physicist [http://taylorandfrancis.metapress.com/index/HJJ5KX23705J51M8.pdf]
* Eugen Glueckauf, chemist, expert on atomic energy [http://www.jstor.org/view/00804606/ap030032/03a00070/0]
* Hans Goldschmidt, industrial chemist [http://www.jinfo.org/Chemists.html]
* Eugen Goldstein, physicist
* Leo Graetz, physicist
* Fritz Haber, developed the Haber process, Nobel Prize (1918) [http://www.geocities.com/bioelectrochemistry/haber.htm]
* Walter Heitler, chemist [http://www.jinfo.org/Chemists.html]
* Arthur Korn, physicist [http://litten.de/abstrtoc/abstr2.htm]
* Ernst Ising, statistical mechanics [http://www.physik.tu-dresden.de/itp/members/kobe/isingcor.ps.]
* Albert Ladenburg, chemist [Dr. Leopold Ladenburg: "Stammtafel der Familie Ladenburg", Verlag J. Ph. Walther, Mannheim 1882]
* Fritz London, quantum mechanics [Fritz London: A Scientific Biography by Kostas Gavroglu]
* Leonard Mandel, quantum optics [http://orsted.nap.edu/openbook.php?record_id=11522&page=274]
* Kurt Mendelssohn, German-born British medical physicist [Encyclopaedia Judaica 13:492]
* Viktor Meyer, organic chemist [http://www.todayinsci.com/M/Meyer_Viktor/MeyerViktor.htm]
* Leonor Michaelis, biochemist [http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v393/n6681/full/393109a0.html]
* Albert Michelson, measured speed of light, Nobel Prize (1907) (Jewish father) [The master of light;: A biography of Albert A. Michelson by Dorothy Michelson Livingston, 1973] [http://www5.geometry.net/detail/nobel/michelson_albert_abraham.html]
* Ludwig Mond, chemist & industrialist [http://www.ajr.org.uk/pastjournal22.htm]
* Sir Rudolf Peierls, solid state theory [http://www.spartacus.schoolnet.co.uk/GERperierls.htm]
* Arno Penzias, co-discoverer of CMB, Nobel Prize (1978) [http://nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/physics/laureates/1978/penzias-autobio.html]
* Alfred Philippson, geologist [http://www.jewishencyclopedia.com/view.jsp?artid=270&letter=P]
* John Charles Polanyi, chemist, Nobel Prize (born Berlin) [http://www.jinfo.org/Nobels_Chemistry.html]
* Ernst Pringsheim, spectrometry, black-body radiation [http://www.jinfo.org/Physicists.html]
* Michael Rossmann, physicist and microbiologist (Jewish mother) [http://www.jinfo.org/Chemists.html] ; [http://www.purdue.edu/UNS/html4ever/010216.Nat.Ahlbrandt.book.html]
* Rudolf Schoenheimer, biochemist [http://www.genetics.org/cgi/reprint/154/1/5.pdf]
* Arthur Schuster, spectroscopist [http://www.jstor.org/view/1479571x/ap030004/03a00060/0]
* Karl Schwarzschild, physicist & astronomer [http://www-groups.dcs.st-and.ac.uk/~history/Biographies/Schwarzschild.html]
* Franz Simon, physicist, separation of Uranium 235 [(Encyclopaedia Judaica, 14:1578)]
* Jack Steinberger, particle physics, Nobel Prize (1988) [http://nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/physics/laureates/1988/steinberger-autobio.html]
* Otto Stern, experimental physicist, Nobel Prize (1943) [http://www.phmc.state.pa.us/ppet/jews/page5.asp?secid=31]
* Otto Wallach, chemist, Nobel Prize (1910) [British Jewish Year Book 2005 p.215 (list of Jewish Nobel Prize winners); Encyclopaedia Judaica, art. "Wallach, Otto"; [http://www.jewishvirtuallibrary.org/jsource/Judaism/nobels.html] ; however Otto Wallach 1847-1931. Chemiker und Nobelpreisträger by Gunther Beer, Pg 11 disagrees]
* Richard Willstätter, chemist, Nobel Prize (1915) [http://profiles.nlm.nih.gov/DH/B/B/C/T/]
* Nathan Zuntz

Physicians and Medical Researchers

* Adolph Baginsky, pediatrician, diphtheria researcher [http://soc.enotes.com/psychoanalysis-encyclopedia/baginsky-adolf]
* Alfred Bielschowsky, ophthalmologist [http://www.whonamedit.com/doctor.cfm/2257.html]
* Max Bielschowsky, neuropathologist [http://www.whonamedit.com/doctor.cfm/535.html]
* Konrad Bloch, biochemist, Nobel Prize (1964) [http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v409/n6822/full/409779a0.html]
* Marcus Elieser Bloch, physician [http://www.ichthyologie.de/English/Proceedings/Lesser_/lesser_.html]
* Gustav Born, professor of pharmacology [http://termessos.de/Bornengl.htm]
* Edith Bulbring, Professor of pharmacy (Jewish mother) [http://hardy.amnesty.org.uk/images/ul/f/famous_refugees_2.pdf]
* Sir Ernst Chain, developed penicillin, Nobel Prize (1945) [http://www.chemheritage.org/educationalservices/pharm/antibiot/readings/flocha.htm]
* Ferdinand Cohn, pioneer in microbiology [http://www.britannica.com/eb/article-9024676/Ferdinand-Cohn]
* Julius Friedrich Cohnheim, pathologist [Jewish Encyclopedia]
* Julius Dreschfeld, physician [Concise Dictionary of National Biography: "born in Bavaria of Jewish parents"]
* Paul Ehrlich, developed magic bullet concept, Nobel Prize (1908) [http://www.weizmann.ac.il/ICS/booklet/17/pdf/paul_erlich.pdf]
* Arthur Eichengrün, possible inventor of aspirin [http://www.chemheritage.org/educationalservices/pharm/asp/asp60.htm]
* Wilhelm Feldberg, biologist [http://www.jstor.org/view/00804606/ap030045/03a00090/0]
* Heinz Fraenkel-Conrat, biochemist [http://muse.jhu.edu/journals/perspectives_on_science/v007/7.1deichmann.html]
* Hermann Friedberg, physician [Jewish Encyclopedia]
* Carl Friedländer, bacteriologist
* Salome Gluecksohn-Waelsch, geneticist [http://www.brandeis.edu/hbi/pubs/Harriet%20Freidenreich%20Paper.doc]
* Ernst Gräfenberg, obstetrician, the G-spot [http://www2.hu-berlin.de/sexology/GESUND/ARCHIV/GRAFENBERG.HTM]
* Martin Gumpert, physician, writer [http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?artid=1251644]
* Friedrich Gustav Jakob Henle, physician [http://www.whonamedit.com/doctor.cfm/710.html]
* Sir Bernard Katz, biophysicist, Nobel Prize (1970) [http://nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/medicine/laureates/1970/katz-bio.html]
* Hans Kornberg, biochemist researcher [http://www.jbc.org/cgi/reprint/278/12/9993]
* Hans Kosterlitz, discovered endorphins [http://www.berghahnbooksonline.com/books/limberggermans/abs/50841_bios.pdf]
* Sir Hans Adolf Krebs, biochemist, Nobel Prize (1953) [http://www.whonamedit.com/doctor.cfm/1541.html]
* Fritz Lipmann, biochemist, Nobel Prize (1953) [http://www.jbc.org/cgi/content/full/276/46/42619?maxtoshow=&HITS=10&hits=10&RESULTFORMAT=&searchid=1&FIRSTINDEX=40&resourcetype=HWCIT]
* Jacques Loeb, physiologist [http://www.nceas.ucsb.edu/~alroy/lefa/Loeb.html]
* Otto Loewi, pharmacologist, Nobel Prize (1936) [http://www.springerlink.com/content/y227337v0852j8wl/fulltext.pdf]
* Elisabeth Mann, biologist (Jewish mother) [ [http://www.picture-newsletter.com/thomas-mann/index.htm] "he married Katia Pringsheim, daughter of a well-known Jewish family of intellectuals. They had six children: Klaus, Erika, Golo, Monika, Elisabeth and Michael"]
* Otto Meyerhof, biochemist, Nobel Prize (1922) (Jewish father) [http://www.bookrags.com/Otto_Fritz_Meyerhof]
* Oskar Minkowski, physiologist [http://www.springerlink.com/content/r127418l04640244/fulltext.pdf]
* Hermann Munk, German physiologist who studied threadworms
* Albert Neisser, physician, discovered the cause of gonorrhea (Jewish father) [http://www.whonamedit.com/doctor.cfm/2441.html]
* Emin Pasha, physician, naturalist, explorer [http://www.ghil.ac.uk/Abstract_Zimmerer.pdf]
* Nathanael Pringsheim, botanist [http://www.springerlink.com/index/378480V26H8MH231.pdf]
* Ottomar Rosenbach, physician [Jewish Encyclopedia]
* Moritz Traube, biochemist [http://www.whonamedit.com/doctor.cfm/2651.html]
* Wilhelm Traube, physician, inventor of the fever thermometer
* Otto Warburg, physiologist, Nobel Prize (1931) (Jewish father) [http://muse.jhu.edu/journals/perspectives_on_science/v007/7.1deichmann.html]
* Karl Weigert, pathologist [http://www.whonamedit.com/doctor.cfm/2431.html]

