- Cebuano literature
Cebuano literature refers to the
literary works written in Cebuano, a language widely spoken in the Philippines. The term is most often extended to cover the oral literary forms in pre-Spanish Philippines.
While the majority of Cebuano writers are based in the
Visayasand Mindanao, the recognized literary outlet for them, Bisaya Magasin, is based in the city of Makati, while there is also a lively community of writers in the language which is based outside the country. The term Cebuano literature, therefore, encompasses not only those Visayas- and Mindanao-based writers writing in Cebuano, but all written output in Cebuano, wherever its source.
Pre-Spanish and Spanish
Cebuano literature, as much as most
literature of the Philippines, started with fables and legends of pre-colonial Philippines down to the Mexican ( New Spain) and Spanish influences. Although existence of a pre-hispanical writing system in Luzonis attested, there is little proof that " baybayin" (sometimes erroneously called "alibata") was widespread in the Visayas. Most of the literature produced during was oral. They were documented by the Spanish Jesuit Fr. Ignatio Francisco Alzinal.
During Spanish times, the religious theme was predominant. Novenas and gozos, most notably the "Bato Balani" for the Sto. Niño.
American period (The
Vicente SottoEra )
The first written Cebuano short story is "Maming", by
Vicente Sotto, "The Father of Cebuano Literature". The story was published in the first issue ( July 16, 1900) of his " Ang Suga". Two years later Sotto wrote, directed, and produced the first Cebuano play, Elena.It was first performed at the Teatro Junquera (in what is now Cebu City) on May 18, 1902. The play established Sotto's reputation as a playwright.The dedication of the play by the playwright reads, "To My Motherland, that you may have remembrance of the glorious Revolution that redeemed you from enslavement. I dedicate this humble play to you." Vicente Sottoattacked the decadent forms of linambay in his newspaper Ang Suga. He was challenged by a friend to write his own play as he was always attacking the linambay form. Sotto wrote the Cebuano "Ang Paghigugma sa Yutang Nataohan" (Love of the Native Land) as a response. The play was successful; Sotto organized the Compania de Aficianados Filipinos. Within the year, two more plays were written by Sotto: "Elena", which deals of a girl's love for an insurrecto; and "Aurora", which deals with a scandal involving the priests and nuns of the Colegio de la Inmaculada Concepcion. Realism in Cebuano theater was stretched too much however; even Sotto himself was a victim of the movement he started, when prior to his running for mayor in 1907, a play entitled "Ang Taban" (1906, by Teodulfo V. Ylaya) was released. The play dealt with a kidnap allegation involving Sotto.
During the American period, Ang Suga became the medium for publication of Cebuano writers. A community of writers slowly grow, to include the names of Florentino Rallos, Filomeno Veloso, Marcial Velez, Timoteo Castro, Segundo Cinco, Vicente Ranudo, Dionisio Jakosalem, Selestino Rodriguez, Filomeno Roble, Juan Villagonzalo, Leoncio Avila and
Filemon Sotto. (Most of these people were recognized for their achievements by the generation right after them, as evidenced by the use of their names for major streets of the City of Cebu, but their role in the furtherance of Cebuano cultureis lost to subsequent generations.) In the 1900, Conant, Carlos Everett with V. Soto and J. Villagonzalo work on a Bisaya-English dictionary. J. Villagonzalo was the first to write a Cebuano novel.
Four typical novels on the love theme written by popular writers during the American period would represent the pre-war writers' subconscious but collective efforts in creating a common core of meanings and values in the face of new American culture. These are "Felicitas" by
Uldarico Alviolain 1912, "Mahinuklugong Paglubong Kang Alicia" ("The Sad Burial of Alicia") by Vicente Garcesin 1924, "Apdo sa Kagul-anan" ("Bitterness of Sorrow") by Angel Enemecioin 1928-29, and "Ang Tinagoan" ("The Secret") by Vicente Ramain 1933-34. While "Felicitas" and "Paglubong" assert the value of marital fidelity and "Apdo" that of feminine chastity, "Tinagoan" challenges the emergent value that tolerates divorce. Such novels were seen as fictionalized renditions of their writers' stand or traditions and practices which were subjected to debate in the school stage and within the pages of periodicals.
