List of sovereign states
The list contains 204 entries. The states are divided using two distinct methods:
- The membership within the United Nations system column divides the states into two categories: 194 states that are either member states or observer states in the United Nations, and 10 other states.
- The sovereignty disputes column divides the states into two categories: 13 states whose sovereignty is disputed and 191 other states.
Compiling a list such as this can be a difficult and controversial process, as there is no definition that is binding on all the members of the community of nations concerning the criteria for statehood. For more information on the criteria used to determine the contents of this list, please see the criteria for inclusion section below.
List of states
Name in English, and the official, national, and other important languages of the state [Note 1] Membership within the UN System [Note 2] Sovereignty dispute [Note 3] Further information on status and recognition of sovereignty [Note 5] UN member states or observer states AbkhaziaAbkhazia → Afghanistan – Islamic Republic of Afghanistan UN member state None Albania – Republic of Albania UN member state None Algeria – People's Democratic Republic of Algeria UN member state None Andorra – Principality of Andorra UN member state None Andorra is a co-principality in which the office of head of state is jointly held ex officio by the French president and the bishop of the Roman Catholic diocese of Urgell, who himself is appointed by the Holy See. Angola – Republic of Angola UN member state None Antigua and Barbuda
- English: Antigua and Barbuda
UN member state None Antigua and Barbuda is a Commonwealth realm[Note 6] with 1 autonomous region, Barbuda.[Note 7] Argentina – Argentine Republic [Note 8] UN member state None Argentina is a federation of 23 provinces and 1 autonomous city. Argentina claims sovereignty over the Falkland Islands and South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands, which are administered by the United Kingdom. Argentina claims Argentine Antarctica as part of its national territory, officially a department of the province of Tierra del Fuego, Antarctica, and South Atlantic Islands, which overlaps with the claims of the UK and Chile.[Note 9] Armenia – Republic of Armenia UN member state None Armenia is not recognised by one UN member: Pakistan. Australia – Commonwealth of Australia
- English: Australia – Commonwealth of Australia
UN member state None Australia is a Commonwealth realm[Note 6] and a federation of 6 states and 10 territories. The external territories of Australia are: Austria – Republic of Austria UN member state None Member of the EU.[Note 4] Austria is a federation of 9 states (Bundesländer). Azerbaijan – Republic of Azerbaijan UN member state None Azerbaijan contains 2 autonomous regions, Nakhchivan and Nagorno-Karabakh (Dağlıq Qarabağ).[Note 7] In Nagorno-Karabakh, a de facto state has been established. Bahamas – Commonwealth of The Bahamas
- English: The Bahamas – Commonwealth of The Bahamas
UN member state None The Bahamas is a Commonwealth realm.[Note 6] Bahrain – Kingdom of Bahrain UN member state None Bangladesh – People's Republic of Bangladesh UN member state None Barbados
- English: Barbados
UN member state None Barbados is a Commonwealth realm.[Note 6] Belarus – Republic of Belarus UN member state None Belgium – Kingdom of Belgium UN member state None Member of the EU.[Note 4] Belgium is a federation divided into linguistic communities and regions. Belize
- English: Belize
UN member state None Belize is a Commonwealth realm.[Note 6] Benin – Republic of Benin [Note 10] UN member state None Bhutan – Kingdom of Bhutan UN member state None Bolivia – Plurinational State of Bolivia UN member state None Bosnia and Herzegovina UN member state None Bosnia and Herzegovina is a federation of 2 constituent units: the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina and the Republika Srpska.[Note 11] Botswana – Republic of Botswana UN member state None Brazil – Federative Republic of Brazil UN member state None Brazil is a federation of 26 states and 1 federal district. Brunei – State of Brunei, Abode of Peace UN member state None Brunei claims sovereignty over part of the Spratly Islands.[Note 12] Bulgaria – Republic of Bulgaria UN member state None Member of the EU.