Mathematicians

* Felix Bernstein, set theory [http://www-groups.dcs.st-and.ac.uk/history/Printonly/Doetsch.html]
* Maurice Block, statistician [http://www.1911encyclopedia.org/Maurice_Block]
* Richard Brauer, modular representation theory [http://www-groups.dcs.st-and.ac.uk/~history/Biographies/Brauer.html]
* Moritz Cantor, historian of mathematics [Jewish Encyclopedia]
* Paul Cohn, algebraist [ [http://www-groups.dcs.st-and.ac.uk/~history/Obits2/Cohn_Times.html Obituary in "The Times"] "he was born in Hamburg in 1924 to Jewish parents" Accessed 9 July 2008.]
* Richard Courant, mathematical analysis & applied mathematics [http://www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/Biographies/Courant.html]
* Max Dehn, topology [http://www.ams.org/notices/200209/fea-dawson.pdf]
* Paul Epstein, number theory [http://www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/Biographies/Epstein.html]
* Adolf Fraenkel, set theory [http://www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/Biographies/Fraenkel.html]
* Hans Freudenthal, algebraic topology [http://www-groups.dcs.st-and.ac.uk/~history/Biographies/Freudenthal.html]
* Felix Hausdorff, topology [http://www-groups.mcs.st-and.ac.uk/history/Biographies/Hausdorff.html]
* Heinz Hopf, topology (Jewish father) [http://www-history.mcs.st-and.ac.uk/Biographies/Hopf.html]
* Adolf Hurwitz, mathematician [http://www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/Biographies/Hurwitz.html]
* Carl Gustav Jakob Jacobi, analysis [http://www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/Biographies/Jacobi.html]
* Leopold Kronecker, number theory [http://www.gap-system.org/~history/Biographies/Kronecker.html]
* Edmund Landau, number theory [http://www.ma.huji.ac.il/~landau/landau.html]
* Rudolf Lipschitz, mathematician [http://www.jinfo.org/Mathematics_Comp.html]
* Kurt Mahler, mathematician [http://www.gap-system.org/~history/Biographies/Mahler.html]
* Hermann Minkowski, geometrical theory of numbers [Contemporary Authors V 162 By Rooney, Scot Peacock, Pg 169]
* Claus Moser, Statistician [http://icliverpool.icnetwork.co.uk/entertainment/previewsandreviews/content_objectid=13939784_method=full_siteid=50061_page=5_headline=-A-brush-withour-darkest-hour-name_page.html]
* Leonard Nelson, mathematician, philosopher [http://links.jstor.org/sici?sici=0007-1315(195409)5%3A3%3C290%3ALNZG%3E2.0.CO%3B2-7]
* Bernhard Neumann, mathematician [http://www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/Biographies/Neumann_Bernhard.html]
* Emmy Noether, algebra & theoretical physics [http://www.physics.ucla.edu/~cwp/Phase2/Noether,_Amalie_Emmy@861234567.html]
* Alfred Pringsheim, analysis, theory of functions [http://www-gap.dcs.st-and.ac.uk/~history/Biographies/Pringsheim.html]
* Richard Rado, combinatorics [http://www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/Biographies/Rado_Richard.html]
* Abraham Robinson, nonstandard analysis [http://www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/Biographies/Robinson.html]
* Klaus Roth, diophantine approximation, Fields Medal (1958) [http://phys4.harvard.edu/~wilson/publications/Human%20rights%20letters.html]
* Arthur Moritz Schönflies, mathematician [http://www-gap.dcs.st-and.ac.uk/~history/Biographies/Schonflies.html]
* Issai Schur, mathematician [http://www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/Biographies/Schur.html]
* Otto Toeplitz, linear algebra & functional analysis [http://www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/Biographies/Toeplitz.html]

Technical Scientists

* Ralph Baer, inventor of the games console [http://www.videotopia.com/edit2.htm]
* Emile Berliner, inventor of the gramophone [http://www.ieee-virtual-museum.org/collection/people.php?taid=&id=1234677&lid=1]
* Emanuel Goldberg (1881-1970, from Russia, but published in German), pioneered Microdots and microfilm retrieval technology [http://people.ischool.berkeley.edu/~buckland/goldberg.html]
* Julius Edgar Lilienfeld, electrical engineer [http://www.ieee.org/portal/cms_docs_iportals/iportals/aboutus/history_center/conferences/che2004/VanDormael.pdf]
* Siegfried Marcus, automobile pioneer [http://www.virtualvienna.net/columns/billie/automuseums.html]
* Michael O. Rabin, computer algorithms, Turing Award (1976) [http://www.emetprize.org.il/Index.asp?ArticleID=101&CategoryID=83&Page=1]
* Joseph Weizenbaum, AI critic, ELIZA [http://www.ilmarefilm.org/W_E_1.htm]

