Royal Moroccan Air Force


Royal Moroccan Air Force
Royal Moroccan Air Force
القوات الجوية الملكية المغربية
al-Quwwat al-Jawwiyah al-Malakiyah al-Maghribiyah
Forces Royales Air
Moroccan Air Force.png
Active 1956 – present
Country Morocco
Branch Air Force
Size 13,500 personnel
Part of Administration of Defence إدارة الدفاع
Engagements Western Sahara conflict
Sand War
Yom Kippur War
Commanders
Military Leadership General Ahmed Boutaleb
(Inspector of the Royal Air Force)
Civilian Leadership Mohammed VI
(Commander-in-Chief)
Insignia
Roundel Roundel of the Royal Moroccan Air Force.svg
Fin flash Fin flash of Morocco.svg
Aircraft flown
Attack Mirage F1CH/EH
Lockheed F-16 Fighting Falcon
Alpha Jet
Aérospatiale SA 342 Gazelle
F-5 Tiger III
MD 500 Defender
Electronic
warfare
Dassault Falcon 20
Fighter Mirage F1CH/EH
F-5 Tiger III
F-5E Tiger II
Lockheed F-16 Fighting Falcon
Interceptor Lockheed F-16 Fighting Falcon
Mirage F1CH
F-5 Tiger III
Reconnaissance Falcon 20
Trainer Alpha Jet E
T-34
T-37B
FFA AS-202/18 Bravo
T-6 Texan
Transport C-130H Hercules
CASA CN.235M

The Royal Moroccan Air Force (RMAF) (Arabic: القوات الجوية الملكية المغربية ; transliterated: 'al-Quwwat al-Jawwiyah al-Malakiyah al-Maghribiyah; French: Forces Royales Air) is the air force branch of the Moroccan Armed Forces.

Contents

History

The Moroccan air force was formed on November 19, 1956 as the “Aviation Royale Chérifienne” (Sherifian Royal Aviation).

Its modern installations and bases were inherited from France (Meknes, Rabat {in tandem with the United States}, Marrakech), the United States (Rabat {in tandem with France}, Kenitra, Benguérir, Boulhault, Nouasser and Sidi Slimane) and Spain (Laayoune).

The first acquisitions of this newly formed air force were 6 Morane-Saulnier MS-500 Criquet, 3 Max Holste MH.1521 Broussard transport aircraft, 2 Beechcraft Twin Bonanza, 1 de Havilland DH.114 Heron and 1 Bell 47G helicopter.

In 1961, it changed its name to "Force Aérienne Royale Marocaine" (Royal Moroccan Air Force), a denomination still used until now. In the same period, it obtained 12 MiG-17 fighters, 2 MiG-15UTI "Midget" trainers and 4 Ilyushin Il-28 bombers from the Soviet Union. 24 Fouga Magister training aircraft were also received from France.

The political rift with the USSR pushed Morocco to seek a new ally in the United States, acquiring from the latter 6 Northrop F-5 combat aircraft (4 single-seat F-5A and 2 two-seat F-5B) and another 20 F-5A and 4 F-5B in 1966. As for the transport units, they had at that moment 10 Douglas C-47, 18 Fairchild C-119G and 6 C-130 Hercules. The helicopter fleet was composed of 24 Augusta-Bell AB205A, and training was satisfied with 12 North American T-6 Texan.

The next modernization of the Moroccan air force took place just before the Sahara conflict, with the acquisition of Mirage F-1CH attack aircraft, Beech T-34C Mentor training aircraft, Aerospatiale Puma helicopters, and new Hercules transport aircraft to substitute the older units.

