Győr


Győr

Infobox Settlement



image_caption = Széchenyi Square
image_shield = WĘG Győr COA.jpg
subdivision_type = Country
subdivision_name = HUN
timezone=CET
utc_offset=+1
timezone_DST=CEST
utc_offset_DST=+2
pushpin_

pushpin_label_position =
pushpin_map_caption =Location of Győr
pushpin_mapsize =
official_name=Győr


subdivision_type1=County
subdivision_name1=Győr-Moson-Sopron
area_total_km2=174.61
population_total=127594|population_footnotes=
population_as_of=2005|population_density_km2=730.71
postal_code_type=Postal code
postal_code=9000
area_code=96
latd=47.68403
longd=17.63507

Győr (IPA2|ˈɟøːr, Audio|Hu-Györ.ogg|pronunciation, known under alternative names) is the most important city of northwest Hungary, the capital of Győr-Moson-Sopron county and lies on one of the important roads of Central Europe, halfway between Budapest and Vienna. The city is the sixth largest in Hungary and one of the five main regional centres of the country.

Names

In other languages: Croatian: "Jura, Đura, Vjura", German: "Raab", Slovak: "Ráb", Turkish: "Yanık kale", Serbian: Ђур, "Đur", or Јанок, "Janok", _ru. Дьёр, "Dyor". See also: Names of European cities in different languages.

History

The area has been inhabited since the ancient times. The first large settlement dates back to the 5th century BCE, its inhabitants were Celts. They named the town "Arrabona", a name that was used for eight centuries and its shortened form is still used as the German ("Raab") and Slovak ("Ráb") name of the city.

Roman merchants moved to Arrabona during the 1st century BCE, and around 10 CE the Roman army occupied the northern part of Western Hungary which they called "Pannonia". Although the Roman Empire abandoned the area in the 4th century due to constant attacks of the tribes living east from the area, the town remained inhabited.

Around 500 the territory was settled by Slavs, in 547 by the Lombards, in 568-c.800 by the Avars, then under Frankish and Slavic influence, then between 880 and 894 it was part of Great Moravia, and then shortly under East Frankish influence.

The Magyars occupied the town around 900 and fortified the abandoned Roman fortress. Stephen I, the first king of Hungary founded an episcopate there. The town received its Hungarian name "Győr". The Hungarians lived in tents, later in cottages, in the area, which is now the southeastern part of the city centre. The town was affected by all the trials and tribulations of the history of Hungary; it was occupied by Mongols during the Mongol invasion of Hungary (1241–1242) and was destroyed then by the Czech army in 1271.

After the desastrous battle of Mohács, Tamás Nádasdy and Baron György Cseszneky occupied the town for King Ferdinand I while John Zápolya also was attempting to take it up. During the Ottoman occupation of present-day Hungary (1541 - late 17th century), Győr's commander Kristóf Lamberg thought it would be futile to try to defend the town from the Turkish army, and he burnt the whole town instead; the Turkish found nothing but blackened ruins, hence the Turkish name for Győr, "Yanık kale" ("burnt city").

The town has been rebuilt and surrounded with a castle and a city wall, designed by the leading Italian builders of the era. The town changed a lot during these years, with lots of new buildings built in Renaissance style but the main square and the grid of streets remained.

In 1594, after the death of Baron János Cseszneky, captain of Hungarian foot-soldiers, the Turkish army occupied the castle and the town, but in 1598 the Hungarian and Austrian army managed to occupy it again.

In 1683, Turks returned briefly, only to leave again after being defeated in the Battle of Vienna.

The town became prosperous during the following centuries. In 1743 Győr was elevated to free royal town status by Maria Theresa. Many religious orders (Jesuites, Carmelites) settled in the town and they built schools, churches, a hospital and a monastery.

Napoleon occupied the castle and had some of its walls blown up. The leaders of the town soon realized that the old ramparts weren't useful any more. Most of the ramparts were destroyed and thus the town could expand.

In mid-1800s, Győr's role in trade grew as the steamship traffic on the river Danube began, but the town lost its importance in trade when the railway line between Budapest and Kanizsa was built in 1861. The town leaders compensated for this loss with industrialization. The town prospered till World War II, but during the war several buildings were destroyed.