Psychologists

* Karl Abraham, psychoanalyst [http://mj.oxfordjournals.org/cgi/content/full/26/1/1]
* Rudolf Arnheim, perception theorist [http://www.jstor.org/view/0024094x/ap050105/05a00190/0]
* Erik Erikson, developmental psychologist (Jewish mother) [http://psychology.about.com/od/profilesofmajorthinkers/p/bio_erikson.htm]
* Erich Fromm, psychologist & humanistic philosopher [http://www.psychology.duq.edu/faculty/burston/legacy.html]
* Frieda Fromm-Reichmann, psychoanalyst [http://taylorandfrancis.metapress.com/index/TULFF853Q7G0051K.pdf]
* Kurt Goldstein, Gestalt-influenced neurologist [http://www.acsu.buffalo.edu/~duchan/history_subpages/kurtgoldstein.html]
* Max Hamilton, psychiatrist [Oxford Dictionary of National Biography: "the son of Jewish parents"]
* Magnus Hirschfeld, sexologist [http://wwwsshe.murdoch.edu.au/intersections/issue14/bauer.html]
* Kurt Koffka, Gestalt psychologist [http://www.jstor.org/view/00211753/ap010230/01a00340/0]
* Kurt Lewin, social psychologist [http://psychology.about.com/od/profilesofmajorthinkers/p/bio_lewin.htm]
* Hugo Münsterberg, industrial psychologist [http://www.jstor.org/view/00487511/dm980084/98p0294r/0]
* Ulric Neisser, cognitive psychologist (Jewish father) [Encyclopedia Judaica (Keter, Jerusalem, 1972, vol. 12, p. 945)]
* Erich Neumann, analytical psychologist [http://www.pep-web.org/document.php?id=jaa.024.0188a]
* Fritz Perls, psychotherapist [http://www.amazon.co.uk/dp/0803984537]
* Otto Selz, cognitive psychologist [http://www.springerlink.com/content/l4885k023n256464/fulltext.pdf]
* William Stern, the Intelligence Quotient [http://www1.uni-hamburg.de/rz3a035//edmundsiemersallee.html]
* Max Wertheimer, Gestalt psychologist [http://faculty.frostburg.edu/mbradley/psyography/datelines_wertheimer.html]

Academic figures

Philosophers

* Theodor Adorno, philosopher (Jewish father) [http://www.iep.utm.edu/a/adorno.htm]
* Ernst Bloch, philosopher [http://www.litencyc.com/php/speople.php?rec=true&UID=448]
* Constantin Brunner, philosopher [http://www.constantinbrunner.info/]
* Ernst Cassirer, philosopher [http://concise.britannica.com/ebc/article-9359963/Ernst-Cassirer]
* Hermann Cohen, philosopher [http://www.jewishvirtuallibrary.org/jsource/biography/HermannCohen.html]
* Friedrich Dessauer, philosopher [http://www.bh.org.il/NAMES/POW/Dessauer.asp]
* Max Dessoir, philosopher [http://www.muse.jhu.edu/journals/modern_judaism/v024/24.3kimelman.pdf]
* Julius Frauenstädt, philosopher [http://shekel.jct.ac.il/~green/philosophy.html]
* Kurt Grelling, philosopher [http://www.enabling.org/ia/gestalt/kgbio.html]
* Richard Hönigswald (Jewish father) [http://books.nap.edu/html/biomems/hhoenigswald.pdf]
* Max Horkheimer, philosopher & sociologist [http://construct.haifa.ac.il/~ilangz/Utopia4.html]
* Edmund Husserl, philosopher (converted to Christianity) [http://www.iep.utm.edu/h/husserl.htm]
* Hans Jonas, philosopher [http://www.asu.edu/csrc/events/conferences/archive/conferences_jonas.html]
* Horace Kallen, philosopher [http://hsozkult.geschichte.hu-berlin.de/termine/id=2796]
* Adolf Lasson, philosopher [Jewish Encyclopedia]
* Theodor Lessing, philosopher, writer [http://www.jafi.org.il/education/jafi75/timeline2a.html]
* Karl Löwith, philosopher [http://www.amazon.com/dp/0691070199]
* Salomon Maimon, philosopher [http://www.britannica.com/eb/article-9050164/Salomon-Maimon]
* Karl Marx, philosopher, founder of communism
* Fritz Mauthner, author & philosopher [http://www.cjh.org/nhprc/FritzMauthner02.html]
* Moses Mendelssohn, philosopher, scholar [http://www.sullivan-county.com/id2/mendelssohn.htm]
* Helmuth Plessner, philosopher (Jewish father) [http://www.uni-potsdam.de/u/philosophie/hpg/seiten/seite.php?layout=bildhome&inhalt=engl]
* Hans Reichenbach, philosopher (Jewish father) [http://faculty.oxy.edu/traiger/publications/reichenbach.html]
* Eugen Rosenstock-Huessy, philosopher (Jewish father) [http://www.valley.net/~transnat/erhbio.html]
* Max Scheler, philosopher (Jewish mother) [Max Scheler, 1874-1928: An Intellectual Portrait by John Raphael Staude]
* Kurt Sternberg, philosopher [Encyclopaedia Judaica art. "Sternberg, Kurt"]
* Leo Strauss, political philosopher
* Richard Rudolf Walzer, philosopher (Jewish Year Book 1975 p214)

Economists

* Robert Aumann, Nobel Prize for Eeconomics [http://nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/economics/laureates/2005/aumann-autobio.html]
* Gerhard Colm, economist
* Richard Ehrenberg, economist [http://www.sussex.ac.uk/library/speccoll/cgjs/archive/elton_item.php?item_id=144]
* Ludwig Lachmann, economist [Hayek's Challenge: An Intellectual Biography of F. A. Hayek - Pg 145]
* Emil Lederer, economist [ [http://www.jinfo.org/Economists.html JInfo list of economists] accessed 17 May 2007]
* Robert Liefmann, economist [http://www.io.uni-freiburg.de/visiting-scholars/living.html?set_language=en]
* Adolph Lowe, economist [http://library.albany.edu/speccoll/findaids/ger022.htm]
* Rosa Luxemburg, economist, co-founder of the KPD [http://www.marxists.org/glossary/people/l/u.htm]
* Fritz Naphtali, economist, editor, later Israeli finance minister [Riemer, Yehuda. Fritz Peretz Naphtali, A Social Democrat in Two Worlds. Hassifriya Haziyonit, Jerusalem 1996]
* Hans Neisser, economist
* Sigbert Prais, economist (JYB 2005 p215)
* Reinhard Selten, Nobel prize [http://www.jinfo.org/Nobels_Economics.html] (1994)
* Hans Singer, economist [("The Economist", March 11th 2006, p95: "born a Jew")]

