Gavdos


Gavdos

Infobox Greek Isles
name = Gavdos
native_name = Γαύδος
skyline = Gavdos, potamos beach from Ambellos path.jpg
sky_caption = Potamos-beach on Gavdos with the island of Crete in the background


coordinates = coord|34|50|N|24|05|E
chain = Cretean Islands
isles =
area = 27
highest_mount = Mt. Vardia
elevation = 345
periph = Crete
prefect = Chania
capital = Kastri
population = 98
pop_as_of = 2001
postal = 730 01
telephone = 28230
license = ΧΝ
website =

Gavdos or "Gávdhos" (Greek: Γαύδος) is the southernmost Greek island, located to the south of its much bigger neighbour, Crete, of which it is administratively a part, in the prefecture of Chania. It forms a community with surrounding islets and is part of the former province of Selino. It is the southernmost point of Europe.

Name

Gávdhos has been known by a wide variety of names. For example, Gávdhos appears in the Biblical account of Paul's journey to Rome as "Cauda" (Καυδα). The island was also referred to as "Cauda" by Roman geographer Pomponius Mela, and as "Gaudos" by Pliny. Ptolemy called Gávdhos "Claudos". It has also been known as "Gozo". [ [http://bible.cc/acts/27-16.htm Acts 27:16] , Biblos.com parallel bible] The Venetians called it "Gotzo", perhaps in imitation of the Maltese island "Gozo". [ [http://www.kreta2005.nl/uk/gavdos.html "The island of Gavdos"] , [http://www.kreta2005.nl/uk/index.html Crete Travel Guide] ] From the 17th to the 19th centuries, the island was known as "Gondzo". A previous Turkish name of Godzo was "Bougadoz".

Geography

The island is convert|26|nmi|km|0 south of Hora Sfakion and is 27 km² in area. The island is roughly triangular in shape. The southeastern corner is a rocky peninsula with a natural arch carved by the elements, called Trypiti. A sculpture of an oversized chair sits on top of Trypiti.

There is an even tinier island belonging to Gavdos called "Gavdopoula" to the north and east of Gavdos. Gavdos and Gavdopoula are covered with phrygana, low-lying shrubs. Both are important stops for migrating birds. [ [http://www.gavdos-online.com/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=14&Itemid=17 "European populations of migratory birds"] , "Natural History Museum of Crete" of the University of Crete, Flora and Fauna on Gavdos, [http://www.gavdos-online.com/index.php?option=com_frontpage&Itemid=1 Gavdos Online Service] , March 1, 2008.] Gavdos also has a variety of other vegetation, such as maquis as well as forests of pines and junipers. [ [http://www.ornithologiki.gr/en/sppe/en181.php "GR181 Gavdos and Gavdopoula islands"] , Important Areas for the Birds of Greece, Hellenic Ornithological Society, 2007]

Demographics

There are only a small number of year-round residents of Gavdos and services for tourists are basic. As of 2001, the total population of Gavdos was measured as 98 people. [ [http://www.eetaa.gr/cgi-bin/msql/esye/Ota01 Απογραφή πληθυσμού 2001 ] ] The truth is that fewer than 50 people live permanently on the island, and during the census period (2 days) 98 people were on the island. In the summer the total people on the island can reach over 3,500, most of whom are campers. The harbour for ferries is Karave (also spelled "Carave", and "Karabe"). The island's capital is Kastri. The most southern populated village is Vatsiana, with a total permanent population of 2 people.

History

Gavdos has supported a permanent population since Neolithic times. However, the island currently has very few permanent residents.

Gavdos has been identified as the site of the mythical Ogygia where Kalypso held Odysseus prisoner. Archaeological evidence showed that the Roman empire was active on the island. During this time the flora of the island was overexploited, this started a process of erosion which continued to this very day.

The Apostle Paul passed to the lee of Gavdos on his final voyage to Rome. After leaving Crete, a storm swept up blowing his ship off course such that he passed near to the island. The account is recorded in Acts 27:16.

