Girl Power

The phrase "Girl Power" is a term of empowerment, expressed a cultural phenomenon of the mid-late 1990s to the early 2000s, and is also linked to third-wave feminism.

Early usage

The phrase is sometimes spelled as "grrrl power", initially associated with "Riot Grrrl". i [ [http://books.google.com/books?hl=en&lr=&id=-KiJuU30xhEC&oi=fnd&pg=PA230&dq=Riot+Grrrls++grrrl+power&ots=LhyYWE5tWZ&sig=qeaVE5Al2hoOBWXD62w3pBzavVI Rebel Girl You Are the Queen of My World: Feminism, Subculture, and Grrrl Power.] ] "Girl power" was later utilized by a number of bands during the early 1990s, such as the Welsh indie band Helen Love [ [http://homepage.ntlworld.com/elizabeth.ercocklly/helenlov.htm Helen Love - Gabba Gabba We Accept You] ] and the Plumstead pop-punk duo Shampoo. [ [http://www.freewilliamsburg.com/april_2001/shampoo.html Shampoo - Interview by Free Williamsburg] ]

pice Girls and scholarship

The phrase entered the mainstream, however, during the mid-1990s with the British singing group, "The Spice Girls." [ [http://harvardmagazine.com/2008/01/from-title-ix-to-riot-gr.html From Title IX to Riot Grrrls] ] [ [http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/entertainment/38786.stm BBC News | Girl power | You've come a long way baby ] ] [ [http://www.theorycards.org.uk/card15.htm Girl Power - Theory.org.uk trading cards ] ] [ [http://www.dailymail.co.uk/pages/live/femail/article.html?in_article_id=396834&in_page_id=1879 Girl Power: how it betrayed us] ] Professor Susan Hopkins, in her 2002 text, "", suggested a correlation between "Girl Power", "The Spice Girls", and female action heroes at the end of the 20th century. [ [http://www.sensesofcinema.com/contents/02/22/power_chicks.html Super Slick Power Chicks: The New Force or Elaborate Parody?] ]

Other scholars have also examined the phrase, "girl power," often within the context of the academic field, "Buffy Studies." [ [http://www.thirdspace.ca/articles/karras.htm "The Third Wave's Final girl: Buffy the Vampire Slayer"] ] Media theorist Kathleen Rowe Karlyn in her article "Scream, Popular Culture, and Feminism's Third Wave: I'm Not My Mother" [ [http://www.genders.org/g38/g38_rowe_karlyn.html "Scream, Popular Culture, and Feminism's Third Wave: I'm Not My Mother"] ] and Irene Karras in "The Third Wave's Final girl: Buffy the Vampire Slayer" suggest a link with third-wave feminism. Frances Early and Kathleen Kennedy in the introduction to " [http://www.syracuseuniversitypress.syr.edu/spring-2003-catalog/athenas-daughters.html Athena’s Daughters: Television’s New Women Warriors] ", discuss what they describe as a link between girl power and a "new" image of women warriors in popular culture. [ [http://www.h-net.org/reviews/showrev.cgi?path=238391094059727 Book review] ]

Oxford English Dictionary

In 2001, the Oxford English Dictionary added the term "Girl Power!"," [ [http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/uk/1765706.stm BBC News | UK | Girl power goes mainstream ] ] defining this phrase as:

:Power exercised by girls; spec. a self-reliant attitude among girls and young women manifested in ambition, assertiveness, and individualism. Although also used more widely (esp. as a slogan), the term has been particularly and repeatedly associated with popular music; most notably in the early 1990s with the briefly prominent ‘riot girl’ movement in the United States (cf. RIOT GIRL n.); then, in the late 1990s, with the British all-female group The "Spice Girls." [ [http://dictionary.oed.com/cgi/entry/00307048?single=1&query_type=word&queryword=girl+power&first=1&max_to_show=10 OED:Girl power] ]

The OED further offers an example of this term by quoting from "Angel Delight", an article in the March 24, 2001 issue of "Dreamwatch" about the television series "Dark Angel":

: After the Sarah Connors and Ellen Ripleys of the eighties, the nineties weren't so kind to the superwoman format—Xena Warrior Princess excepted. But it's a new millennium now, and while "Charlie's Angels" and "Crouching Tiger, Hidden Dragon" are kicking up a storm on movie screens, it's been down to James Cameron to bring empowered female warriors back to television screens. And tellingly, Cameron has done it by mixing the sober feminism of his "Terminator" and "Aliens" characters with the sexed-up Girl Power of a Britney Spears concert. The result is "Dark Angel". [ [http://www.darkangelfan.com/news/254.shtml E y e s <-> <-> O n l y ] ]

10 Golden Rules of Girl Power

# Be positive
# Be strong
# Don't let anyone put you down.
# Be in control of your own life and your destiny.
# Support your girl friends,
# and let them support you, too.
# Say what's on your mind.
# Approach life with attitude.
# Don't let anyone tell you that you can never do something because you're a girl.
# Have fun.

See also

* Buffy Studies
* Girl Heroes
* List of women warriors in literature and popular culture
* Post-feminism

References

Bibliography

* [http://daringivens.home.mindspring.com/btps.html Buffy The Patriarchy Slayer] - Bibliography of scholarly articles on "Buffy Studies."
*Early, Frances and Kathleen Kennedy, "Athena's Daughters: Television's New Women Warriors", Syracuse University Press, 2003.
*Gateward, Frances. "Sugar, Spice, and Everything Nice. Cinemas of Girlhood." Detroit: Wayne State University Press, 2002.
*Helford, Elyce Rae. "Fantasy Girls : Gender in the New Universe of Science Fiction and Fantasy Television." Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield, 2000.
*Hopkins, Susan, "", Pluto Press Australia, 2002.
*Inness, Sherrie A. (ed.) "Action Chicks: New Images of Tough Women in Popular Culture", Palgrave Macmillan, 2004.
*———. "Tough Girls : Women Warriors and Wonder Women in Popular Culture". Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1999.
*———."Nancy Drew and Company : Culture, Gender, and Girls' Series." Bowling Green, OH: Bowling Green State University Popular Press, 1997.
* Karlyn, Kathleen Rowe. " [http://www.genders.org/g38/g38_rowe_karlyn.html Scream, Popular Culture, and Feminism's Third Wave: 'I'm Not My Mother'] . "Genders: Presenting Innovative Work in the Arts, Humanities, and Social Sciences" No. 38 (2003).
*Karras, Irene. " [http://www.thirdspace.ca/articles/karras.htm The Third Wave's Final Girl: Buffy the Vampire Slayer] ." "thirdspace" 1:2 (March 2002).
*" [http://www.blackwell-synergy.com/action/showFullText?submitFullText=Full+Text+HTML&doi=10.1111%2Fj.1540-5931.2006.00326.x Frustrating Female Heroism: Mixed Messages in Xena, Nikita, and Buffy] ." "The Journal of Popular Culture", Volume 39 Issue 5 (October 2006).
*Tasker, Yvonne. "Action and Adventure Cinema." New York: Routledge, 2004.


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