Golden Age of the Vernacular
The pre-war period in the Philippines is sometimes referred to as the Golden Age of Vernacular Literature, with the 1930s marking a boundary between two kinds of popular writing: the predominantly propagandistic and the more commercialized escapist literature that proliferated since the Commonwealth.
In the year 1930,
Bisaya Magasinstarted publishing.
In 1936 Cebuano writers started publishing anthologies; readers engaged in amateur literary criticism; and complaints of plagiarism livened up the weekly news. Periodicals that featured creative writing mushroomed, although most of these were short-lived.
The generally considered first feminist Cebuano novel, "Lourdes" by
Gardeopatra Quijanowas serialized in the period May 26to September 23, 1939in "Bag-ong Kusog" (literary "New Force"), the most popular pre-war periodical.
It has been predicted by no less than the late novelist and Philippine National Artist for Literature
N. V. M. Gonzálezthat Philippine literature in English will die, leaving the regional literature (Ilokano, Waray, etc.). In the case of Cebuano literature, this has been the case.
Some of the prominent writers and poets in the Visayas and Mindanao who used to write in English have shifted to Cebuano. Among them are Davao-based
Macario Tiu, Don Pag-usara, and Satur Apoyon, and Cebu-based Ernesto Lariosa(a Focus Philippines Poetry Awardee in 1975) and Rene Amper(a two-time Palanca awardee for English poetry. These giants of Cebuano literature are now regularly contributing to Bisaya Magasin; their shift to Cebuano writing has influenced young Cebu and Mindanao-based writers in English to follow suit (among them are Michael Obenieta, Gerard Pareja, Adonis Durado, Januar Yap, Jeneen Garcia, Marvi Gil, Delora Sales, Cora Almerinoand Raul Moldez).
In 1991, Cebuano poet
Ernesto Lariosareceived a grant from the Cultural Center of the Philippines. He used the grant to introduce the "4-s" in Cebuano poetry: "social sense", "sound" and "story". The language he used was slack, devoid of strong metaphors. He used the language of the home and of the streets.
Writer-scholar Dr. Erlinda Alburo, director of the
Cebuano Studies Centerof the University of San Carlosnoted in a forum sponsored by the university's theater guild in 2003 that the young writers (those given above) have given a new voice to Cebuano fiction. They have introduced modern writing styles, experimented with the Cebuano language and explored themes which have never been elaborated before by their predecessors.
There are now emerging number of publications featuring fiction and poetry in Cebuano. The ownership of the de-facto literary journal,
Bisaya Magasin, was transferred from the Chinese-owned Liwayway Publishing, Inc.to Napoleon Rama's Manila Bulletin Publishingin 2003, ushering a change in layout, acceptance policies, and an increase in contributors' fees.
Aside from the reinvigoration of Bisaya Magasin, Cebu-based publishing houses have also started tabloids in the language ("Banat News" of Freeman Publications and "SunStar SuperBalita" of SunStar Publications). These tabloids have bigger circulation than their English counterparts.
There are also unconfirmed reports that Dr.
Mel M. Allego, a giant in Cebuano literature, will be returning from the United States in 2007 and will start his own broadsheetin Cebuano.
U. P. National Writers Workshopevery October and the Iligan National Writers Workshopevery summer have reserved slots for Cebuano writers. In every edition of these workshops, there are Cebuano works that are being dissected or discussed by the panelists.
In 1998, the
Carlos Palanca Memorial Awards for Literatureopened the Cebuano short story category.
Literature of the Philippines
Vicente SottoFather of modern Cebuano Journalism,Literature and Language
* Alburo, Erlinda. "Gardeopatra Quijano's 'Lourdes': The Nascent of the Feminist Cebuano Novel". Budaya Vol. 1, p. 1-3. (Manila: G&D Publishing, 2003)
*ceb icon [http://www.seasite.niu.edu/Tagalog/Cebu%20Culture/cebu_folklore_fs.html Visayan folklore]
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