[Note 4] Burkina Faso [Note 13] UN member state None Burma – Republic of the Union of Myanmar [Note 14] UN member state None Burundi – Republic of Burundi UN member state None Cambodia – Kingdom of Cambodia UN member state None Cameroon – Republic of Cameroon UN member state None Canada [Note 15] UN member state None Canada is a Commonwealth realm[Note 6] and a federation of 10 provinces and 3 territories. Cape Verde – Republic of Cape Verde UN member state None Central African Republic UN member state None Chad – Republic of Chad UN member state None Chile – Republic of Chile UN member state None Easter Island and the Juan Fernández Islands are "special territories" of Chile in the Valparaíso Region. Chile claims part of Antarctica as a commune in its Magallanes and Antártica Chilena Region. Its claim overlaps with those of the UK and Argentina.[Note 9] China – People's Republic of China[Note 16]
- Chinese: 中国 – 中华人民共和国 → Zhōnggúo – Zhōnghuá Rénmín Gònghéguó
- Mongolian: [Note 17] → Bügüde Nayiramdaqu Dumdadu Arad Ulus
- Tibetan: རྒྱ་ནག – ཀྲུང་ ཧྭ་ མི་ དམངས་ སྤྱི་ མཐུན་ རྒྱལ་ ཁབ། → Zhunghua Mimang Jitun Gyalkab
- Kazakh: جۇڭگو – جۇڭحۋا حالىق رەسپۋبليكاسى → Juñgo – Juñxwa Xalıq Respwblïkası
- Korean: 중국 – 중화인민공화국 → Jungguk – Junghwa Inmin Gonghwaguk
- Uyghur: جۇڭگو – جۇڭخۇا خەلق جۇمھۇرىيىت → Junggo – Jungxua Xelq Jumhuriyiti
- Zhuang: Cunghgoz – Cunghvaz Yinzminz Gunghozgoz
UN member state Republic of ChinaClaimed by the The People's Republic of China (PRC) contains five autonomous regions, Guangxi, Inner Mongolia, Ningxia, Xinjiang and Tibet.[Note 7] Additionally, it has sovereignty over the Special Administrative Regions of:
It also claims:
- Taiwan and associated islands, Kinmen, Matsu, the Pratas and Itu Aba, which are governed by the Republic of China (which claims sovereignty over the whole of China);[Note 18]
- The Paracel Islands (disputed);[Note 19]
- The Spratly Islands (disputed);[Note 12]
- South Tibet (governed by India as part of Arunachal Pradesh).
Aksai Chin, controlled by the PRC, is claimed by India as a part of Jammu and Kashmir.[Note 20] The PRC is not recognised by 22 UN member states and the Holy See, which instead recognise the ROC.[Note 21]
China, Republic of (Taiwan) → Taiwan Colombia – Republic of Colombia UN member state None Comoros – Union of the Comoros UN member state None Comoros is a federation of 3 islands, and claims Mayotte, currently part of France, as a fourth.[Note 22] Comoros also disputes French sovereignty over Banc du Geyser. Congo, Democratic Republic of the (Congo-Kinshasa) [Note 23] UN member state None Congo, Republic of the (Congo-Brazzaville) UN member state None Costa Rica – Republic of Costa Rica UN member state None Côte d'Ivoire – Republic of Côte d'Ivoire (Ivory Coast) UN member state None Croatia – Republic of Croatia UN member state None Cuba – Republic of Cuba UN member state None Cyprus – Republic of Cyprus UN member state None Member of the EU.[Note 4] The northeastern part of the island is the de facto state of Northern Cyprus. Cyprus is not recognised by one UN member: Turkey.[Note 24] Czech Republic [Note 25] UN member state None Member of the EU.[Note 4] Denmark – Kingdom of Denmark UN member state None Member of the EU.[Note 4] Djibouti – Republic of Djibouti UN member state None Dominica – Commonwealth of Dominica
- English: Dominica – Commonwealth of Dominica
UN member state None Dominican Republic UN member state None East Timor – Democratic Republic of Timor-Leste [Note 27] UN member state None Ecuador – Republic of Ecuador UN member state None Egypt – Arab Republic of Egypt UN member state None El Salvador – Republic of El Salvador UN member state None Equatorial Guinea – Republic of Equatorial Guinea UN member state None Eritrea – State of Eritrea UN member state None Estonia – Republic of Estonia UN member state None Member of the EU.[Note 4] Ethiopia – Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia UN member state None Ethiopia is a federation of 9 regions and 2 chartered cities. Fiji – Republic of Fiji UN member state None Fiji contains 1 autonomous region, Rotuma.[Note 7] Finland – Republic of Finland UN member state None Member of the EU.[Note 4] France – French Republic UN member state None Member of the EU.[Note 4] French overseas regions/departments (French Guiana, Guadeloupe, Martinique, Mayotte and Réunion) are full, integral parts of France.