Operations

Yom Kippur War

During the Yom Kippur War, the Egyptian 69 Squadron at Tanta was joined by a Squadron of Moroccan Air Force Northrop F-5A Freedom Fighters on 19 October 1973. Originally, the Force Aérienne Royal du Maroc (FARM) intended to send two units to Egypt in case of a new war against Israel. Only one unit could be deployed now: the major problem was that after the coup attempt in 1972 many of the pilots of the 1st Squadron were arrested, and the second problem was that of logistics: barely 50% of Moroccan F-5A/Bs – all of which were supplied from USA, in accordance to a Military Assistance Program (“MAP”), or from Iran – were operational at any time. In essence, the FARM F-5A/Bs were “on loan” from the USA, which conditioned delivery on their use solely for defence of Morocco. As it seems, this did not keep the FARM from deploying assets – including at least 14 pilots trained on MiG-17s, but apparently also around a dozen of F-5As – into the war zone. According to unconfirmed reports, the F-5As arrived after a lengthy trip, via Algeria, Tunis and Libya, accompanied by Lockheed C-130 Hercules transports that carried spare parts, weapons, and equipment. Moroccans started flying already on the following day, initially being tasked with CAP missions over the Nile Delta, but are not known to have had any kind of encounters with Israeli aircraft during the war. (Nevertheless, it might be of interest to add in this place that the in January 1974 two F-5As armed with a pair of AIM-9B Sidewinders and 20mm cannons, plus carrying one small fuel tank under the centreline each, was scrambled to intercept a pair of IDF/AF Mirage IIICs on a reconnaissance mission. As the Israelis turned away once the F-5As became obvious, dragging both FARM fighters behind them, concerned about a possible ambush by IDF/AF McDonnell Douglas F-4E Phantom IIs the EAF mission control eventually ordered both Moroccans to return, replacing them by two EAF MiG-21MFs from el-Mansourah AB.). Meanwhile, the No.69 Squadron became involved in operations against the Israeli bridgehead on Deverosoir and other targets in the area surrounding the Great Bitter Lake, on the Suez Canal, meanwhile captured by the Israelis.

Western Sahara Conflict

At the beginning of the conflict, the Fouga Magister aircraft were the first to see action. Later on, the F-5 aircraft were thrown into action, to strike against Polisario targets. From the beginning, the objective of Morocco was to create a controlled and safe zone in the area considered as “useful” for its political and economic interests, that is, the Capital Al-Aaiun, the religious center Smara, and the phosphate field of Bu-Craa.

In 1980 construction of the Sahara defensive walls began, consisting of every type of obstacles for infantry and armoured vehicles, such as mines and radars, all backed by Quick Intervention Units (Détachements d'Intervention Rapide) able to move to and quickly reinforce every location along the wall, aided by air-transport composed of Super Puma, AB-205 and CH-47 Chinook helicopters.

As to the anti-tank defenses, it was decided additionally to use Hughes 500MD light helicopters with TOW missiles to neutralize the Polisario T-54, T-55 and BMP tanks. And apart from the ground radars of the Wall, two C-130 Hercules with SLAR system were also used for the detection of enemy units. After the loss of 1 F-5A and 2 RF-5A in the battles, 20 F-5E "Tiger II" and 4 F-5F were acquired thanks to Saudi financial support.

The main problem that faced the F-5 in Western Sahara was its insufficient range to realize missions in depth in the vast battlefield of the Sahara desert.

To minimize this problem, 4 tankers were purchased to provide the Moroccan “Freedom Fighters” with air-to-air refueling, and consequently increase their attack range. The Mirage F-1 were responsible of defending the air-space against a possible Libyan or Algerian attack, whose governments supported both financially and politically the Polisario front, during the beginning of the conflict.

In 1977, the Moroccan Mirage pilots started their training in an Air-force base located in Orange, France. In this same year, the Moroccan Air Force started receiving its first Mirage F-1C fighters. Libya and Algeria did not attack Morocco, and consequently Morocco destined its Mirages to ground-attack missions against Polisario. 3 Mirage Deliveries were received between 1978 and 1982. The first delivery were 30 Mirage F1-CH received between February and December, 1978. The second one, was received between December 1979 and July 1982 and comprised 14 Mirage F1-EH. Between July 1980 and June a final delivery of 6 Mirage F-1EH-200 was received.

During the 90’s there were plans for purchasing Mirage 2000 or F-16 fighter aircraft, however due to unavailable funding they were not realized. Currently, and possibly as a result of the Algerian negotiations with Russia to purchase MiG-29 and Su-30MKA attack aircraft, the Royal Moroccan Air Force started seeking to modernize its ageing fleet.

Accidents

A Lockheed C-130 Hercules operated by the Royal Moroccan Air Force

In July 2011, a RMAF C-130H crash killed 78 people. The plane was en-route from Dakhla, a city in Morocco to the Kenitra Air Base in Kenitra. A stop-over landing at Guelmim was planned but the plane crashed on 6 miles from the airport.