ocial Scientists

* Reinhard Bendix, sociologist [http://www.hhs.sagepub.com/cgi/reprint/15/3/25.pdf]
* Eduard Bernstein, founder of evolutionary socialism [http://www.marxists.org/reference/archive/bernstein/bio/biography.htm]
* Franz Boas, cultural anthropologist [http://www.aaanet.org/gad/history/075opler.pdf]
* Micha Brumlik, professor of education
* Lewis A. Coser, sociologist [http://www.bookrags.com/Lewis_A._Coser]
* Norbert Elias, sociologist [http://www.springerlink.com/content/k22722484420w422/fulltext.pdf]
* Amitai Etzioni, sociologist [http://www.jewishworldreview.com/0702/etzioni1.asp]
* Shelomo Dov Goitein, Arabist [http://www.princeton.edu/~geniza/goitein.html]
* Moses Hess, socialist [http://www.jewishvirtuallibrary.org/jsource/biography/hess.html]
* Eugene Kamenka, sociologist [http://www.abc.net.au/rn/counterpoint/stories/2006/1607107.htm]
* Siegfried Kracauer, sociologist & film critic [http://www.princeton.edu/~judaic/OldJWSTWebsite/conf/speakers.html]
* Ferdinand Lassalle, founder of first German worker's party [http://www.britannica.com/eb/article-9047256/Ferdinand-Lassalle]
* Karl Mannheim, sociologist [http://www.safarix.com/0131109006/ch11]
* Herbert Marcuse, sociologist, New Left figurehead [http://www.marcuse.org/herbert/newsevents/1970/709PlayboyInt.htm]
* Karl Marx, founder of communism (parents converted to Protestantism) [http://www.adherents.com/people/pm/Karl_Marx.html]
* Franz Oppenheimer, sociologist & economist [http://www.franz-oppenheimer.de/al64a.htm]
* Leo Loewenthal, sociologist [http://ark.cdlib.org/ark:/13030/ft8779p24p/]
* Georg Simmel, sociologist [http://www.bolender.com/Sociological%20Theory/Simmel,%20Georg/PowerPoint%20Presentation%20of%20Georg%20Simmel/Georg%20Simmel.ppt]
* Georg Steindorff, egyptologist (Jewish father) [http://www.smu.edu/bridwell/specialcollections/steindorff/steindorff.htm]
* Jacob Taubes, theologist [http://www.sup.org/book.cgi?book_id=3344%203345]
* Louis Wirth, sociologist [http://www.enotes.com/twentieth-century-criticism/wirth-louis]

Historians

* Victor Ehrenberg (historian), historianEJL] ]
* Geoffrey Rudolph Elton (son of Wictor Ehrenberg) [http://www.sussex.ac.uk/cgjs/1-2-2.html]
* Richard Ettinghausen, art historian [http://www.dictionaryofarthistorians.org/ettinghausenr.htm]
* Henry Friedlander, historian [http://www.ideajournal.com/edboard.php?id=4]
* Saul Friedlander, historian
* Peter Gay, history
* George W. F. Hallgarten, historian [http://www.nsec-88.org/knihy/The-myth/19.html]
* Richard Krautheimer, historian [http://www.aps-pub.com/proceedings/1482/480208.pdf]
* Arno Lustiger, historian [http://www.ushmm.org/research/library/books/detail.php?content=2001-04-22]
* Lothar Machtan Fact|date=March 2007
* Golo Mann, historian [http://www.ajr.org.uk/pastjournal05.htm]
* George Mosse, historian
* Eva Reichmann, historian and sociologist
* Ludwig Riess, historian
* Hans Rothfels, historian [http://www.clausewitz.com/CWZHOME/Bassford/Chapter19.htm]
* Fritz Stern, historian [http://www.lbi.org/fritzstern.html]
* Michael Wolffsohn, historian [http://www.history.ucsb.edu/faculty/marcuse/publications/reviews/wolfrev.968.htm]

Jurists

* Hannah Arendt, political theorist [http://www.kirjasto.sci.fi/arendt.htm]
* Jacob Friedrich Behrend, jurist [Jewish Encyclopedia]
* David Daube, Professor of Law [http://www.klostermann.de/recht/rec_3363.htm]
* Heinrich Dernburg, jurist [http://www.jstor.org/view/0002919x/ap030152/03a00070/0]
* Victor Ehrenberg, jurist [Personal Memoirs by Victor Ehrenberg, Privately Published, 1971]
* Hugo Haase, jurist [http://knud.eriksen.adr.dk/germany_jewish_question.htm]
* Sir Otto Kahn-Freund, Professor of Law [British Dictionary of National Biography]
* Hermann Kantorowicz, jurist [http://www.germanlawjournal.com/article.php?id=741]
* Walter Kaskel, jurist [http://www.jus.unitn.it/Cardozo/Review/Laborlaw/Nogler-1996/nogler.htm]
* Paul Laband, jurist, b. Breslau ["Encyclopaedia Judaica" art. Laband, Paul]
* Otto Lenel, jurist [http://www.law.berkeley.edu/library/daube/independent.html]
* Franz Neumann, legal theorist [http://www.wbenjamin.org/neumannproject.html]
* Arthur Nussbaum, jurist [http://www.springerlink.com/content/5fwqqt2lubr4luty/fulltext.pdf]
* Joseph Süss Oppenheimer, financial planner & court Jew [Jewish Encyclopedia]
* Gabriel Riesser, deputy speaker of Frankfurt Assembly in 1848, first Jewish judge in Hamburg [http://www.jura.uni-sb.de/FB/LS/Fiedler/Fiedler/Aufsaetze/riesser.html]
* Rudolf Schlesinger, jurist [http://www.jewishsf.com/content/2-0-/module/displaystory/story_id/4971/edition_id/91/format/html/displaystory.html]
* Georg Schwarzenberger, jurist [http://www.springerlink.com/content/5901mdg2xngk07f8/fulltext.pdf]
* Hugo Sinzheimer, legal scholar [http://ilj.oxfordjournals.org/cgi/reprint/8/1/193.pdf]
* Sigmund Zeisler, jurist [http://www.chicagojewishhistory.org/pdf/CJH.2.1999.pdf]

Linguists and philologists

* Theodor Benfey, linguist (Jewish father) [http://encyclopedia.jrank.org/BEC_BER/BENFEY_THEODOR_1809_1881_.html]
* Eduard Fraenkel, philologist [Oxford Dictionary of National Biography: "An unbaptized Jew"]
* Wilhelm Freund, philologist [http://www.bh.org.il/Names/POW/Freund.asp]
* Ludwig Friedländer, philologist [http://www.jewishencyclopedia.com/view.jsp?artid=402&letter=F&search=FRIEDLÄNDER,%20LUDWIG]
* Julius Fürst, orientalist [http://encyclopedia.jrank.org/FRA_GAE/FURST_JULIUS_1805_1873_.html]
* Theodor Goldstücker, linguist [https://secure.peeters-leuven.be/POJ/downloadpdf.php?ticket_id=453c55926ddd9]
* Moshe Goshen-Gottstein, linguist [Encyclopaedia Judaica, art. Goshen-Gottstein, Moshe; "born in Berlin"]
* Victor Klemperer, linguist & diarist [http://www.doublestandards.org/klemperer.html]
* Siegbert Salomon Prawer, Professor of German [Jewish Year Book 2005 p215]
* Chaim Menachem Rabin, linguist [Encyclopaedia Judaica, art. Rabin, Chaim Menachem; "born in Giessen, Germany"]
* Edward Sapir, anthropologist-linguist [http://www.mnsu.edu/emuseum/information/biography/pqrst/sapir_edward.html]
* Ernest Simon, professor of Chinese [(British Jewish Year Book 1980 p183)]
* Heymann Steinthal, linguist [http://www.jstor.org/view/00225037/dm980608/98p0252k/0]

