image_caption = Széchenyi Square
image_shield = WĘG Győr COA.jpg
subdivision_type = Country
subdivision_name = HUN
pushpin_map_caption =Location of Győr
Győr (IPA2|ˈɟøːr, Audio|Hu-Györ.ogg|pronunciation, known under alternative names) is the most important city of northwest
Hungary, the capital of Győr-Moson-Sopron county and lies on one of the important roads of Central Europe, halfway between Budapestand Vienna. The city is the sixth largest in Hungary and one of the five main regional centres of the country.
In other languages: Croatian: "Jura, Đura, Vjura", German: "Raab", Slovak: "Ráb", Turkish: "Yanık kale", Serbian: Ђур, "Đur", or Јанок, "Janok", _ru. Дьёр, "Dyor". See also:
Names of European cities in different languages.
The area has been inhabited since the ancient times. The first large settlement dates back to the 5th century BCE, its inhabitants were
Celts. They named the town "Arrabona", a name that was used for eight centuries and its shortened form is still used as the German ("Raab") and Slovak ("Ráb") name of the city.
Roman merchants moved to Arrabona during the 1st century BCE, and around 10 CE the Roman army occupied the northern part of Western Hungary which they called "Pannonia". Although the Roman Empire abandoned the area in the 4th century due to constant attacks of the tribes living east from the area, the town remained inhabited.
Around 500 the territory was settled by
Slavs, in 547 by the Lombards, in 568-c.800 by the Avars, then under Frankishand Slavic influence, then between 880 and 894 it was part of Great Moravia, and then shortly under East Frankish influence.
Magyarsoccupied the town around 900 and fortified the abandoned Roman fortress. Stephen I, the first king of Hungary founded an episcopatethere. The town received its Hungarian name "Győr". The Hungarians lived in tents, later in cottages, in the area, which is now the southeastern part of the city centre. The town was affected by all the trials and tribulations of the history of Hungary; it was occupied by Mongols during the Mongol invasion of Hungary(1241–1242) and was destroyed then by the Czech army in 1271.
After the desastrous
battle of Mohács, Tamás Nádasdy and Baron György Csesznekyoccupied the town for King Ferdinand I while John Zápolyaalso was attempting to take it up. During the Ottoman occupation of present-day Hungary (1541 - late 17th century), Győr's commander Kristóf Lamberg thought it would be futile to try to defend the town from the Turkish army, and he burnt the whole town instead; the Turkish found nothing but blackened ruins, hence the Turkish name for Győr, "Yanık kale" ("burnt city").
The town has been rebuilt and surrounded with a castle and a city wall, designed by the leading Italian builders of the era. The town changed a lot during these years, with lots of new buildings built in
Renaissancestyle but the main square and the grid of streets remained.
In 1594, after the death of Baron
János Cseszneky, captain of Hungarian foot-soldiers, the Turkish army occupied the castle and the town, but in 1598 the Hungarian and Austrian army managed to occupy it again.
In 1683, Turks returned briefly, only to leave again after being defeated in the
Battle of Vienna.
The town became prosperous during the following centuries. In 1743 Győr was elevated to
free royal townstatus by Maria Theresa. Many religious orders ( Jesuites, Carmelites) settled in the town and they built schools, churches, a hospital and a monastery. Napoleonoccupied the castle and had some of its walls blown up. The leaders of the town soon realized that the old ramparts weren't useful any more. Most of the ramparts were destroyed and thus the town could expand.
In mid-1800s, Győr's role in trade grew as the steamship traffic on the river
Danubebegan, but the town lost its importance in trade when the railway line between Budapest and Kanizsawas built in 1861. The town leaders compensated for this loss with industrialization. The town prospered till World War II, but during the war several buildings were destroyed.
The Jewish population (12.6% of the town according to the 1910 census) were ordered to move to the ghetto on May 13, 1944. Two trains carried the Jews of the town and the neighboring villages to Auschwitz on June 11 and on June 14. Together, 5,635 people were deported on these two days. Some exempted Jews were left behind, but they were massacred on March 26, 1945, just hours before liberation.