All 78 people on board were killed. The plane had 6 crew, 60 members of the army and 12 civilians, mainly partners traveling with their partners[1]

Latest contracts and key events

  • Aug 1/11: F-16s. The first 4 of 24 new Block 52 F-16s leave Lockheed Martin’s facility in Fort Worth, TX, on a ferry flight to Morocco. [2]
  • May 19/11: AIM-9X missiles. The US DSCA announces Morocco’s official request to buy 20 AIM-9X Block II Sidewinder short range air-to-air missiles, plus 10 CATM-9X-2 Captive Air Training Missile All-Up-Rounds (missiles with seekers and wiring, but no motor, in their case), 8 CATM-9X-2 Missile Guidance Units, 8 AIM-9X-2 Block II Tactical Guidance Units, 2 Dummy Air Training Missiles, plus containers, missile support and test equipment, provisioning, spare and repair parts, personnel training and training equipment, publications and technical data, and other forms of U.S. Government and contractor support. The DSCA adds that the “Royal Moroccan Air Force is modernizing its fighter aircraft to better support its own air defense needs.” [3]
  • May 18/11: T-6Cs. The Royal Moroccan Air Force (RMAF) has received the first 12 of 24 T-6C trainers from Hawker Beechcraft, to replace its existing fleet of T-34 and T-37 jet trainers.[4]
  • July 19/10: F-16s. Pratt & Whitney announces a $145 million to provide F100-PW-229 Enhanced Engine Package (EEP) turbofan engines for the RMAF’s new F-16s. The new engines will be delivered in 2010 and 2011. The Royal Moroccan Air Force became the 22nd international customer to select the F100 engine family, which powers F-16s and F-15s around the world. The F100 was the launch engine for these fighters, but technical problems led to severe readiness issues. Eventually GE’s rival F110 engine entered the market, and wound up powering most of the USAF’s new F-16s. The 2 engine competition never let up, however, and the new F100-PW-229 EEP has given the Pratt & Whitney team a number of important wins in head-to-head competitions around the world. To date, F100-PW-229 powered aircraft have logged more than 2.5 million flight hours in more than 18 years worth of operational service.
  • July 7/10: C-27Js. Alenia Aeronautica delivers a C-27J to Morocco, the 1st of 4 aircraft ordered in October 2008. Source: Combat Aircraft, Sept 2010 [5]
  • April 28/10: Mirage F1s. Morocco’s MF2000 Mirage F1 upgrade program, which will upgrade 27 Mirage F1s (F1CH, F1EH and F1EH-200) at an estimated cost of $420 million. In the case of the Moroccan upgrade, the first 2 aircraft were upgraded at Charleroi in France, with the 3rd undergoing modifications in-country. The prototype made its maiden flight on Oct 19/09, and flight tests and certification are expected to continue throughout the spring and summer of 2010. The upgrade is handled by the new Association Sagem Thales pour la Renovation d’Avions de Combat (ASTRAC) joint venture between Thales and Sagem’s SAFRAN. The MF2000 adds the standard “glass cockpit” of digital 2-color displays, a new Head-Up Display and full HOTAS controls brings the pilot area into line with modern standards, as does a modern zero-zero ejection seat, and compatibility with a helmet-mounted display system if one is added later. A pair of SAGEM mission computers interfaced with a MIL STD 1553B digital databus, and a hybrid Sigma IN/GPS, back this up, and modern secure radios are used for communications. The older Snecma ATAR 9K50 engines are retained, but with a 4% thrust boost and longer life through a new compressor module, redesigned high-pressure turbine, and corresponding increases in mass flow and engine temperatures. The old Cyrano IV radar is replaced by Thales RC400 (RDY-3) multi-mode pulse Doppler radar, which is similar to but smaller than the Mirage 2000-5’s. Weapons carried can include a variety of guided and unguided weapons, in addition to the onboard 30mm DEFA cannon. Air-air options include the short-range MBDA Magic 2 or Raytheon AIM-9 Sidewinder, with MICA IR/EM missiles available as longer-range options. Damocles surveillance and targeting pod integration makes a big difference in the plane’s air-ground capabilities, as does its ability to carry French AASM GPS-guided bombs. ARMAT anti-radiation missiles and AM39 Exocet anti-ship missiles can be used for specialty missions. For defense, a new digital radar warning receiver (RWR) and an external PAJ FA ECM pod, plus Corail flare launchers and Phimat chaff dispensers, improve survivability.[6]
  • Oct 26/09: Chinooks. The US Defense Security Cooperation Agency announces Morocco’s official request to buy 3 CH-47D Chinook helicopters with 6 (2 per helicopter) uprated Honeywell T55-GA-714A Turbine engines, 2 spare T-55-GA-714A Turbine engines, 4 AN/ARC-201E Single Channel Ground and Airborne Radio Systems (SINCGARS); plus associated mission, communication, navigation and ground support equipment, as well as spare and repair parts, special tools and test equipment, technical data and publications, site survey, and U.S. government and contractor technical and personnel services. The estimated cost is $134 million, and Boeing in Ridley Park, PA will be the prime contractor.[7]
