Sonatina

A sonatina is literally a small sonata. As a musical term, sonatina has no single strict definition; it is rather a title applied by the composer to a piece that is in basic sonata form, but is shorter, lighter in character, or more elementary technically than a typical sonata. ["Collins Music Encyclopedia" (1959: William Collins & Co. Ltd.): sonatina] The term has been in use at least since the late baroque; there is a one-page, one-movement harpsichord piece by Handel called "Sonatina". ["Oxford Companion to Music" by Percy A. Scholes (1938, 1978 "et al").: O.U.P.: sonatina.] It is most often applied to solo keyboard works, but a number of composers have written sonatinas for violin and piano (see list under Violin sonata), e.g. Sonatina in G major for Violin and Piano by Antonín Dvořák, and occasionally for other instruments, e.g. the Clarinet Sonatina by Malcolm Arnold.

Like many musical terms, sonatina is used inconsistently. The most common meaning is a short, easy sonata suitable for students, such as the piano sonatinas of Clementi. However, by no means are all sonatinas technically undemanding, for example the virtuoso sonatinas of Busoni and Alkan, and the "Sonatine" of Ravel, whose title reflects its neo-classical quality. On the other hand, some sonatas could equally as well have been called sonatinas: for example Beethoven's Op. 49, titled by the composer "Zwei Leichte Sonaten für das Pianoforte" ("Two Easy Sonatas for Piano") comprise only two short movements each, a sonata-allegro and a short rondo (No. 1) or minuet (No. 2), all well within the grasp of the intermediate student. Other works indeed titled "Sonatina" are attributed to Beethoven, like the Sonatina in F major, however.

In general, a sonatina will have one or more of the following characteristics: brevity; fewer movements than the four of the late classical sonata; technical simplicity; a lighter, less serious character; and (in post-romantic music) a neo-classical style or a reference to earlier music. Muzio Clementi's sonatinas op. 36 are very popular among students.

The first (or only) movement is generally in an abbreviated sonata form, with little or no development of the themes. For this reason, a sonatina is sometimes defined, especially in British usage, as a short piece in sonata form in which the development section is quite perfunctory or entirely absent: [ "Encyclopaedia Britannica Online": [http://www.britannica.com/eb/topic-554229/sonata sonata] ] the exposition is followed immediately by a brief bridge passage to modulate back to the home key for the recapitulation. Subsequent movements (at most two) may be in any of the common forms: e.g. a minuet or scherzo, a slow theme-and-variations, or a rondo.

ignificant Composers of Sonatinas for Solo Piano

*Bela Bartok
*Ludwig van Beethoven
*Ferruccio Busoni
*Muzio Clementi
*Anton Diabelli
*Jan Ladislav Dussek
*Stephen Heller
*Aram Khachaturian
*Friedrich Kuhlau
*Heinrich Lichner
*Frank Lynes
*Jean Sibelius
*Fritz Spindler

References


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Look at other dictionaries:

  • sonatină — SONATÍNĂ, sonatine, s.f. Sonată de proporţii mai mici. – Din fr. sonatine, it. sonatina, germ. Sonatine. Trimis de LauraGellner, 23.07.2004. Sursa: DEX 98  sonatínă s. f., g. d. art. sonatínei; pl. sonatíne …   Dicționar Român

  • sonatina — (Del it. sonatina). f. Mús. Sonata corta y, por lo común, de fácil ejecución …   Diccionario de la lengua española

  • Sonatina — So na*ti na, n. [It.] (Mus.) A short and simple sonata. [1913 Webster] …   The Collaborative International Dictionary of English

  • sonatína — ž glazb. sonata manjeg opsega, jednostavna za izvođenje …   Veliki rječnik hrvatskoga jezika

  • sonatina — ит. [сонати/на], англ. [сэнати/нэ] sonatine фр. [сонати/н] Sonatine нем. [сонати/нэ] сонатина …   Словарь иностранных музыкальных терминов

  • sonatina — s. f. 1. Pequena sonata. 2. Sonata de música fácil para principiantes …   Dicionário da Língua Portuguesa

  • sonatina — sonatína ž DEFINICIJA glazb. sonata manjeg opsega, jednostavna za izvođenje ETIMOLOGIJA vidi sonata …   Hrvatski jezični portal

  • sonatina — sonatinà dkt …   Bendrinės lietuvių kalbos žodyno antraštynas

  • sonatina — {{/stl 13}}{{stl 8}}rz. ż Ia, CMc. sonatinanie, muz. {{/stl 8}}{{stl 7}} sonata mniejszych rozmiarów, prosta w budowie, zwykle pogodna w nastroju, często przeznaczona do celów dydaktycznych <wł.> {{/stl 7}} …   Langenscheidt Polski wyjaśnień

  • sonatina — [sän΄ə tē′nə] n. [It, dim. of sonata] a short or simplified sonata …   English World dictionary


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