Educationalists

* Lewis Elton, educationalist [http://www.sussex.ac.uk/cgjs/1-2-2.html]
* Kurt Hahn, [Concise Dictionary of National Biography: "born in Berlin of Jewish parents"] educationalist

Cultural figures

howbusiness

* Hugo Egon Balder, comedian, producer (Jewish mother) [http://w3.berlin-friedenau.com/front_content.php?idcat=12&idart=642] ,
* Mark Bellinghaus, actor, writer, poet, Marilyn Monroe activist, historian & collector [http://www.laweekly.com/news/features/immortal-mayhem/15364/]
* Ludwig Berger, director [http://www.adherents.com/people/pb/Ludwig_Berger.html]
* Lotte Berk, dancer and health guru [Oxford Dictionary of National Biography: "the only daughter of Jewish parents"]
* Kurt Bernhardt, director [Patrick McGilligan, Fritz Lang: The Nature of the Beast, St. Martin's Press: New York (1997), page 172]
* Artur Brauner, film producer [http://www.german-films.de/en/germanfilmsquaterly/previousissues/seriesgermanfilmproducers/arturbrauner/index.html]
* Friedrich Dalsheim, director [http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,759629,00.html]
* Michael Degen, actor [http://www.prisma-online.de/tv/person.html?pid=michael_degen]
* Ernst Dohm, actor, editor [http://www.ohiou.edu/~chastain/ip/kladder.htm]
* Hedwig Dohm-Pringsheim, actress [http://www.hartford-hwp.com/archives/61/187.html]
* E.A. Dupont, director [http://www.laurahird.com/newreview/piccadilly.html]
* Don Francisco, Chilean television host [http://www.imdb.com/name/nm0471053/]
* Michel Friedman, TV personality [http://news.independent.co.uk/europe/article109219.ece]
* Kurt Gerron, stage actor & film director [http://www.7thart.com/joomla/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=104]
* Dora Gerson, actress, cabaret singer [http://www.andante.com/article/article.cfm?id=16862]
* Therese Giehse, actress Pepermill [http://www.steffi-line.de/archiv_text/nost_buehne/06g_giehse.htm]
* Lou Jacobs, clown [http://wheelerclown.tripod.com/Clownpage/Lou.html]
* Ludwig Karl Koch, broadcaster and sound recordist [Oxford Dictionary of National Biography: "Being a Jew, Koch's life under the Nazi regime became increasingly intolerable"]
* Carl Laemmle, film producer [http://movies2.nytimes.com/gst/movies/filmography.html?p_id=188031&mod=bio]
* Dani Levy, film maker, theatrical director and actor [http://www.latimes.com/news/printedition/asection/la-fg-hitler17dec17,1,6303277.story?coll=la-news-a_section&ctrack=1&cset=true|]
* Ernst Lubitsch, director [http://www.adherents.com/people/pl/Ernst_Lubitsch.html]
* Inge Meysel, actress (Jewish father) [http://www.mscd.edu/~mdl/gerresources/frauen/imeysel.htm]
* Max Ophuls, director
* Richard Oswald, director [http://movies2.nytimes.com/gst/movies/filmography.html?p_id=105257]
* Lilli Palmer, actress [http://www.editrixoffice.com/DDUA_lili.htm]
* Marcel Reif, presenter (Jewish father) [http://www.fil.german-pavilion.com/gp/fil/exhibitors/display_titel.cfm?link=2&titel_id=1036]
* Hans Rosenthal, one of Germany's most popular TV personalities in history [http://www.h-net.org/reviews/showrev.cgi?path=150901100890627]
* Susan Sideropoulos, actress [http://www.juedisches-museum-berlin.de/site/EN/06-Press/03-Photo-Download/jewish-now/jewish-now.php]
* Robert Siodmak, director [http://www.americancinematheque.com/archive1999/2002/filmnoir.htm]
* Ruth Westheimer, sex therapist [http://www.fyi3.com/funstuff/fam_fosterKids/ruthWestheimer.cfm]
* Konrad Wolf, film director [Remembering History: The Filmmaker Konrad Wolf by Marc Silberman, New German Critique, No. 49, Special Issue on Alexander Kluge. (Winter, 1990), pp. 163-191]
* Peter Zadek, theatre director [Theatre Reviews: Opposites by Wilhelm Hortmann, Shakespeare Quarterly, Vol. 33, No. 4. (Winter, 1982), pp. 513-515]