  • Sept 9/09: F-16s. The US DSCA announces [PDF] Morocco’s formal request for F-16 C/D Block 50/52 aircraft support equipment and weapons at an estimated value of $187 million. DSCA said that the proposed sale will allow the Moroccan air force to modernize its aging fighter inventory, thereby enabling Morocco to support both its own air defense needs and coalition operations (emphasis DID’s). Morocco is a major non-NATO US ally. The proposed sale includes:
    • 40 LAU-129A launchers;
    • 20 AGM-65D infrared-guided Maverick air-to-surface missiles;
    • 4 AGM-65D Maverick training missiles;
    • 4 AGM-65H TV-guided Maverick training missiles;
    • 60 Enhanced GBU-12 Paveway II kits,
    • which include GPS-aided,
    • laser guidance systems for the 500 lbs GBU-12 bombs;
    • 28 M61 20mm Vulcan cannons;
    • 28 AN/ARC-238 Single Channel Ground and Airborne Radios (SINCGARS) with HaveQuick I/II (a frequency-hopping system used to protect military radio traffic) or Saturn I/II;
    • 1 ground based simulator;
    • 40 LAU-118A missile rails;
    • 6 AN/AAQ-33 SNIPER targeting pods with ground station. Previous DSCA requests had included 12 SNIPER ATP or LITENING pods;
    • 16 Air Combat Maneuvering Instrumentation (ACMI) pods that record an aircraft’s in-flight data during dogfighting exercises;
    • 4 ACMI ground stations:8 Joint Mission Planning Systems (JMPS);
    • 2 Remotely Operated Video Enhanced Receivers (ROVERs);
    • 30 AN/ALR-93 radar warning receivers;30 AN/AVS-9 night vision goggles.
  • Aug 03/09: F-16s. Lockheed Martin Missile and Fire Control in Orlando FL receives a $30.3 million contract for the purchase of Sniper Advanced Targeting Pods (ATPs) for Morroco’s F-16s. The Dec 19/07 DSCA request specified either Sniper ATP or the LITENING pod. The contract includes integration support, product spares. and logistics support. Sniper ATP deliveries will be completed in 2011. The number of pods was not disclosed. Warner-Robins Air Logistics Center/448 SCMG/PKHCB at Robins Air Force Base, GA manages the foreign military sales contract (FA8522-09-C-0013).
  • Dec 1/08: F-16s. Raytheon announces a contract from Lockheed Martin for its ACES (advanced countermeasures electronic system) for 24 Royal Moroccan Air Force F-16 Block 52 aircraft.[8]
  • July 9/08: F-16s. The US Defense Security Cooperation Agency announces [PDF] Morocco’s formal request for weapons to equip its new F-16s. The total value, if all options are exercised, could be as high as $155 million. The request includes a number of different weapons, along with containers, bomb components, spare/repair parts, publications, documentation, personnel and training, contractor technical and logistics personnel services, and other related support elements.[9]
    • The principal contractors will be:
      • Lockheed Martin Aeronautics Company in Fort Worth, TX (F-16)
      • Lockheed Martin Missile and Fire Control in Dallas, TX (Paveway)
      • Boeing Integrated Defense Systems in Seattle, WA (JDAM)
      • Raytheon Missile Systems in Tucson, AZ (AMRAAM, HARM, Maverick, Paveway, Sidewinder)
    • Weapons requested will include:
      • 30 AIM-120-C7 Advanced Medium Range Air-to Air Missiles (AMRAAM). The most recent production version is the C7.
      • 60 AIM-9M SIDEWINDER Missiles. The most recent production version is the next-generation AIM-9X, but most American aircraft still carry AIM-9Ms.
      • 20 AGM-88B/C HARM Missiles, used to attack radar sites.
      • 8 AGM-65D/G MAVERICK Missiles, which use imaging infrared (IIR) guidance. The AGM-65G is especially useful against hardened targets.
      • 45 AGM-65H MAVERICK Missiles. These use camera-based guidance, which can be more useful in hot desert environments.
      • 50 Joint Direct Attack Munition (JDAM) tail kits (20 GBU-31 for MK-82 500 lb bombs, and 30 GBU-38s for MK-84 2,000 lb bombs);
      • 20 GBU-24, PAVEWAY III laser-guidance and fin kits to convert 2,000 pound bombs.
      • 50 GBU-10, PAVEWAY II laser-guidance kits for 2,000 lb. bombs with penetrating warheads for hardened targets.
      • 150 GBU-12, PAVEWAY II laser-guidance kits for 500 lb. bombs.
      • 60 Enhanced GBU-12 PAVEWAY II bombs, with dual-mode GPS/laser guidance.
      • 300 MK-82 training “bombs”
      • 60,000 training projectiles for 20mm cannons, which are found in the F-16 and in Morocco’s F-5s
      • 4,000 self-protection chaff for use in the ALE-47 self-protection system
      • 4,000 ALE-47 self-protection flares and associated equipment and services.