Later, at the time of the Byzantine Empire, the island had some 8,000 inhabitants (900-1000 AD) and supported 3 bishops and an archbishop. During the Ottoman Empire's reign on the island, which lasted from 1665 up until 1895, Gavdos was known as Gondzo. During this period the population decreased considerably to only 500 inhabitants by 1882. A reference to Saracens on the island survives - a beach is named Sarakiniko (a name meaning "of the Saracens" in Greek).

In the 1930s the island was used as a place of exile of communists; more than 250 people were exiled including leading figures of the Greek movement, such as Markos Vafiadis. During World War II, allied forces evacuated some forces to Gavdos following the German victory in the battle of Crete [cite news | first= | last= | coauthors= | title=Nazis Pound Crete Allies | date=Jun 1, 1941 | publisher= | url =http://pqasb.pqarchiver.com/latimes/access/411267591.html?dids=411267591:411267591&FMT=ABS&FMTS=ABS:AI&date=Jun+01%2C+1941&author=&pub=Los+Angeles+Times&desc=Nazis+Pound+Crete+Allies&pqatl=google | work =Los Angeles Times | pages = | accessdate = 2007-09-27 | language = ] .

Later on, the general phase of urbanization that started in other parts of Greece in the 1960s, took place in the 1950s on Gavdos. During that period the islanders exchanged their land on Gavdos with ex-Turkish land on Crete, which had now become exchangeable via the state. Upon settling in Crete they created a community known as Gavdiotika, which is part of the town of Paleochora.

Economy

There are many abandoned terraces on Gavdos where farmers used to grow crops on the hillsides. There still is some agriculture on Gavdos. During the summer, the population of the island swells to a few thousand because of tourists, although there are few facilities for tourists. There is one year-round cafe in Carave ("Karabe") on Gavdos run by Evangelina Tsigonakis. There is a modern non-functioning reproduction lighthouse tower on Gavdos which now serves as a cafe during the summer season; the complex also contains a museum on the history of the original lighthouse with several rooms of photos and antique equipment. Gavdos is home to an FM radio station, "Gavdosfm 88.8". [ [http://www.gavdosfm.gr/ Gavdosfm homepage] ]

Politics

Following years of isolation, in 1996 the island came to media prominence. In a NATO exercise Gavdos was the focal point of a contestation between Greece and Turkey. Following that, prime minister Simitis, visited Gavdos and announced a five-year, 1.5 million plan for Gavdos' development.

In 2001, Costis Stephanopoulos, the Greek President, inaugurated a telemedicine centre on Gavdos, an island which has never had a doctor. This exercise, however, was marred as the island's infrastructure could not provide the necessary power required by the centre. For the purposes of the inauguration, generators were brought in, which were then removed. However, a 2008 BBC News report is that the island now features stable electrical power, and young medical graduates can serve for six months on Gavdos in lieu of compulsory military service. But visitors to Gavdos in June of 2008 found that the power station was not functioning and that businesses were relying on gas generators operated for a few hours a night; locals stated that the power station worked initially, but no longer serves the entire island reliably.

In 2002, the island was in the news again, due to the arrests of members of the terrorist group November 17. The leader of this organization had been living openly for several years on Gavdos as a beekeeper. [http://newsvote.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/programmes/from_our_own_correspondent/7205519.stm "The Med's 'forgotten' island: It is hard to imagine a more spectacular edge of a continent"] , John Pickford, BBC News, January 24, 2008.]

ee also

*List of communities of Chania

References

External links

* [http://www.unterwasserwelt-history.de/html/insel_gavdos.html Gavdos harbour-Story] de icon
* [http://www.sfakia-crete.com/sfakia-crete/ferries.html Crete: how to get there and around: Ferries] en
* [http://newsvote.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/programmes/from_our_own_correspondent/7205519.stm The Med's 'forgotten' island (BBC)] en
* [http://www.gavdos-online.com Gavdos Traveler Service ] ende icon


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