Umberto II of Italy
Umberto II King of Italy (more...) Reign 9 May 1946 - 12 June 1946
( 0 years, 34 days)
Predecessor Victor Emmanuel III Successor Monarchy abolished
Alcide De Gasperi as temporary head of state
Consort Marie José of Belgium Issue Princess Maria Pia
Vittorio Emanuele, Prince of Naples
Princess Maria Gabriella
Princess Maria Beatrice
Full name Italian: Umberto Nicola Tommaso Giovanni Maria di Savoia House House of Savoy Father Victor Emmanuel III Mother Elena of Montenegro Born 15 September 1904
Racconigi, province of Cuneo, Italy
Died 18 March 1983(aged 78)
Burial Hautecombe Abbey, France Signature Religion Roman Catholicism
Umberto II, occasionally anglicized as Humbert II (15 September 1904 – 18 March 1983) was the last King of Italy for slightly over a month, from 9 May 1946 to 12 June 1946. He was nicknamed the King of May (Italian: Re di Maggio)
Umberto was married in Rome on 8 January 1930 to Marie José of Belgium (1906–2001). His children included: Maria Pia (born 1934), Vittorio Emanuele (born 1937), Maria Gabriella (born 1940), Maria Beatrice (born 1943).
Prince of Piedmont
The Prince of Piedmont was educated to a military career and in time became the commander in chief of the Northern Armies, and then of the Southern ones. However, his role was merely formal, the de facto command belonging to Benito Mussolini. By mutual agreement, Umberto and Mussolini always kept a distance. An attempted assassination of the Prince took place in Brussels on 24 October 1929, the day of the announcement of his betrothal to Princess Marie José. The Prince was about to lay a wreath on the Tomb of the Belgian Unknown Soldier at the foot of the Congreskolom. With a cry of 'Down with Mussolini!' the culprit, Fernando de Rosa, fired a single shot that missed the Prince of Piedmont. De Rosa was arrested and under interrogation claimed to be a member of the Second International.
It has been conjectured that Mussolini had collected a secret dossier on Umberto, but this folder (which is said to have been found after the dictator was shot), was never seen publicly.
Following the Savoyards' tradition ("Only one Savoy reigns at a time"), he kept apart from active politics until he was finally named Lieutenant General of the Realm. Only in one case, while he was in Germany for a royal wedding, did he make an exception —Adolf Hitler asked for a meeting. This action was not considered proper, given the international situation, and afterwards Umberto was even more rigorously excluded from political events.
On 29 October 1942, Umberto was awarded the rank of Marshal of Italy (Maresciallo d'Italia).
In 1943, the Crown Princess Maria José, the daughter of King Albert I of Belgium, involved herself in vain attempts to arrange a separate peace treaty between Italy and the United States, and her interlocutor from the Vatican was Monsignor Giovanni Battista Montini, a senior diplomat who later became Pope Paul VI. Her attempts were not sponsored by the king and Umberto was not (directly, at least) involved in them. After her failure (she never met the American agents), she was sent with her children to Sarre, in Aosta Valley, and isolated from the political life of the Royal House.
As the Allies freed more and more of Italy from the puppet Salo regime, it became apparent that Victor Emmanuel was too tainted by his previous support of Fascism to have any further role. Accordingly, in April 1944, he transferred most of his powers to Umberto. This status was formalized after Rome was liberated in June, when Victor Emmanuel transferred his remaining constitutional powers to Umberto, naming his son Lieutenant General of the Realm. However, Victor Emmanuel retained the title of king.
King of Italy
Umberto earned widespread praise for his role in the following three years. Some believe that had his father handed over the throne in 1943, the monarchy would have won the 1946 referendum on its survival. As it was, Victor Emmanuel didn't formally abdicate in favor of his son until 9 May 1946.
Many Italian monarchists expressed doubts about the correctness of the referendum, claiming that millions of voters, many of them pro-monarchist, were unable to vote because they had not yet been able to return to their own local areas to register. Nor had the issue of Italy's borders been settled definitively, so the voting rights of those in disputed areas had not been satisfactorily clarified. Other allegations were made about voter manipulation, and even the issue of how to interpret the votes became controversial, as it appeared that not just a majority of those validly voting but of those votes cast (including spoiled votes), was needed to reach an outcome in the event the monarchy lost by a tight margin.
Umberto served as king for 33 days. He and his wife were both young and cultivated, and thus presented a stark contrast to Victor Emmanuel. It was to no avail, however--a decisive majority voted to make Italy a republic. Having promised to accept the election results, Umberto accepted the defeat, urging his now-former subjects to serve the new republic. The monarchy formally ended on 12 June 1946, and Umberto left the country. Prime Minister Alcide de Gasperi assumed office as Italy's interim Head of State.
Umberto and Maria José separated in exile; it was an arranged marriage, following a long tradition of royal families.