The French Republic also includes the overseas territories of:
- Clipperton Island
- French Polynesia
- New Caledonia
- Saint Martin
- Saint Pierre and Miquelon
- Wallis and Futuna
- French Southern and Antarctic Lands (includes the Antarctic claim of Adélie Land).[Note 9]
Clipperton Island is a possession of the government. French sovereignty over Banc du Geyser, Bassas da India, Europa Island, Glorioso Islands, Juan de Nova Island, Mayotte, and Tromelin Island is disputed in part by Madagascar, Mauritius, Seychelles and the Comoros.
Gabon – Gabonese Republic UN member state None The Gambia – Republic of The Gambia
- English: The Gambia – Republic of The Gambia
UN member state None Georgia UN member state None Georgia contains 2 autonomous regions, Adjara and Abkhazia.[Note 7] In Abkhazia and South Ossetia, de facto states have been formed. Germany – Federal Republic of Germany UN member state None Member of the EU.[Note 4] Germany is a federation of 16 federated states (Länder). Ghana – Republic of Ghana
- English: Ghana – Republic of Ghana
UN member state None Greece – Hellenic Republic UN member state None Member of the EU.[Note 4] Mount Athos is an autonomous part of Greece that is jointly governed by the multinational "Holy Community" on the mountain and a civil governor appointed by the Greek government. Grenada
- English: Grenada
UN member state None Grenada is a Commonwealth realm.[Note 6] Guatemala – Republic of Guatemala UN member state None Guinea – Republic of Guinea UN member state None Guinea-Bissau – Republic of Guinea-Bissau UN member state None Guyana – Co-operative Republic of Guyana
- English: Guyana – Co-operative Republic of Guyana
UN member state None All land west of the Essequibo River is claimed by Venezuela. Haiti – Republic of Haiti UN member state None Holy See → Vatican City None Honduras – Republic of Honduras UN member state None Hungary – Republic of Hungary UN member state None Member of the EU.[Note 4] Iceland – Republic of Iceland UN member state None India – Republic of India
- Hindi: भारत – भारत गणराज्य → Bhārat – Bhāratīya Gaṇarājya
- English: India – Republic of India
- Assamese: ভাৰত – ভাৰত গণৰাজ্য → Bhārôt – Bhārôt Gôṇrājẏô
- Bengali: ভারত – ভারতীয় প্রজাতন্ত্র → Bhārôt – Bhārôtīyô Prôjātôntrô
- Bhojpuri: भारत – भारत गणराज्य → Bhārat – Bhārat Gaṇrādzya
- Gujarati: ભારત – ભારત ગણરાજ્ય → Bhārat – Bhārat Gaṇrājya
- Kannada: ಭಾರತ – ಭಾರತ ಗಣರಾಜ್ಯ → Bhārata – Bhārata Gaṇarājya
- Kashmiri: ہِندوستان → Hindustān
- Konkani: भारत – भारोत गोणराज → Bhārot – Bhārot Goṇrāj
- Maithili: भारत – भारत गणराज्य → Bhārat – Bhārat Ganarājya
- Malayalam: ഭാരതം – ഭാരത ഗണരാജ്യം → Bhārataṃ – Bhārata Gaṇarājyaṃ
- Marathi: भारत – भारतीय प्रजासत्ताक → Bhārat – Bhāratīy Pradzāsattāk
- Meitei: ভারত – ভারত গণরাজ্য → Bhārata – Bhārata Gaṇarājya
- Nepali: भारत – भारत गणराज्य → Bhārat – Bhārat Gaṇrādzya
- Oriya: ଭାରତ – ଭାରତ ଗଣରାଜ୍ଯ → Bhārôt – Bhārôt Gôṇrājẏô
- Punjabi: ਭਾਰਤ – ਭਾਰਤ ਗਣਤੰਤਰ → Bhārat – Bhārat Gaṇtãtar
- Sanskrit: भारतम् – भारत गणराज्यम् → Bhārat – Bhāratam Gaṇarājyam
- Sindhi: भारत गणराज्य, هندستانڀارت – भारत, ڀارت → Bhāratu – Bhārat Ganarājya
- Tamil: இந்தியா – இந்தியக் குடியரசு → Intiyā – Intiyak Kuṭiyaracu
- Telugu: భారత్ – భారత గణతంత్ర రాజ్యము → Bhārata – Bhārata Gaṇataṃtra Rājyamu
- Urdu: جمہوریہ بھارت – جمہوریہ بھارت → Bhārat – Jumhūrīyâ-e Bhārat 