Musicians

* Hillel Lowinsky, bassist
* Samuel Adler, composer [http://www.jhu.edu/jhso/about/adler.html]
* Haim Alexander, composer [http://www.hum.huji.ac.il/cja/NL12%20-%205th-seminar.htm]
* Tzvi Avni, composer [http://www.wiebkehoogklimmer.de/judeneng.htm]
* Paul Ben-Haim, composer [http://www.milkenarchive.org/artists/artists.taf?artistid=300]
* Julius Benedict, composer [http://www.jinfo.org/Conductors.html]
* Wolf Biermann, singer/songwriter (Jewish father) [http://www.literaturfestival.com/bios1_3_6_574.html]
* Yehezkel Braun, Israeli composer [http://imi.org.il/site/composerInfo.asp?num=38]
* Ignaz Brull, composer
* Manfred Bukofzer, musicologist [http://www.biu.ac.il/HU/mu/min-ad/06/Lachman-R-Katz.pdf]
* Paul Dessau, composer [Fritz Hennenberg: Paul Dessau. Eine Biographie]
* Abel Ehrlich, Israeli composer [http://www.jmi.org.uk/suppressedmusic/thwarted_voices_2000.html]
* Alfred Einstein, musicologist [Alfred Einstein on Music: Selected Music Criticisms by Catherine Dower]
* Hanns Eisler, German-born composer (Jewish father) [http://www.kirjasto.sci.fi/eisler.htm]
* Lukas Foss, composer & conductor [http://artists-in-residence.com/ljlehrman/articles/aufbau7.html]
* Alexander Goehr, composer ["Jewish Chronicle", July 13 2001 p.25 "two Jewish composers, Alexander Goehr and Robert Saxton"]
* Walter Goehr, conductor [http://www.jmi.org.uk/jminews/jminews_5.html]
* Berthold Goldschmidt, composer [Oxford Dictionary of National Biography: "His was a cultured, musical Jewish family"]
* Bernard Greenhouse, cellist [http://www.artworksberlin.de/englisch/mendelssohnplayers/index.html]
* George Henschel, singer & conductor [http://oq.oxfordjournals.org/cgi/reprint/10/4/39.pdf]
* Alfred Hertz, conductor [http://www.jewishsf.com/content/2-0-/module/displaystory/story_id/23046/format/html/displaystory.html]
* André Herzberg, musician (Pankow) [http://zeus.zeit.de/text/2006/05/Dt_-Isreal_Beziehung]
* Ferdinand Hiller, composer
* Gerard Hoffnung, musicologist [http://www.chrisbeetles.com/pictures/artists/Hoffnung_Gerard/Hoffnung_Gerard.htm]
* Friedrich Holländer, composer [http://www.exil-archiv.de/html/biografien/hollaender.htm]
* Salomon Jadassohn, composer [http://www.recordsinternational.com/RICatalogFeb03.html]
* Leon Jessel, composer [http://www.jewish-music.huji.ac.il/GetDetails.asp?id=410&TableName=Book_T&quest=607&page=cat&CatTableName=Authors_T]
* Robert Kahn, composer [http://cdbaby.com/cd/martindillon1]
* Otto Klemperer, conductor [http://www.concentric.net/~onk145/Bio.htm]
* Robert Lachmann, musicologist [http://www.jstor.org/view/00274224/ap030310/03a00260/0]
* Ludwig Lenel, organist and composer
* Hermann Levi, conductor ["Hermann Levi's shame and Parsifal's guilt" by Laurence Dreyfus]
* Alfred Lion & Frank Wulff, founders of Blue Note Records [http://www.findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_qn4158/is_19990508/ai_n14235233]
* Edward Lowinsky, musicologist ["Encyclopaedia Judaica" art. Lowinsky, Edward]
* Michael Mann, musician (Jewish mother) [http://www.picture-newsletter.com/thomas-mann/index.htm]
* Arnold Mendelssohn, organist [https://web3.unt.edu/the/centers.php?css=lost_composers]
* Felix Mendelssohn, composer & conductor (Jewish ancestry but raised Lutheran) [http://www.beth-elsa.org/be_s0220.htm]
* Fanny Mendelssohn Hensel, composer [http://www2.wwnorton.com/classical/composers/hensel.htm]
* Giacomo Meyerbeer, composer [Giacomo Meyerbeer, 1791-1864 by Martin Cooper]
* Ben-Zion Orgad, Israeli composer [http://www.mfa.gov.il/MFA/MFAArchive/1990_1999/1998/11/Music%20in%20Israel%201995-1998]
* Menahem Pressler, pianist [http://www.jmi.org.uk/suppressedmusic/newsletter/articles/003.html]
* André Previn, conductor [http://encarta.msn.com/encyclopedia_761582159/Andre_Previn.html]
* Franz Reizenstein, pianist, composer [http://www.ajr.org.uk/pastjournal21.htm]
* Curt Sachs, musicologist, co-founder of modern organology [http://www.biu.ac.il/HU/mu/min-ad/06/Lachman-R-Katz.pdf]
* Kurt Sanderling, conductor [http://www.sptimes.com/2003/09/14/Floridian/Tearing_down_the_walls.shtml]
* Adolf Martin Schlesinger, music publisher [http://mq.oxfordjournals.org/cgi/reprint/LXXII/1/1.pdf]
* Heinrich Sontheim, tenor [http://jebenhausen.worldzonepro.com/sontheim.html]
* William Steinberg, conductor [http://www.music.buffalo.edu/bpo/steinber.htm]
* Erich Walter Sternberg, composer [Music in the Jewish Community of Palestine 1880-1948: A Social History by Jehoash Hirshberg]
* Josef Tal, composer [http://grace.evergreen.edu/~arunc/texts/music/wolpe/wolpe/Josef_Tal.html]
* Ilia Trilling, synagogue composer [http://www.naxos.com/composerinfo/5347.htm]
* Ignatz Waghalter, composer & conductor [http://www.musicalpointers.co.uk/reviews/cddvd/waghalter.htm]
* Bruno Walter, conductor (Jewish father) [http://www.maurice-abravanel.com/walter.html]
* Franz Waxman, film composer [http://www.villagevoice.com/film/0650,stein,75280,20.html]
* Kurt Weill, composer [http://www.naxos.com/composerinfo/1478.htm]
* Stefan Wolpe, composer [http://muse.jhu.edu/journals/music_and_letters/v086/86.2earle.pdf]
* Alec Empire, member of Atari Teenage Riot [http://www.montrealmirror.com/ARCHIVES/1997/112097/music1.html]
* Hilde Zadek, soprano [http://members.aon.at/vanderlet/english/zadeken.htm]

Artists

*Friedrich Adler, Jugendstil and Art Deco designer
* Anni Albers, textile designer [http://www.tate.org.uk/modern/exhibitions/albersmoholy/albersmoholy_tp.pdf]
* Frank Auerbach, painter [http://www.tate.org.uk/servlet/ArtistWorks?cgroupid=999999961&artistid=676&page=1&sole=y&collab=y&attr=y&sort=default&tabview=bio]
* Eduard Bendemann, painter [Jewish Encyclopedia]
* Martin Bloch, British painter [http://www.thejc.com/home.aspx?ParentId=m11s19s116&SecId=116&AId=48162&ATypeId=1]
* Erwin Blumenfeld, photographer [http://www.sfgate.com/cgi-bin/article.cgi?file=/c/a/2006/04/21/DDGBEIBS8G1.DTL]
* Siegfried Einstein, author and poet
* Alfred Eisenstaedt, photographer [http://www.jewishvirtuallibrary.org/jsource/biography/Eisenstaedt.html]
* Benno Elkan, sculptor [Concise Dictionary of National Biography: "born at Dortmund of Jewish parentage"]
* James Ingo Freed, architect [http://www.sfgate.com/cgi-bin/article.cgi?file=/chronicle/archive/2005/12/17/BAGMUG9N6G1.DTL]
* Lucian Freud, painter [http://www.leninimports.com/lucian_freud_bio.html]
* Gisèle Freund, photographer [http://www.kirjasto.sci.fi/freund.htm]
* Eva Hesse, materials artist [http://www.jewishpress.com/page.do/18790/Jewish_Arts.html]
* Erich Kahn, painter, expressionist [http://www.tate.org.uk/servlet/ViewWork?cgroupid=999999961&workid=7814&searchid=11883&tabview=text]
* Eugen Kaufmann, architect [http://www.jstor.org/view/09524649/ap040038/04a00040/0]
*Hugo Lederer (1871 - 1940) sculptor [ [http://www.jewishgen.org/cemetery/e-europe/czechu-z.html International Association of Jewish Genealogical Societies - Cemetery Project] : he is buried in the Jewish cemetery in Znojmo, Czech Republic; accessed 18 May 2007]
* Max Liebermann, painter [http://www.thejewishmuseum.org/site/pages/press.php?id=60]
* Wilhelm Löwith, artist [http://ajcarchives.org/AJC_DATA/Files/1911_1912_4_YearReview.pdf]
* Peter Max, pop artist [http://www.metroactive.com/papers/metro/10.22.98/petermax-9842.html]
* Ludwig Meidner, painter [http://www.courtauld.ac.uk/newsletter/autumn_2002/sympomeid.html]
* Erich Mendelsohn, architect [http://www.open2.net/modernity/4_14_frame.htm]
* Helmut Newton, photographer (Jewish father) [http://www.meaus.com/helmut-newton-dead.htm]
* Felix Nussbaum, painter [http://www.daniel-libeskind.com/projects/pro.html?ID=4]
* Meret Oppenheim, surrealist [http://www.modernamuseet.se/feature/2004/MO_ManRay/template3.asp?lang=Eng&id=2447]
* Erwin Panofsky, art historian [http://www.pacpubserver.com/new/news/6-4-00/jewish.html]
* Heinz Julius Rosenthal, painter
* Hans Schleger, designer [http://www.lundhumphries.co.uk/pages/single/2219.html]
* Charlotte Salomon, artist [http://www.remember.org/educate/sal.html]
* Erich Salomon, news photographer [http://www.absolutearts.com/artsnews/2000/04/24/26880.html]
* Victor Weisz, "Vicky", cartoonist [Concise Dictionary of National Biography: "born in Germany of Hungarian Jewish parents"]

