- Bar Kokhba revolt
The Bar Kokhba revolt (
132– 135CE) ( _he. מרד בר כוכבא) against the Roman Empirewas a second major rebellion by the Jews of Iudaea Province(also spelled "Judaea") and the last of the Jewish-Roman Wars. Simon bar Kokhba, the commander of the revolt, was acclaimed a Messiah (rather than The Messiah), a heroic figure who could restore Israel. The revolt established a Jewish state for over two years, but a massive Roman army finally crushed it. The Romans then barred Jews from Jerusalem, except for Tisha B'Av. Jewish Christianshailed Jesus as the Messiah and did not support Bar Kokhba. They were barred from Jerusalem along with the rest of the Jews. The war and its aftermath helped differentiate Christianity as a religion distinct from Judaism, see also List of events in early Christianity.
The revolt is also known as The Second Jewish-Roman War, The Second Jewish Revolt, or The Third Revolt (counting the
Kitos War, 115 - 117, as second).
After the failed
Great Jewish Revoltin the year 70, the Roman authorities took measures to suppress the rebellious province. Instead of a procurator, they installed a praetoras a governor and stationed an entire legion, the X "Fretensis".
130, Emperor Hadrianvisited the ruins of Jerusalem. At first sympathetic towards the Jews, Hadrian promised to rebuild the city, but the Jews felt betrayed when they found out that his intentions were to rebuild the Jewish holiest city as a Roman metropolis, and a new temple upon the ruins of the Second Temple, which was to be dedicated to Jupiter.Cassius Dio, The Roman History]
An additional legion, the VI "Ferrata", was stationed in the province to maintain order, and the works commenced in
131after the governorof Judaea Tineius Rufusperformed the foundation ceremony of Aelia Capitolina, the city’s projected new name. "Ploughing up the Temple" was a religious offence that turned many Jews against the Roman authorities. The tensions grew higher when Hadrian abolished circumcision (" brit milah"), which he, a Hellenist, viewed as mutilation.A Roman coin inscribed "Aelia Capitolina" was issued in 132.
The Jewish sage
Rabbi Akiva(alternatively Akiba) regarded the chosen commander Simon Bar Kokhbato be the Jewish Messiah, according to the Star Prophecyverse from Numbers 24:17: "There shall come a star out of Jacob" [ Book of Numbers 24:17: There shall come a star out of Jacob, and a sceptre shall rise out of Israel, and shall smite the corners of Moab, and destroy all the children of Sheth.] ("Bar Kokhba" means "son of a star" in the Aramaic language).
At the time
Jewish Christianswere still a minor sect of Judaism, and most historians Fact|date=August 2008 believe that it was this messianic claim in favor of Bar Kokhba that alienated many of them, who believed that the true messiah was Jesus, and sharply deepened the .
The Jewish leaders carefully planned the second revolt to avoid numerous mistakes that had plagued the first
Great Jewish Revoltsixty years earlier. In 132, a revolt led by Bar Kokhba quickly spread from Modi'inacross the country, cutting off the Roman garrison in Jerusalem.
"The Era of the redemption of Israel"
Jewish statewas restored for two and a half years that followed. The functional public administrationwas headed by Simon Bar Kokhba, who took the title "Nasi Israel" (ruler or prince of Israel). The "Era of the redemption of Israel" was announced, contracts were signed and coins were minted in large quantity in silver and copper with corresponding inscriptions (all were struck over foreign coins).
Rabbi Akiva presided over the Sanhedrin. The religious rituals were observed and the "
korbanot" (i.e., sacrifices) were resumed on the Altar. It has been believed that attempts were made to restore the Temple in Jerusalem, but the evidence—letters written in Jerusalem and dated to the revolutionary era—has turned out to belong to the revolt of 66–70.