UN member state None India is a federation of 28 states and 7 union territories. Indian sovereignty over Arunachal Pradesh is disputed by the People's Republic of China. India claims sovereignty over the whole of Kashmir, but administers only part of it as the federated state of Jammu and Kashmir.[Note 20] Indonesia – Republic of Indonesia UN member state None Indonesia has 3 provinces with official special autonomy status: Nanggroe Aceh Darussalam, Papua, and West Papua.[Note 7] Iran – Islamic Republic of Iran UN member state None Iraq – Republic of Iraq UN member state None Iraq is a federation[Note 22] of 18 governorates, 3 of which make up the autonomous Iraqi Kurdistan.[Note 7] Ireland [Note 29] UN member state None Member of the EU.[Note 4] Israel – State of Israel UN member state None Israel annexed East Jerusalem, and occupies the Golan Heights and parts of the West Bank. These areas are not internationally-recognised as being part of Israel. Israel no longer has a permanent military presence in the Gaza Strip, following its unilateral disengagement, but is still considered the occupying power under international law. Israel is not recognised as a state by 33 members of the UN. Italy – Italian Republic UN member state None Member of the EU.[Note 4] Italy has 5 autonomous regions, Aosta Valley, Friuli-Venezia Giulia, Sardinia, Sicily and Trentino-Alto Adige/Südtirol.[Note 7] Ivory Coast → Côte d'Ivoire Jamaica
- English: Jamaica
UN member state None Jamaica is a Commonwealth realm.[Note 6] Japan UN member state None Japan disputes Russian administration of the South Kuril Islands. Jordan – Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan UN member state None Kazakhstan – Republic of Kazakhstan UN member state None Kenya – Republic of Kenya UN member state None Kiribati – Republic of Kiribati UN member state None Korea, North – Democratic People's Republic of Korea UN member state South KoreaClaimed by North Korea is not recognised by two UN members: Japan and South Korea.[Note 31] Korea, South – Republic of Korea UN member state North KoreaClaimed by South Korea contains 1 autonomous region, Jeju-do.[Note 7] South Korea is not recognised by one UN member: North Korea.[Note 31] KosovoKosovo → Kuwait – State of Kuwait UN member state None Kyrgyzstan – Kyrgyz Republic UN member state None Laos – Lao People's Democratic Republic UN member state None Latvia – Republic of Latvia UN member state None Member of the EU.[Note 4] Lebanon – Lebanese Republic UN member state None Lesotho – Kingdom of Lesotho UN member state None Liberia – Republic of Liberia
- English: Liberia – Republic of Liberia
UN member state None Libya
- Arabic: ليبيا → Lībyā
UN member state None The former government of Muammar Gaddafi, which claims to be the sole legitimate representative of the Libyan people, still has some international recognition (see Foreign relations of the National Transitional Council and Foreign relations of Libya under Gaddafi). Liechtenstein – Principality of Liechtenstein UN member state None Lithuania – Republic of Lithuania UN member state None Member of the EU.[Note 4] Luxembourg – Grand Duchy of Luxembourg UN member state None Member of the EU.