The Jewish population (12.6% of the town according to the 1910 census) were ordered to move to the ghetto on May 13, 1944. Two trains carried the Jews of the town and the neighboring villages to Auschwitz on June 11 and on June 14. Together, 5,635 people were deported on these two days. Some exempted Jews were left behind, but they were massacred on March 26, 1945, just hours before liberation.

The 1950s and 60s brought even more change, only big block houses were built, and the old historical buildings weren't given care or attention. In the 1970s the reconstruction of the city centre began, old buildings were restored and reconstructed. In 1989 Győr won the European award for monument protection.

Győr has an enchanting centre and beautiful Baroque buildings. The ancient core of the city is Káptalan Hill at the confluence of three rivers: the Danube, Rába, and Rábca. Püspökvár, the residence of Győr’s bishops (5/A Káptalan Hill), can be easily recognised by its incomplete tower. Győr’s oldest buildings are the 13th-century dwelling tower and the 15th-century Gothic Dóczy Chapel. The Bishop’s Cathedral ranks as a ‘basilica minor’ (Apor Vilmos püspök Square).

A 100 year old Raba factory close to the historical downtown and by the river Danube will be replaced by a new development master-planned community called Városrét. The mixed-use community will have residential and commercial space as well as schools, clinics and parks.

Today Győr is one of the most important administrative and cultural centres of Hungary. The city is also a university town and a popular tourist destination.

Tourist sights

* Historical centre
* Cathedral (originally Romanesque; rebuilt in Gothic and Baroque style)
* City Hall

Industry

* Audi has a big factory in Győr where the Audi TT sports car, the A3 cabriolet, and many engines (1,913,053 engines in 2007) are built. [ [http://www.bbj.hu/news/news_35128.html Audi ups Hungarian output] BBJ.hu] [ [http://www.volkswagenag.com/vwag/vwcorp/info_center/en/news/2007/11/Produktionsstart.html Start of production and world premiere for the Audi A3 Cabriolet in Hungary] Volkswagen AG] These engines include the Lamborghini V10 block. [ [http://www.lambocars.com/archive/newl140.htm First spyshots of the Lamborghini L140 model] LamboCars.com]

People

* Charlemagne
* Emil Zuckerkandl, born here
* Raimondo Montecuccoli
* Johann Georg Albrechtsberger
* Tamás Bakócz
* Ľudovít Štúr
* Josip Jelačić
* Josef Dobrovský
* Tibor Varga
* Frigyes Riesz
* Marcel Riesz
* Izidor Guzmics
* Gyula König
* József Szlávy
* Stanley Jaki
* Antal Pusztai
* Samuel Aba of Hungary
* Miklós Borsos - sculptor
* Mathias Unger senior and junior, playing-card makers
* Alois/Alajos Unger, painter
* Sándor Liezen-Mayer, painter
* Bela Brozsek, co-owner of cognitive imaging

ports

Győr is the home of the well known Győri ETO Sport Club which have many sport divisions. The most popular sport in the city is handball. The Győri ETO KC is the number one team in women's handball in Hungary. Győri ETO FC has a glorious history in Hungarian football.

Gallery

Twin towns

Győr is twinned with:

References

External links

* [http://www.gyor.hu/ Official site] (Hungarian, English and German)
* [http://info-gyor.com/ Info Győr.com , Győr's high-class information portal]
*Wikitravel
* [http://www.gyor-online.hu/ A portal site] (in Hungarian)
* [http://www.civertan.hu/legifoto/legifoto.php?page_level=215&pageNum_
]
* [http://www.panoramio.com/photo/7300649 Aerial view of Gyor by Volkan Yuksel]


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Look at other dictionaries:

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  • Gyor — Győr  Pour l ancien comitat du royaume de Hongrie, voir Comitat de Győr. Győr …   Wikipédia en Français

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  • GYÖR — (Ger. Raab), city in northwest Hungary, near the Austrian border. The earliest information on Jewish settlement there dates from the last third of the 14th century, though it is probable that an organized community had existed earlier. A Jews… …   Encyclopedia of Judaism

  • Györ — Györ, Stadt, so v.w. Raab …   Pierer's Universal-Lexikon

  • Györ — (spr. djör), ungar. Name der Stadt Raab (s. d.) …   Meyers Großes Konversations-Lexikon

  • Győr —   [djøːr], Stadt in Ungarn, Raab …   Universal-Lexikon

  • Győr — (Hungarian), Raab (German), Ráb (Czech) …   Names of cities in different languages


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