Airbases

  • Salé BAFRA Nº 1 (Air Base)
  • Meknes BAFRA Nº 2 (Air Base)
  • Kenitra BAFRA Nº 3 (Air Base)
  • Casablanca BAFRA Nº 4 (Air Base)
  • Sidi Slimane BAFRA Nº 5 (Air Base)
  • Ben Guerir BAFRA N°6 (Air Base)
  • Marrakech BEFRA (Academy Air Base & Air Base)
  • Rabat North Head Quarter Air Base
  • Agadir South Head Quarter Air Base
  • Laayoun Annex Air Base
  • sidi yahya Annex Air Base
  • El Charida - share military Air Base

Personnel

Currently the total number of the Royal Moroccan Air Force personnel is 13,500. 300 of these are pilots (According to Jane’s 1999).[citation needed]

Aircraft inventory

The Royal Moroccan Air Force flies a variety of Western-built airplanes, particularly American built aircraft. The Royal Moroccan Air Force's equipment consists of[10][11][12]

Aircraft Origin Type Versions Quantity Notes
Fixed-wing Aircraft
General Dynamics F-16 Fighting Falcon  United States Fighter Aircraft F-16C Block 52+
F-16D Block 52+
2 (16)
2 (8)
On delivery.
Dassault Mirage F1  France Fighter Aircraft Mirage F1
Mirage MF2000
13
27
Used as spare parts for MF2000
upgraded or on upgrade
Northrop F-5 Freedom Fighter  United States Fighter Aircraft F-5A/B
F-5E/F TIII
15
24
Used as spare parts
Fighter aircraft
Dassault/Dornier Alpha Jet  France Light Attack Alpha Jet E 22 Used as advanced trainer and Ground-attack aircraft. On upgrade [13] [14]
Cessna T-37 Dragonfly  United States advanced trainer T-37B 14
T-6 Texan II  United States Trainer T-6C 12 (24) On delivery. The T-6C s replacing the T-37 and T-34 [15].
Beechcraft T-34 Turbo Mentor  United States Trainer T-34C 12
FFA AS-202/18 Bravo  Switzerland/ Italy Trainer AS-202/18 Bravo 10
CASA CN-235  Spain Transport aircraft CN-235M 7
Lockheed C-130 Hercules  United States Transport aircraft C-130H 12
Lockheed KC-130  United States Tanker KC-130H 3
Lockheed RC-130  United States Surveillance aircraft for reconnaissance RC-130H 1
Alenia C-27J Spartan  Italy Transport aircraft C-27J 4
Dassault Falcon 20  France Electronic warfare Falcon 20 2 ECM/ELINT platforms
Beechcraft Super King Air  United States VIP transport Super King Air 16 6 Beech A100 +4 Beech B200 +3 Beech B300 +3 Beech 350
Cessna 414  United States VIP transport Cessna 414 1
Cessna 421  United States VIP transport Cessna 421 1
Cessna Citation V  United States VIP transport Cessna 560 1
Boeing 737-BBJ2  United States VIP transport Boeing 737 2
Dassault Falcon 50  France VIP transport Falcon 50 1
Dassault Falcon 100  France VIP transport Falcon 100 1
Gulfstream II  United States VIP transport Gulfstream II 2
Gulfstream III  United States VIP transport Gulfstream III 1
Gulfstream V  United States VIP transport Gulfstream V 1
Gulfstream G550  United States VIP transport Gulfstream G550 1
Cessna Citation X  United States VIP transport Citation XLS 1
Boeing 737  United States VIP transport Boeing 737 1
Helicopters
Aérospatiale SA 342 Gazelle  France Attack helicopter SA 342M 24
Bell OH-58 Kiowa  United States Utility helicopter Bell 206 26
Eurocopter SA 330 Puma  France/ Germany Transport Helicopter SA 330C 33 25 Upgrade at EC Romania version
Bell UH-1N Twin Huey  United States Utility helicopter Bell 212 3
Bell UH-1 Iroquois  United States multi-role helicopter UH-1H 31
Boeing CH-47 Chinook  United States Transport Helicopter CH-47C
CH-47D
9
3
Sikorsky S-70 Blackhawk  United States Transport Helicopter S-70-25 2
McDonnell Douglas MD 500 Defender  United States multi-role helicopter 500MD Defender
MD/TOW Defenders
14
10
[16]
Unmanned aerial vehicle
RQ-1 Predator  United States UAV RQ-1 Predator XP [17]
BAE SkyEye  United States UAV Skyeye R4E-50
GNAT  United States UAV I-GNAT ER [18]