[Note 4] Macedonia – Republic of Macedonia UN member state None Because of the Macedonia naming dispute, the country is referred to by the UN and a number of states and international organizations as "the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia". Madagascar – Republic of Madagascar UN member state None Madagascar claims the French territories of Banc du Geyser, Juan de Nova Island, and the Glorioso Islands. Malawi – Republic of Malawi UN member state None Malaysia UN member state None Malaysia is a federation of 13 states and 3 federal territories. Malaysia claims part of the Spratly Islands.[Note 12] Maldives – Republic of Maldives UN member state None Mali – Republic of Mali UN member state None Malta – Republic of Malta UN member state None Member of the EU.[Note 4] Marshall Islands – Republic of the Marshall Islands UN member state None Under Compact of Free Association with the United States. Mauritania – Islamic Republic of Mauritania UN member state None Mauritius – Republic of Mauritius UN member state None Mauritius has an autonomous island, Rodrigues.[Note 7] Mauritius claims the British Indian Ocean Territory and the French island of Tromelin. Mexico – United Mexican States UN member state None Mexico is a federation of 31 states and 1 federal district. Micronesia, Federated States of
- English: Federated States of Micronesia
UN member state None Under Compact of Free Association with the United States. The Federated States of Micronesia is a federation of 4 states. Moldova – Republic of Moldova UN member state None Moldova has the autonomous regions of Gagauzia and Transnistria, the latter of which has established a de facto state. Monaco – Principality of Monaco UN member state None Mongolia UN member state None Montenegro UN member state None Morocco – Kingdom of Morocco UN member state None Morocco claims sovereignty over Western Sahara and controls most of it, which is disputed by the Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic. Morocco disputes Spanish sovereignty over Ceuta, Melilla and the "Plazas de soberanía". Mozambique – Republic of Mozambique UN member state None Myanmar → Burma Nagorno-KarabakhNagorno-Karabakh → Namibia – Republic of Namibia
- English: Namibia – Republic of Namibia
UN member state None Nauru – Republic of Nauru UN member state None Nepal – Federal Democratic Republic of Nepal UN member state None Nepal is a federation composed of 14 zones. Netherlands – Kingdom of the Netherlands UN member state None Member of the EU.[Note 4] The Kingdom of the Netherlands consists of four constituent countries:
The monarch and her ministers form the government of the kingdom as well as the government of the country the Netherlands. Following the dissolution of the Netherlands Antilles in 2010, Curaçao and Sint Maarten have become constituent countries, which, alongside Aruba, enjoy considerable autonomy. The other three islands (Bonaire, Saba, Sint Eustatius) became special municipalities of the Netherlands.
The designation "Netherlands" can refer to either one of the Kingdom's constituent countries or to the short name for the Kingdom (e.g., in international organizations). The Kingdom of the Netherlands as a whole is a member of the EU, but EU law applies only to parts within Europe.
New Zealand UN member state None New Zealand is a Commonwealth realm[Note 6] and has responsibilities for (but has no sovereignty over) two freely associated states:
Cook Islands and Niue are sovereign subjects of international law. UN recognized the full treaty-making capacity of the Cook Islands in 1992 and that of Niue in 1994.