The outbreak took the Romans by surprise. Hadrian called his general
Sextus Julius Severusfrom Britain, and troops were brought from as far as the Danube. The size of the Roman army amassed against the rebels was much larger than that commanded by Titussixty years earlier. Roman losses were very heavy. Among its losses it is believed that an entire legion, the XXII Deiotariana was completely wiped out. [ [http://www.livius.org/le-lh/legio/xxii_deiotariana.html livius.org account] (Legio XXII Deiotariana)]
The struggle lasted for three years before the revolt was brutally crushed in the summer of 135. After losing Jerusalem, Bar Kokhba and the remnants of his army withdrew to the fortress of Betar, which also subsequently came under siege. The
Jerusalem Talmudrelates that the numbers slain were enormous, that the Romans "went on killing until their horses were submerged in blood to their nostrils" (Taanis 4:5). The Talmud also relates that for seventeen years the Romans didn't allow the Jews to bury their dead in Betar.
Outcome of the war
Cassius Dio, 580,000 Jews were killed, 50 fortified towns and 985 villages razed. [ [http://www.roman-empire.net/highpoint/highpoint.html The 'Five Good Emperors'] (roman-empire.net)] [ [http://www.zuckermann.org/mosaic.html Mosaic or mosaic?—The Genesis of the Israeli Language] by Zuckermann, Gilad] The Talmud, however, claims a death toll in the millions. The latter figure is unlikely, because there were simply not that many Jews in the region at that time. Cassius Dio claimed that "Many Romans, moreover, perished in this war. Therefore, Hadrian, in writing to the Senate did not employ the opening phrase commonly affected by the emperors: 'If you and your children are in health, it is well; I and the army are in health.'"
Hadrian attempted to root out
Judaism, which he saw as the cause of continuous rebellions. He prohibited the Torahlaw, the Hebrew calendarand executed Judaic scholars. The sacred scroll was ceremoniously burned on the Temple Mount. At the former Temple sanctuary, he installed two statues, one of Jupiter, another of himself. In an attempt to erase any memory of Judea, he wiped the name off the map and replaced it with Syria Palaestina, after the Philistines, the ancient enemies of the Jews; previously similar terms had been used to describe only the (smaller) former Philistine homeland to the west of Judaea. Since then, the land has been referred to as " Palestine," which supplanted earlier terms such as "Iudaea" (Judaea) and the antiquated " Canaan." Similarly, he re-established Jerusalemas the Roman pagan polisof Aelia Capitolina, and Jews were forbidden from entering it.
Long-term consequences and historic importance
Constantine I allowed Jews to mourn their defeat and humiliation once a year on
Tisha B'Avat the Western Wall. Jews remained scattered for close to two millennia; their numbers in the region fluctuated with time.
Modern historians have come to view the Bar-Kokhba Revolt as being of decisive historic importance. The massive destruction and loss of life occasioned by the revolt has led some scholars to date the beginning of the
Jewish diasporafrom this date. They note that, unlike the aftermath of the First Jewish-Roman Warchronicled by Josephus, the majority of the Jewish population of Judea was either killed, exiled, or sold into slavery after the Bar-Kokhba Revolt, and Jewish religious and political authority was suppressed far more brutally. After the revolt the Jewish religious center shifted to the Babylonian Jewish community and its scholars. Judea would not be a center of Jewish religious, cultural, or political life again until the modern era, though Jews continued to live there and important religious developments still occurred there. In Galilee, the Jerusalem Talmudwas compiled in the 2nd–4th centuries. Eventually, Safedbecame known as a center of Jewish learning, especially Kabbalahin the 15th century.
Historian Shmuel Katz writes that even after the disaster of the revolt: "Jewish life remained active and productive. Banished from Jerusalem, it now centred on
Galilee. Refugees returned; Jews who had been sold into slavery were redeemed. In the centuries after Bar Kochba and Hadrian, some of the most significant creations of the Jewish spirit were produced in Palestine. It was there that the Mishnahwas completed and the Jerusalem Talmudwas compiled, and the bulk of the community farmed the land."
He lists the communities left in Palestine: "43 Jewish communities in Palestine in the sixth century: 12 on the coast, in the
Negev, and east of the Jordan, and 31 villages in Galilee and in the Jordan valley". Katz, Shmuel, "Battleground", (1974), page 96]
The disastrous end of the revolt also occasioned major changes in Jewish religious thought.