Some academics have explored Umberto's possible homosexuality. As early as the 1920s, Mussolini had collected a dossier on his private life for purposes of blackmail. Certainly during the war, newspapers asserted that Umberto was homosexual, and information continued to be spread in the lead-up to the post-war referendum on the monarchy in the hope of influencing the outcome. It is, however, unclear to what extent such rumours could be substantiated. Umberto's custom of giving a fleur-de-lis made of precious stones to favoured young officials in his entourage was well known, and Umberto's lovers may have included Luchino Visconti and Jean Marais; as a former army lieutenant who published details of Umberto's advances to him. Except for public appearances, Umberto and Maria Jose generally lived apart.
King Umberto lived for 37 years in exile, in Cascais in Portugal. He was a popular old gentleman, nicknamed "Europe's grandfather", seen at many of Europe's royal weddings. He never set foot in his native land again; the 1947 constitution of the Italian Republic barred all male heirs to the defunct Italian throne from ever returning to Italian soil. Female members of the Savoy family were not barred except consort queens.
Umberto traveled extensively during exile, and was often to be seen in Mexico visiting his daughter, and in the company of friends like Commendatore Flavio Mansi Tazzer.
President Sandro Pertini wanted Umberto to be allowed to return to his native country by the Italian parliament when he was dying in 1983. Ultimately, however, he died in Geneva and was interred in Hautecombe Abbey. No representative of the Italian government attended his funeral.
- Grand Master of the Supreme Order of the Annunziata
- Grand Master of the Order of Saints Maurice and Lazarus
- Grand Master of the Civil Order of Savoy
- Grand Master of the Order of the Crown of Italy
- Knight of the Order of the Golden Fleece
- Knight of the Order of Saint Hubert
- Knight of the Order of Saint Januarius
- Knight of the Order of the Elephant
- Knight of the Order of the Seraphim
- Knight of the Order of Saint Andrew
- Grand Cross of the Order of Saint Alexander Nevsky
- Grand Cross of the Order of the White Eagle
- Grand Cross of the Order of Saint Anne
- Grand Cross of the Order of Saint Stanislaus (Imperial House of Romanov)
- Grand Cross of the Order of Carol I of Romania
- Grand Cross of the Order of Leopold I
- Bailiff Grand Cross of Honour and Devotion of the Sovereign Military Order of Malta
- Bailiff Grand Cross of the Sacred Military Constantinian Order of Saint George
Ancestry and even the very filiation of Humbert I of Savoy is not clear, as there are four possibilities, one of them giving him a Teutonic ancestry including as his ancestor Widukind. Christian Settipani proved through contemporary documents that Arnulf of Metz and his ancestors were Frankish in the male line, since they were ruled by the Frankish Law.
- Humbert I of Savoy, 980 - 1047
- Otto of Savoy, 1015–1057
- Amadeus II of Savoy, 1039–1080
- Humbert II of Savoy, 1070–1103
- Amadeus III of Savoy, 1095–1148
- Humbert III of Savoy, 1135–1189
- Thomas I of Savoy, 1176–1233
- Thomas II, Count of Piedmont, 1199–1259
- Amadeus V, Count of Savoy, 1251–1323
- Aimone, Count of Savoy, 1291–1343
- Amadeus VI, Count of Savoy, 1334–1383
- Amadeus VII, Count of Savoy, 1360–1391
- Amadeus VIII, Duke of Savoy, 1383–1451
- Louis, Duke of Savoy, 1402–1465
- Philip II, Duke of Savoy, 1438–1497
- Charles III, Duke of Savoy, 1486–1553
- Emmanuel Philibert, Duke of Savoy, 1528–1580
- Charles Emmanuel I, Duke of Savoy, 1562–1630
- Thomas Francis, Prince of Carignano, 1596–1656
- Emmanuel Philibert, Prince of Carignan, 1628–1709
- Victor Amadeus I, Prince of Carignan, 1690–1741
- Louis Victor, Prince of Carignan, 1721–1778
- Victor Amadeus II, Prince of Carignan, 1743–1780
- Charles Emmanuel, Prince of Carignan, 1770–1800
- Charles Albert of Sardinia, 1798–1849
- Victor Emmanuel II of Italy, 1820–1878
- Umberto I of Italy, 1844–1900
- Victor Emmanuel III of Italy, 1869–1947
- Umberto II of Italy, 1904–1983
Ancestors of Umberto II of Italy 16. Charles Albert of Sardinia 8. Victor Emmanuel II of Italy 17. Archduchess Maria Theresa of Austria 4. Umberto I of Italy 18. Archduke Rainer of Austria 9. Archduchess Adelaide of Austria 19. Princess Elisabeth of Savoy 2. Victor Emmanuel III of Italy 20. Charles Albert of Sardinia (= 16) 10. Prince Ferdinand of Savoy, Duke of Genoa 21. Archduchess Maria Theresa of Austria (= 17) 5. Princess Margherita of Savoy 22. John of Saxony 11. Princess Elizabeth of Saxony 23. Amalie Auguste of Bavaria 1. Umberto II of Italy 24. Sava Petrović-Njegoš 12. Mirko Petrović-Njegoš 25. Angelika Radamović 6. Nicholas I of Montenegro 26. Drago Martinović 13. Anastasija Martinović 27. Stana Martinović 3. Princess Elena of Montenegro 28. Petar Perkov Vukotić 14. Petar Vukotić 29. Stania Milić 7. Milena Vukotić 30. Tadija Voivodić 15. Jelena Voivodić 31. Milica Pavićević
- Benito Mussolini
- Birth of the Italian Republic
- List of shortest reigning monarchs of all time
- ^ Giovanni Dall'Orto in Aldrich, Robert; Wotherspoon, Garry Who's Who in Contemporary Gay and Lesbian History: From World War II to the Present Day, Routledge, London 2001, p452
- ^ A. Petacco, Regina: La vita e i segreti di Maria Jose, Milan, 1997
- ^ Enrico Montanari, La lotta di liberazione, cited in: Silvio Rossi, Il vizio segreto di Umberto di Savoia, Extra, I 1971 n. 4 (25 March), pp. 1-4.