Cook Islands and Niue are members of UN specialized agencies without any specifications or limitations. Cook Islands is member of FAO, ICAO, IFAD, IMO, UNESCO, WHO, WMO and Niue is member of FAO, IFAD, UNESCO, WHO, WMO.
New Zealand also has the dependent territories of:
Nicaragua – Republic of Nicaragua UN member state None Nicaragua contains 2 autonomous regions, Atlántico Sur and Atlántico Norte.[Note 7] Niger – Republic of Niger UN member state None Nigeria – Federal Republic of Nigeria UN member state None Nigeria is a federation of 36 states and 1 federal territory. Northern CyprusNorthern Cyprus → North Korea → Korea, Democratic People's Republic of Norway – Kingdom of Norway UN member state None Svalbard is an integral part of Norway, but has a special status due to the Spitsbergen Treaty. Oman – Sultanate of Oman UN member state None Pakistan – Islamic Republic of Pakistan UN member state None Pakistan is a federation of 4 provinces, 1 capital territory, and tribal regions. Pakistan disputes Indian sovereignty over Kashmir. It exercises control over some areas, but does not explicitly claim any part of it, instead regarding it as a disputed territory. The portions that it controls are divided into two polities, administered separately from Pakistan proper:[Note 20] Palau – Republic of Palau UN member state None Under Compact of Free Association with the United States. PalestinePalestine → Panama – Republic of Panama UN member state None Papua New Guinea – Independent State of Papua New Guinea UN member state None Papua New Guinea is a Commonwealth realm[Note 6] with 1 autonomous region, Bougainville.[Note 7] Paraguay – Republic of Paraguay UN member state None Peru – Republic of Peru UN member state None Philippines – Republic of the Philippines UN member state None The Philippines contains two autonomous regions, the Autonomous Region in Muslim Mindanao[Note 7] and the Cordillera Administrative Region. The Philippines administers Scarborough Shoal and some of the Spratly Islands,[Note 12] and claims sovereignty over the Macclesfield Bank and Sabah, which is part of Malaysia. Poland – Republic of Poland UN member state None Member of the EU.[Note 4] Portugal – Portuguese Republic UN member state None Member of the EU.[Note 4] Portugal contains 2 autonomous regions, Azores and Madeira.[Note 7] Portugal does not recognize Spanish sovereignty over Olivenza and Táliga. Pridnestrovie → Transnistria Qatar – State of Qatar UN member state None Romania UN member state None Member of the EU.[Note 4] Russia – Russian Federation UN member state None Russia is officially a federation of 83 federal subjects (republics, oblasts, krais, autonomous okrugs, federal cities, and an autonomous oblast). Several of the federal subjects are ethnic republics.[Note 7] Sovereignty over the South Kuril Islands is disputed by Japan. Rwanda – Republic of Rwanda UN member state None Sahrawi Arab Democratic RepublicSahrawi Arab Democratic Republic → Saint Kitts and Nevis – Federation of Saint Christopher and Nevis
- English: Saint Kitts and Nevis – Federation of Saint Christopher and Nevis
UN member state None Saint Kitts and Nevis is a Commonwealth realm[Note 6] and is a federation [Note 22] of 14 parishes. Saint Lucia
- English: Saint Lucia
UN member state None Saint Lucia is a Commonwealth realm.[Note 6] Saint Vincent and the Grenadines
- English: Saint Vincent and the Grenadines
UN member state None Saint Vincent and the Grenadines is a Commonwealth realm.[Note 6] Samoa – Independent State of Samoa UN member state None San Marino – Republic of San Marino UN member state None São Tomé and Príncipe – Democratic Republic of São Tomé and Príncipe UN member state None São Tomé and Príncipe contains 1 autonomous province, Príncipe.[Note 7] Saudi Arabia – Kingdom of Saudi Arabia UN member state None Senegal – Republic of Senegal UN member state None Serbia – Republic of Serbia UN member state None Serbia contains 2 autonomous regions, Vojvodina and Kosovo and Metohija.[Note 7] Most of the latter is under the de facto control of the Republic of Kosovo. Seychelles – Republic of Seychelles UN member state None Seychelles claims the British Indian Ocean Territory. Sierra Leone – Republic of Sierra Leone
