- Bayram (Turkey)
:"This article is about Turkish
festivals. For other uses, see also Bayram (disambiguation)."
Bayram is the Turkish word for a nationally celebrated festival, applicable to both national (i.e. secular) or religious celebrations. In accordance with this dual applicability, the method with which one determines the yearly timing of Bayrams is different for national and religious holidays.
State holidays in Turkey have set dates under the nationally-used
Gregorian Calendar, while the religious holidays are coordinated and publicly announced in advance by the Government's Presidency of Religious Affairs department according to the Lunar Calendar, and are subsequently accommodated into the national Gregorian Calendar, which results in the dates for religious holidays changing every year with a shift margin of approximately 11 days.
Large scale non-Turkish or non-Islamic traditions and celebrations may similarly be called Bayram, as illustrated by
Halloweenbeing referred to as "Cadılar Bayramı" (i.e. "Bayram of Witches"), Easteras "Paskalya Bayramı" (i.e. "Easter Bayram"), Christmasas "Noel Bayramı" (i.e. "Christmas Bayram"), or Hanukkahas "Yeniden Adanma Bayramı" (i.e. "Renewal/Rededication Bayram"). However, it should be noted that not every special occasion or holiday is referred to as a Bayram, as illustrated by the case of New Year's Eve, World Health Dayor Liberation of Istanbul, among others.
National Bayrams of Turkey
National Sovereignty and Children's Day("Ulusal Egemenlik ve Çocuk Bayramı"), April 23( 1923) Commemoration of Atatürk, Youth and Sports Day("Atatürk'ü Anma, Gençlik ve Spor Bayramı"), May 19( 1919) Victory Day("Zafer Bayramı"), August 30( 1922) Republic Day("Cumhuriyet Bayramı"), October 29( 1923)
Religious Bayrams of Turkey
The three-day, post-
Ramadan, Şeker/Ramazan Bayramı ( Eid ul-Fitr; i.e. "Bayram of Sweets" or "Ramadan Bayram")
The four-day Kurban Bayramı (
Eid ul-Adha; i.e. "Sacrifice Bayram")
Public holidays in Turkey
* [http://www.meb.gov.tr/belirligunler/belirli_gun1.htm Ministry of National Education of the Republic of Turkey, List of National Days and Holidays]
* [http://www.diyanet.gov.tr/turkish/default.asp# Presidency of Religious Affairs of the Republic of Turkey, List of Religious Days and Holidays]
* [http://www.tdk.gov.tr/TR/SozBul.aspx?F6E10F8892433CFFAAF6AA849816B2EF4376734BED947CDE&Kelime=bayram The Turkish Language Association of the Republic of Turkey definition of the word, Bayram]
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