Messianismwas abstracted and spiritualized, and rabbinical political thought became deeply cautious and conservative. The Talmud, for instance, refers to Bar-Kokhba as "Ben-Kusiba", a derogatory term used to indicate that he was a false Messiah. The deeply ambivalent rabbinical position regarding Messianism, as expressed most famously in the Rambam's (also known as Maimonides) "Epistle to Yemen", would seem to have its origins in the attempt to deal with the trauma of a failed Messianic uprising.
In the post-rabbinical era, however, the Bar-Kokhba Revolt became a symbol of valiant national resistance. The
Zionist youth movement Betartook its name from Bar-Kokhba's traditional last stronghold, and David Ben-Gurion, Israel's first prime minister, took his Hebrew last name from one of Bar-Kokhba's generals.
Further revolts against the Roman Empire
In the year
351, the Jews launched yet another revolt, provoking heavy retribution.
438, when the Empress Eudocia removed the ban on Jews' praying at the Temple site, the heads of the Community in Galilee issued a call "to the great and mighty people of the Jews" which began: "Know that the end of the exile of our people has come"! [ Avraham Yaari, Igrot Eretz Yisrael (Tel Aviv, 1943), p. 46. ]
In the belief of restoration to come, the Jews made an alliance with the Persians who invaded Palestine in
614, fought at their side, overwhelmed the Byzantinegarrison in Jerusalem, and for five years governed the city.
Bar Kochba Revolt coinage
The best recognized sources are
Cassius Dio, "Roman History" (book 69) and Aelius Spartianus, "Life of Hadrian" (in the " Augustan History"). The discovery of the Dead Sea scrollshas exposed some new historical data.
* Yohannan Aharoni & Michael Avi-Yonah, "The MacMillan Bible Atlas", Revised Edition, pp. 164–65 (1968 & 1977 by Carta Ltd.)
* "The Documents from the Bar Kokhba Period in the Cave of Letters (Judean Desert studies)". Jerusalem: Israel Exploration Society, 1963–2002.
**Vol. 2, "Greek Papyri", edited by Naphtali Lewis; "Aramaic and Nabatean Signatures and Subscriptions", edited by Yigael Yadin and Jonas C. Greenfield. (ISBN 9652210099).
**Vol. 3, "Hebrew, Aramaic and Nabatean–Aramaic Papyri", edited Yigael Yadin, Jonas C. Greenfield, Ada Yardeni, Baruch A. Levine (ISBN 9652210463).
* W. Eck, 'The Bar Kokhba Revolt: the Roman point of view' in the "Journal of Roman Studies" 89 (1999) 76ff.
* Faulkner, Neil. "Apocalypse: The Great Jewish Revolt Against Rome". Stroud, Gloucestershire, UK: Tempus Publishing, 2004 (hardcover, ISBN 0-7524-2573-0).
* Goodman, Martin. "The Ruling Class of Judaea: The Origins of the Jewish Revolt against Rome, A.D. 66–70". Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1987 (hardcover, ISBN 0-521-33401-2); 1993 (paperback, ISBN 0-521-44782-8).
* Richard Marks: "The Image of Bar Kokhba in Traditional Jewish Literature: False Messiah and National Hero": University Park: Pennsylvania State University Press: 1994: ISBN 0-271-00939-X
* David Ussishkin: "Archaeological Soundings at Betar, Bar-Kochba's Last Stronghold", in: "Tel Aviv. Journal of the Institute of Archaeology of Tel Aviv University" 20 (1993) 66ff.
* Yadin, Yigael. "Bar-Kokhba: The Rediscovery of the Legendary Hero of the Second Jewish Revolt Against Rome". New York: Random House, 1971 (hardcover, ISBN 0394471849); London: Weidenfeld and Nicolson, 1971 (hardcover, ISBN 0297003453).
* Mildenberg, Leo. "The Coinage of the Bar Kokhba War". Switzerland: Schweizerische Numismatische Gesellschaft, Zurich, 1984 (hardcover, ISBN 3-7941-2634-3).