- English: Sierra Leone – Republic of Sierra Leone
UN member state None Singapore – Republic of Singapore UN member state None Slovakia – Slovak Republic UN member state None Member of the EU.[Note 4] Slovenia – Republic of Slovenia UN member state None Member of the EU.[Note 4] Solomon Islands
- English: Solomon Islands
UN member state None The Solomon Islands is a Commonwealth realm.[Note 6] Somalia – Somali Republic UN member state None Somalia is presently divided with its official government (TFG) controlling only part of the country. Puntland and Galmudug have declared themselves as autonomous regions of Somalia (a claim that the TFG does not recognise),[Need quotation to verify] while Somaliland has formed an unrecognised de facto state. SomalilandSomaliland → South Africa – Republic of South Africa
- Afrikaans: Suid-Afrika – Republiek van Suid-Afrika
- English: South Africa – Republic of South Africa
- Northern Sotho: Afrika-Borwa – Rephaboliki ya Afrika-Borwa
- Sotho: Afrika Borwa – Rephaboliki ya Afrika Borwa
- Southern Ndebele: Sewula Afrika – iRiphabliki yeSewula Afrika
- Swazi: Ningizimu Afrika – iRiphabhulikhi yeNingizimu Afrika
- Tsonga: Afrika Dzonga – Riphabliki ra Afrika Dzonga
- Tswana: Aforika Borwa – Rephaboliki ya Aforika Borwa
- Venda: Afurika Tshipembe – Riphabuḽiki ya Afurika Tshipembe
- Xhosa: uMzantsi Afrika – iRiphabliki yaseMzantsi Afrika
- Zulu: Ningizimu Afrika – iRiphabliki yaseNingizimu Afrika
UN member state None South Korea → Korea, Republic of South OssetiaSouth Ossetia → South Sudan – Republic of South Sudan
- English: South Sudan – Republic of South Sudan
UN member state None Disputes Abyei with the Republic of the Sudan. Spain – Kingdom of Spain UN member state None Member of the EU.[Note 4] Spain is divided into autonomous communities and cities.[Note 7] Sovereignty over Ceuta, Isla de Alborán, Isla Perejil, Islas Chafarinas, Melilla and Peñón de Alhucemas is disputed by Morocco. Sovereignty over Olivenza and Táliga is disputed by Portugal. Spain calls for sovereignty over Gibraltar. Sri Lanka – Democratic Socialist Republic of Sri Lanka UN member state None Formerly known as Ceylon. Sudan – Republic of the Sudan UN member state None Sudan is a federation of 15 states. Disputes Abyei with South Sudan. South SudanSudan, South → Suriname – Republic of Suriname UN member state None Swaziland – Kingdom of Swaziland UN member state None Sweden – Kingdom of Sweden UN member state None Member of the EU.[Note 4] Switzerland – Swiss Confederation UN member state None Switzerland is a federation of 26 cantons. Syria – Syrian Arab Republic UN member state None Israel occupies the Golan Heights. TaiwanTaiwan (Republic of China) → Tajikistan – Republic of Tajikistan UN member state None Tajikistan contains 1 autonomous region, Gorno-Badakhshan Autonomous Province.[Note 7] Tanzania – United Republic of Tanzania UN member state None Tanzania contains 1 autonomous region, Zanzibar.[Note 7] Thailand – Kingdom of Thailand UN member state None Timor-Leste → East Timor Togo – Togolese Republic UN member state None Tonga – Kingdom of Tonga UN member state None TransnistriaTransnistria → Trinidad and Tobago – Republic of Trinidad and Tobago
- English: Trinidad and Tobago – Republic of Trinidad and Tobago