The 1950s and 60s brought even more change, only big block houses were built, and the old historical buildings weren't given care or attention. In the 1970s the reconstruction of the city centre began, old buildings were restored and reconstructed. In 1989 Győr won the European award for monument protection.
Győr has an enchanting centre and beautiful
Baroquebuildings. The ancient core of the city is Káptalan Hill at the confluence of three rivers: the Danube, Rába, and Rábca. Püspökvár, the residence of Győr’s bishops (5/A Káptalan Hill), can be easily recognised by its incomplete tower. Győr’s oldest buildings are the 13th-century dwelling tower and the 15th-century Gothic Dóczy Chapel. The Bishop’s Cathedral ranks as a ‘basilica minor’ (Apor Vilmos püspök Square).
A 100 year old Raba factory close to the historical downtown and by the river Danube will be replaced by a new development master-planned community called Városrét. The mixed-use community will have residential and commercial space as well as schools, clinics and parks.
Today Győr is one of the most important administrative and cultural centres of Hungary. The city is also a university town and a popular tourist destination.
Audihas a big factory in Győr where the Audi TTsports car, the A3 cabriolet, and many engines (1,913,053 engines in 2007) are built. [ [http://www.bbj.hu/news/news_35128.html Audi ups Hungarian output] BBJ.hu] [ [http://www.volkswagenag.com/vwag/vwcorp/info_center/en/news/2007/11/Produktionsstart.html Start of production and world premiere for the Audi A3 Cabriolet in Hungary] Volkswagen AG] These engines include the LamborghiniV10 block. [ [http://www.lambocars.com/archive/newl140.htm First spyshots of the Lamborghini L140 model] LamboCars.com]
Emil Zuckerkandl, born here
Johann Georg Albrechtsberger
Samuel Aba of Hungary
Miklós Borsos- sculptor
Mathias Unger senior and junior, playing-card makers
Alois/Alajos Unger, painter
Sándor Liezen-Mayer, painter
Bela Brozsek, co-owner of cognitive imaging
Győr is the home of the well known Győri ETO Sport Club which have many sport divisions. The most popular sport in the city is handball. The
Győri ETO KCis the number one team in women's handball in Hungary. Győri ETO FChas a glorious history in Hungarian football.
Győr is twinned with:
* [http://www.gyor.hu/ Official site] (Hungarian, English and German)
* [http://info-gyor.com/ Info Győr.com , Győr's high-class information portal]
* [http://www.gyor-online.hu/ A portal site] (in Hungarian)
* [http://www.panoramio.com/photo/7300649 Aerial view of Gyor by Volkan Yuksel]
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Look at other dictionaries:
Gyor — Győr … Deutsch Wikipedia
Győr — Győr … Deutsch Wikipedia
Győr — Escudo … Wikipedia Español
Gyor — Győr Pour l ancien comitat du royaume de Hongrie, voir Comitat de Győr. Győr … Wikipédia en Français
Györ — • A Hungarian see, suffragan to the Archdiocese of Gran Catholic Encyclopedia. Kevin Knight. 2006. Gyor Györ † … Catholic encyclopedia
GYÖR — Au confluent de la Rába et du Danube, dans la riche plaine de Kisalföld dont elle est la ville maîtresse, Györ, chef lieu du comitat de Györ Sopron, comptait 130 000 habitants en 1993. Si déjà au Moyen Âge la ville est un marché très fréquenté,… … Encyclopédie Universelle
GYÖR — (Ger. Raab), city in northwest Hungary, near the Austrian border. The earliest information on Jewish settlement there dates from the last third of the 14th century, though it is probable that an organized community had existed earlier. A Jews… … Encyclopedia of Judaism
Györ — Györ, Stadt, so v.w. Raab … Pierer's Universal-Lexikon
Györ — (spr. djör), ungar. Name der Stadt Raab (s. d.) … Meyers Großes Konversations-Lexikon
Győr — [djøːr], Stadt in Ungarn, Raab … Universal-Lexikon
Győr — (Hungarian), Raab (German), Ráb (Czech) … Names of cities in different languages