* [http://www.yadinproductions.com/yadin_archeology.html photographs from Yadin's book Bar Kokhba]
* [http://www.dinur.org/1.html?rsID=219 The Jewish History Resource Center] Project of the Dinur Center for Research in Jewish History, The Hebrew University of Jerusalem
* [http://jerusalemperspective.com/Default.aspx?tabid=27&ArticleID=1606 David Pileggi, "The Bar Kochva letters"] : discovery of the papyri
* [http://www.haaretz.com/hasen/pages/ShArt.jhtml?itemNo=693699 Archaeologists find tunnels from Jewish revolt against Romans] by the AP.
Ha'aretzMarch 14, 2006
* [http://jewishencyclopedia.com/view.jsp?artid=237&letter=B&search=Bar%20Kokba Jewish Encyclopedia: Bar Kokba and Bar Kokba War]
* [http://www.livius.org/ja-jn/jewish_wars/jwar07.html Bar Kochba] with links to all sources
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Look at other dictionaries:
BAR KOKHBA — (d. 135 C.E.), leader of the revolt in Judea against Rome (132–135 C.E.). The Man and the Leader Bar Kokhba is known in talmudic sources as Ben Kozevah, Bar Kozevah, or Ben Koziva (Heb. בן כוזבה, בר כוסבא, בן כוזיבא; Sanh. 93b; BK 97b; TJ, Ta an … Encyclopedia of Judaism
Bar Kochba Revolt coinage — were coins issued by the Jews during the Second Jewish Revolt (also known as the Bar Kokhba Revolt ) against the Roman Empire of 132 135 AD.The leader of the Second Revolt was Shim on (Simon) Bar Koseba, who was known as Bar Kochba , meaning Son… … Wikipedia
Bar Kokhba — ( he. בר כוכבא, Son of Kokhba) (also Bar Kochba, Bar Kochva, Bar Cochva) is a name of Simon bar Kokhba, the leader of the Bar Kokhba s revolt, the second (sometimes counted as the third) of the Jewish Roman Wars. Bar Kokhba may also refer to:… … Wikipedia
Bar Kokhba — orig. Simeon bar Kosba died AD 135 Leader of an unsuccessful Jewish revolt against Roman rule in Palestine. In 131 Hadrian forbade circumcision and built a temple to Jupiter on the ruins of the Temple of Jerusalem. The Jews rebelled in 132, led… … Universalium
Simon bar Kokhba — (Hebrew: שמעון בר כוכבא, also transliterated as Bar Kokhva or Bar Kochba) was the Jewish leader who led what is known as Bar Kokhba s revolt against the Roman Empire in 132 CE, establishing an independent Jewish state of Israel which he ruled for … Wikipedia
Bar-Kochba-Aufstand — Als Bar Kochba Aufstand bezeichnet man den jüdischen Aufstand gegen das Römische Reich von 132 bis 135 n. Chr. unter Führung von Simon bar Kochba. Nach dem ersten Jüdischen Krieg 66–73 war er, je nachdem ob man den Babylonischen Aufstand 115–117… … Deutsch Wikipedia
Simón bar Kojba — o Simon bar Kokhba o Barcokebas (en hebreo שמעון בר כוכבא) fue el líder judío que dirigió lo que es conocido como la Rebelión de Bar Kojba contra el Imperio romano en 132, estableciendo un estado judío independiente que él dirigió durante tres… … Wikipedia Español
Rebelión de Bar Kojba — Judea en el siglo I Fecha 132 135 … Wikipedia Español
JUDAH BAR ILAI — (mid–second century C.E.), tanna. He is the R. Judah mentioned in the Talmud and tannaitic literature without patronymic. Judah came from Usha in Galilee (see Song R. 2:5 n. 2). He studied under his father, who was a pupil of eliezer b. hyrcanus… … Encyclopedia of Judaism
SIMEON BAR YOḤAI — (mid second century C.E.), tanna. Simeon was one of the most important pupils of akiva . In the Mishnah, the Tosefta, and those midrashei halakhah belonging to the school of R. Akiva, he is almost universally called R. Simeon without any… … Encyclopedia of Judaism