- ^ S. Bertoldi, L'ultimo re, l'ultima regina, Milan, 1992
- ^ "Royal House of Italy - Genealogy of the Royal House". European Royal Houses website. http://www.chivalricorders.org/royalty/gotha/italygen.htm. Retrieved 2010-09-19.
- ^ [http://web.genealogie.free.fr/Les_dynasties/Les_dynasties_celebres/Italie/Dynastie_de_Savoie.htm
- ^ http://genealogy.euweb.cz/savoy/savoy1.html
- ^ http://www.geneall.net/I/per_page.php?id=8]
- Denis Mack Smith Italy and Its Monarchy (Yale University Press, 1989)
- Robert Katz The Fall of the House of Savoy
Umberto II of ItalyBorn: 15 September 1904 Died: 19 March 1983
- Royal House of Italy
- Royal House of Belgium
- Genealogy of recent members of the House of Savoy
- a portrait of his
- Website with Information on Italian Royal news stories
Regnal titles Preceded by
Victor Emmanuel III
King of Italy
9 May 1946 - 12 June 1946
(Alcide De Gasperi as Provisional Head of State)
Titles in pretence Loss of title
— TITULAR —
King of Italy
12 June 1946 - 19 March 1983
Succession Dispute: Vittorio Emanuele, Prince of Naples or Amedeo, 5th Duke of Aosta
Kings of Italy between 1861 and 1946*denotes titular king Marshals of Italy
Graf Luigi Cadorna · Armando Diaz · Emanuele Filiberto of Aosta · Pietro Badoglio · Enrico Caviglia · Gaetano Giardino · Guglielmo Pecori Giraldi · Emilio De Bono · Rodolfo Graziani · Ugo Cavallero · Ettore Bastico · Umberto II of Italy · Giovanni MesseItalo Balbo (Marshal of the Air Force)Charles (1456–1471) · Emmanuel Philibert (1536–1553) · Charles Emmanuel I (1562–1580) · Philip Emmanuel (1586–1605) · Victor Amadeus I (1587–1630) · Francis Hyacinth (1632–1637) · Victor Amadeus II (1666–1675) · Victor Amadeus (1699–1715) · Charles Emmanuel III (1715–1730) · Charles Emmanuel IV (1751–1796) · Umberto I (1844–1878) · Victor Emmanuel III (1878–1900) · Umberto II (1904–1947) · Vittorio Emanuele, Prince of Naples*
- denotes titular Prince
1st Generationnone 2nd Generation 3rd Generation 4th GenerationPrince Luigi · Carlo, Prince of Piedmont · Philibert, Duke of Savoy · Prince Bernardo · Charles, Duke of Savoy · James Louis, Count of Genevois · Prince Gian Claudio Galeazzo · Prince Girolamo · Philibert, Duke of Savoy · Charles, Duke of Savoy · Prince Louis · Philippe, Duke of Nemours · Prince Assolone · Prince Giovanni Amedeo · Prince Emanuele Filiberto Adriano · Prince Louis · Emmanuel Philibert, Duke of Savoy 5th GenerationCharles Emmanuel I, Duke of Savoy · Jacques, Duke of Nemours 6th Generation 7th Generation 8th Generation 9th GenerationVictor Amadeus, Prince of Piedmont · Charles Emmanuel III, King of Sardinia · Emanuele Philibert, Duke of Chablais · Louis Victor, Prince of Carignano · Eugenio, Count of Villafranca · Prince Tommaso · Emmanuel Thomas, Count of Soissons 10th GenerationVictor Amadeus, Duke of Aosta · Victor Amadeus III, King of Sardinia · Emanuele Filiberto, Duke of Aosta · Carlo, Duke of Chablais · Carlo, Duke of Aosta · Benedetto, Duke of Chablais · Victor Amadeus II, Prince of Carignano · Prince Tommaso · Eugene Jean, Count of Soissons · Giuseppe Maria, Count of Villafranca 11th Generation 12th Generation 13th GenerationVictor Emmanuel II, King of Italy · Ferdinand, Duke of Genoa 14th Generation 15th Generation 16th GenerationUmberto II of Italy · Amedeo, Duke of Aosta*** · Aimone, Duke of Aosta*** 17th Generation 18th Generation 19th generationPrince Umberto*** · Prince Amedeo****member of a cadet branch of the House of Savoy
**Prince of Savoy-Genoa
***Prince of Savoy-Aosta
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