Missiles

Name Type origin Picture
Air to Ground Missiles and Bombs
AGM-65 Maverick D/G/H Air-to-surface  United States
AGM-65 Maverick MG 1382.jpg
AGM-88 HARM B/C Air-to-surface anti-radiation missile  United States
AGM-88E HARM p1230047.jpg
GBU-10 Paveway II Laser-guided bomb  United States
GBU-10 xxl.jpg
GBU-12 Paveway II Laser-guided bomb  United States
GBU-12 xxl.jpg
GBU-24 Paveway III Laser-guided bomb  United States
GBU-24 xxl.jpg
AASM Precision-Guided Munition  France
Aasm5.jpg
HOT I/II Anti-tank missile  France/ Germany
Long Range Anti-tank Weapon HOT 3 - ILA2002-clean.jpg
JDAM Precision-Guided Munition  United States
GBU-31 xxl.jpg
Air to Air Missiles
AIM-9M/X-2 air-to-air missile  United States
AIM-9L DF-ST-82-10199.jpg
Matra R530 D air-to-air missile  France
Matra R530 missile-001.jpg
R550 Magic II air-to-air missile  France
Magic-and-Super550.jpg
MBDA MICA IR/EM air-to-air missile  France
MICA P1220883.jpg
AIM-120 C5/7 air-to-air missile  United States
Aim 120 amraam missile 20040710 145603 1.4.jpg
Anti-ship Missiles
AM39 Exocet Anti-ship missile  France
Exocet AM39 P1220892-detoured.jpg

Previous aircraft

References

  1. ^ Crash in Morocco leaves 78 dead, 27 July, 2011, visited 28 July, 2011
  2. ^ Lockheed Martin.
  3. ^ DSCA Press Release on Chinook helicopters, 26 October, 2009, retrieved 28 July, 2011
  4. ^ Website Arabian Aerospace: Delivery first T-6C trainer, 18 May, 2011, visited 28 July, 2011
  5. ^ Flightglobal website Delivery first C27 transport plane, 8 July, 2010, retrieved: 28 July, 2011
  6. ^ Website Arabian Aerospace Mirage upgrade, 28 April, 2010. Retrieved: 28 July, 2011
  7. ^ Pressrelease DSCA Chinook helicopters, 26 October, 2009. Retrieved: 27 July, 2011
  8. ^ Raytheon press-release Morocco selects Electronic Warfare Suite for F16's, 1 December, 2009. Retrieved 28 July, 2011
  9. ^ DSCA Pressrelease Weapons and related support for F-16, 30 July, 2008. Visited: 28 July, 2011
  10. ^ The International Institute for Strategic Studies IISS 2007
  11. ^ Flight International, 11–17 November 2008
  12. ^ Danish website Futura Overview Morocco, visited 29 July, 2011
  13. ^ [1]
  14. ^ [2]
  15. ^ [3]
  16. ^ [4]
  17. ^ Reuters newsarticle Export approved to KSA and others, 20 July, 2011. Retrieved 28 July, 2011
  18. ^ [5]

External links


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