Writers

* Erich Auerbach, literature critic [http://www.kirjasto.sci.fi/auerb.htm]
* Julius Bab, dramatist and theater critic ["Encyclopaedia Judaica" art. Bab, Julius]
* Jurek Becker, writer [http://www.uwp.co.uk/book_desc/1456.html]
* Maxim Biller, writer [http://www.coh.arizona.edu/german/syllabi/05fall/ger376.pdf]
* Ludwig Börne, satirist [http://www.juedisches-museum-berlin.de/site/EN/01-Exhibitions/05-Rafael-Roth-Learning-Center/02-news/01-05-02-news.php]
* Otto Brahm, literary critic [http://www.britannica.com/eb/article-9016149/Otto-Brahm]
* Henryk Broder, journalist [http://muse.jhu.edu/journals/modern_judaism/v017/17.2br_stern.html]
* Walter Benjamin, literary critic & philosopher [http://www.columbia.edu/cu/cup/catalog/data/023112/0231126565.HTM]
* Emil Carlebach, writer, dissident [http://www.hartford-hwp.com/archives/60/003.html]
* Joseph Derenbourg, orientalist, father of Hartwig Derenbourg [http://www.springerlink.com/content/m15n435375w80467/fulltext.pdf]
* Hilde Domin, poet [http://www.jewish-theatre.com/visitor/article_display.aspx?articleID=1770]
* Lion Feuchtwanger, novelist [http://members.aol.com/fljosephus/Feuchtwanger.htm]
* Hubert Fichte, author (Jewish father) [http://andrejkoymasky.com/liv/fam/biof1/fich1.html]
* Anne Frank, diarist [http://www.gale.com/free_resources/whm/bio/frank_a.htm]
* Karen Gershon, poet (1923-1993) [http://www.fiveleaves.co.uk/jewish-int.html]
*Gad Granach
* Friedrich Gundolf, literary man [http://www.jewishvirtuallibrary.org/jsource/Holocaust/goebbels.html]
* Glückel of Hameln, 18th-century Yiddish diarist [http://www.phy6.org/outreach/Jewish/Gluckel.htm]
* Maximilian Harden, journalists [http://site.www.umb.edu/faculty/salzman_g/Strate/Discus/2002-12-05CraigOnElon.rtf]
* Heinrich Heine, poet [Heinrich Heine, "Blackhguard" and "Apostate" a Study of the Earliest Attitude Towards Him by Sol Liptzin]
* Stefan Heym, novelist, politician [http://www.jewishsf.com/content/2-0-/module/displaystory/story_id/17428/edition_id/345/format/html/displaystory.html]
* Wolfgang Hildesheimer [http://www.cutg.ac.uk/03prog.htm]
* Edgar Hilsenrath, novelist [http://www.dw-world.de/dw/article/0,2144,1952836,00.html]
* Barbara Honigmann, writer [http://www.goethe.de/ins/gb/lon/acv/wrt/2004/de79182.htm]
* Heinrich Eduard Jacob, writer and journalist [The Gabriele Killert & Richard Schroetter: Obligation destruction fixes. The forgotten Jewish writer Heinrich Eduard Jacob; in: "new inhabitants of zurich newspaper" (boarding school Expenditure), NR. 78. Zurich, 5./6. April 1997, S. 50.]
* Siegfried Jacobsohn, journalist and theater critic [http://www.goethe.de/wis/pre/kub/kub/kwa/000/en157293.htm]
* Ruth Prawer Jhabvala, novelist and screenwriter [http://www.kirjasto.sci.fi/jhab.htm]
* Wladimir Kaminer, short story writer [http://www.goethe.de/ges/rel/dos/jul/en1418155.htm]
* Judith Kerr, children's writer [http://muse.jhu.edu/journals/lion_and_the_unicorn/v026/26.1sylvester.pdf]
* Victor Klemperer, writer [The Lesser Evil: The Diaries of Victor Klemperer 1945-1959]
* Else Lasker-Schüler, writer, poet & artist [http://muse.jhu.edu/journals/biography/v024/24.1lindenmeyer.html]
* Gila Lustiger, author [http://www.agdok.de/GermanDocumentaries/gD178.htm]
* Erika Mann, writer, actress (Jewish mother) [http://www.picture-newsletter.com/thomas-mann/index.htm]
* Klaus Mann, writer (Jewish mother) [http://www.picture-newsletter.com/thomas-mann/index.htm]
* Monika Mann, writer (Jewish mother) [http://www.picture-newsletter.com/thomas-mann/index.htm]
* Julius Mosen, born "Moses" [http://bible.tmtm.com/wiki/MOSEN_(MOSES),_JULIUS_(Jewish_Encyclopedia)]
* Erich Mühsam, anarchist poet [http://www.ijpa.org/letter1nov00.htm]
* Henning Pawel, child-book author, writer. [http://www.fbk-thueringen.jetzweb.de/Projekte/Stafette_Buch/Henning_Pawel/henning_pawel.html]
* Solomon Perel, author [http://www.ushmm.org/research/center/publications/details.php?content=1997-02]
* Alan Posener, chief columnist of "Welt am Sonntag" (Jewish father)
* Marcel Reich-Ranicki, literary critic [Author of Himself, The ... The Life of Marcel Reich-Ranicki]
* H. A. Rey & Margret Rey, creators of Curious George [http://childrensbooks.about.com/od/authorsillustrato/fr/journeyrey.htm]
* Renate Rubinstein (Jewish father) [https://www.nias.knaw.nl:10051/en/oudfellows/research_group_1999_2000/summaries_99_00/hans_goedkoop/]
* Nelly Sachs, poet, Nobel Prize (1966) [http://www.kirjasto.sci.fi/nsachs.htm]
* Moriz Seeler, poet [memorial plaque reads "Jewish poet"]
* Anna Seghers, novelist [http://www.litencyc.com/php/speople.php?rec=true&UID=5460]
* Oskar Seidlin, writer [http://www.learningcalendar.com/this_day_in_history/days_template.cfm?history_id=57673]
* Rafael Seligmann, writer [http://chronicle.uchicago.edu/950413/jews.shtml]
* Süßkind von Trimberg, middle age writer, minnesinger [http://www.ceeol.com/aspx/getdocument.aspx?logid=5&id=D6D087A9-DD75-48F4-9A27-686D656B0130]
* Kurt Tucholsky, writer (converted to Protestantism) [http://www.taylorandfrancis.metapress.com/index/U83233WJT1285860.pdf]
* Samuel Ullman, poet [http://www.alabamamoments.state.al.us/sec31det.html]
* Rahel Varnhagen, writer and saloniste (converted to Christianity) [Rahel Varnhagen The Life of a Jewish Woman by Hannah Arendt]
* Moritz Callmann Wahl [Jewish Encyclopedia]
* Jakob Wassermann, novelist [http://www.taylorandfrancis.metapress.com/index/H2MXP9GKBNTBLBNU.pdf]
* Trude Weiss-Rosmarin [Hymen, E. Paula & Dash Moore, Deborah. (eds) (1997) Jewish Women in America: An Historical Encyclopedia. Routledge, ISBN 0-415-91934-7 (pp. 1463-1465)]
* Jeanette Wohl [http://www.judaistik.uni-frankfurt.de/aktuellarchiv/008_aktuell-ss02.html]
* Friedrich Wolf, writer, physician [http://www.umass.edu/defa/filmtour/sjprofmamlock.shtml]
* Carl Zuckmayer, playwright (Jewish mother) [http://www.content-space.de/textpattern/artikel/the-immigration-of-carl-zuckmayer-into-the-usa]
* Arnold Zweig, writer [http://www.britannica.com/eb/article-9078514/Arnold-Zweig]
* Stefanie Zweig, novelist [http://www.somethingjewish.co.uk/articles/73_interview_with_stefa.htm]

Entrepreneurs

:"See also Court Jews"
* Albert Ballin, cruise ship entrepreneur
* Alfred Beit, financier [British Dictionary of National Biography]
* August Belmont
** August Belmont II
* Gottfried Bermann
* Gerson von Bleichröder, financier, advisor of Bismarck
* Buchsbaum family
* Sir Ernest Cassel, banker [K. Grunwald, ‘Windsor Cassel: the last court Jew’, Yearbook of the Leo Baeck Institute, 14 (1969), 119–61]
* Otto Frank, ran pectin-related small business, but most famous as father of Anne Frank
* Friedenthal family
** Markus Bär Friedenthal, banker, scholar
* Fritz von Friedländer-Fuld, industrialist de
* Fürst family, court Jews in Hamburg
** Moses Israel Fürst financier and merchant
** Chajim Fürst, financier and head of the Jewish community
* Marcus Goldman, founder of Goldman Sachs in America
* Eduard Gümbel
* Charles Hallgarten
* Maurice de Hirsch, banker [Oxford Dictionary of National Biography: "born on 9 December 1831 in Munich ... His grandfather Jacob had established the family as one of the first Jewish families to acquire great wealth and social acceptability in Bavaria ... His mother came from an Orthodox Frankfurt family and ensured that the children were properly instructed in Jewish matters."]
* Karl Amson Joel (not philosopher Karl Joel (philosopher)), textile merchant & manufacturer, the greatfather of Alexander Joel and Billy Joel
* Otto Hermann Kahn
* Richard Lenel, German industrialist, founding member of Lufthansa and German Bank
* Sir Robert Mayer, German-born businessman and philanthropist [http://ajcarchives.org/AJC_DATA/Files/1987_7_WestEurope.pdf]
* Joseph Mendelssohn, banker
* Alexander Mendelssohn, banker
* Mosse family
** Rudolf Mosse and family, newspaper magnates
* Oppenheimer family
** Ernest Oppenheimer, diamond tycoon
* Emil Rathenau, founder of AEG, father of Walter Rathenau
* Paul Reuter, founder of Reuters
* Rothschild banking family of Germany
** Mayer Amschel Rothschild and family, financiers & bankers
* Seligman family
** Joseph Seligman, banker & US civil war financier
* Schocken family
** Salman Schocken (born at Posen district)
* Jacob Schiff (Jacob H. Schiff), railroad financier
* Kilian von Steiner, banker
* Max Stern
* Levi Strauss, clothing manufacturer
* Straus family
** Isidor Straus owner of Macy's department store & RMS "Titanic" victim
* Leonhard Tietz, Oscar Tietz & Hermann Tietz, founders of Kaufhof & Hertie department stores
* Oscar Troplowitz, pharmacist, entrepreneur Beiersdorf, developer of Nivea and other household products
* Warburg family
** Siegmund Warburg, banker
* Georg Wertheim, founder of Wertheim department stores
* Emil Jellinek, born in Leipzig. He was a wealthy entrepreneur down the French Riviera, coining "Mercedes" trademark --which became "Mercedes Benz" nowadays--. He was "Austro-Hungarian" diplomat also --residing in Vienna--.
* Adolf Silverberg [:de:Adolf Silverberg| [de]
** Abraham Mendelssohn Bartholdy
* Itzig family
** Daniel Itzig
* Alois Dessauer
* Mannheimer pedigree
** Fritz Mannheimer
** Max Mannheimer
** Victor Mannheimer (-1928), brother of Fritz
* Warburg family
** Felix Warburg
** Max Warburg
** Paul Warburg
* Stef Wertheimer [http://www.findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_go1652/is_200403/ai_n5987000] "77 year old German-born Stef Wertheimer"
* Hugo Reiss
** Marie Annette Reiss / Jane Engelhard (Jewish father)
* Oppenheim pedigree and-banking family; founders of Sal. Oppenheim
** Abraham Oppenheim
** Alfred Freiherr von Oppenheim
* Abraham Kuhn and Solomon Loeb, founders of Kuhn, Loeb & Co.
* Loeb pedigree
** Maurice Loeb
** Solomon Loeb
* Gustav Wilhelm Wolff, founder of Harland and Wolff [http://www.culturenorthernireland.org/article.aspx?county=14&articleID=1890&cultID=25&townID=0&cultSubID=0&page=0&navID=5]
* Markus Wolf, East German spymaster (Jewish father)

ports

* Rudi Ball, hockey player [http://www.sihss.se/RudiBallbiography.htm]
* Gretel Bergmann, high jumper [http://www.jewishsports.net/PillarAchievementBios/GretelBergmann.htm]
* Hans Berliner, world postal chess champion [http://www.jinfo.org/Chess_Players.html]
* Barney Dreyfuss, co-founder of the World Series [http://www.jbuff.com/c111303.htm]
* Gottfried Fuchs, soccer player [http://www.farenet.org/news_article.asp?intNewsID=752]
* Ludwig Guttmann, founder of the Paralympics [http://www.jewishsports.net/biopages/LudwigPoppaGuttmann.htm]
* Bernhard Horwitz, chess player [http://www.jinfo.org/Chess_Players.html]
* Emanuel Lasker, world chess champion [http://www-groups.dcs.st-and.ac.uk/~history/Biographies/Lasker.html]
* Helene Mayer, fencer (Jewish father) [http://www.amazon.com/dp/157143092X]
* Sarah Poewe, swimmer (Jewish mother) [http://www.jewishvirtuallibrary.org/jsource/biography/Poewe.html]
* Daniel Prenn, tennis player [http://www.jewishvirtuallibrary.org/jsource/Holocaust/olympics.html]
* Siegbert Tarrasch, chess player [http://www.ballo.de/tarrasch_english.htm]

Literature

* Walter Tetzlaff, ed. "2000 Kurzbiographien bedeutender deutscher Juden des 20. Jahrhunderts" (Lindhorst: Askania, 1982).

ee also

* History of the Jews in Germany
* List of Austrians
* List of Austrian Jews
* List of Ashkenazi Jews
* List of Czech, Bohemian, Moravian and Slovak Jews
* List of Germans
* List of Galician Jews
* Lists of Jews

References


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