UN member state None Trinidad and Tobago contains 1 autonomous region, Tobago.[Note 7] Tunisia – Republic of Tunisia UN member state None Turkey – Republic of Turkey UN member state None Turkmenistan UN member state None Tuvalu UN member state None Tuvalu is a Commonwealth realm.[Note 6] Uganda – Republic of Uganda UN member state None Ukraine UN member state None Ukraine contains 1 autonomous region, Crimea.[Note 7] United Arab Emirates UN member state None The United Arab Emirates is a federation of 7 emirates. United Kingdom – United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland
- English: United Kingdom – United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland
- Scots: Unitit Kinrick o Great Breetain an Northren Ireland
- Scottish Gaelic: Rìoghachd Aonaichte na Breatainn Mòire agus Èireann a Tuath
- Welsh: Teyrnas Unedig Prydain Fawr a Gogledd Iwerddon
UN member state None Member of the EU.[Note 4] The United Kingdom is a Commonwealth realm[Note 6] consisting of four countries: England, Northern Ireland, Scotland, and Wales. The United Kingdom has the following overseas territories:
- Akrotiri and Dhekelia
- British Indian Ocean Territory (disputed by Mauritius and Seychelles)
- British Virgin Islands
- Cayman Islands
- Falkland Islands (disputed by Argentina)
- Gibraltar (status disputed by Spain)
- Pitcairn Islands
- Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da Cunha
- South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands
- Turks and Caicos Islands
- British Antarctic Territory [Note 9] (disputed by Argentina and Chile)
The British monarch has direct sovereignty over three self-governing Crown dependencies:
United States – United States of America UN member state None The United States is a federation of 50 states, 1 federal district, and the incorporated territory of Palmyra Atoll. The United States has sovereignty over the following inhabited possessions and commonwealths:
- American Samoa (including Swains Island, disputed by Tokelau)
- Northern Mariana Islands
- Puerto Rico
- U.S. Virgin Islands
In addition, there are uninhabited possessions of the United States in the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea: Baker Island, Howland Island, Jarvis Island, Johnston Atoll, Kingman Reef, Midway Atoll, Navassa Island, and Wake Island. The United States also asserts claims to Bajo Nuevo Bank and Serranilla Bank.
Uruguay – Eastern Republic of Uruguay UN member state None Uzbekistan – Republic of Uzbekistan UN member state None Uzbekistan contains 1 autonomous region, Karakalpakstan.[Note 7] Vanuatu – Republic of Vanuatu UN member state None Vatican City – State of the Vatican City UN observer state None Administered by the Holy See, a sovereign entity with diplomatic ties to 178 states. The Holy See is a permanent observer of the UN in the category of "Non-member State" and a member of the IAEA, ITU, UPU, and WIPO. The Vatican City is governed by officials appointed by the Pope, who is the Bishop of the Archdiocese of Rome and ex officio sovereign of Vatican City. The Holy See also administers a number of extraterritorial properties in Italy). Venezuela – Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela UN member state None Venezuela is a federation of 23 states, 1 capital district, and federal dependencies. Vietnam – Socialist Republic of Vietnam UN member state None Vietnam claims sovereignty over the Paracel[Note 19] and Spratly Islands.[Note 12] Yemen – Republic of Yemen UN member state None Zambia – Republic of Zambia UN member state None Zimbabwe – Republic of Zimbabwe UN member state None UN member states and observer states ↑↑ ↓ States with no membership to the UN ↓ Abkhazia – Republic of Abkhazia No membership GeorgiaClaimed by Recognised by Russia, Nauru, Nicaragua, Tuvalu, Vanuatu, Venezuela, South Ossetia and Transnistria. Claimed in whole by Georgia as the Autonomous Republic of Abkhazia. Kosovo – Republic of Kosovo related agenciesNot a UN member state, but member of one or more SerbiaClaimed by Kosovo unilaterally declared independence in 2008 and it has received diplomatic recognition from 85 UN member states and the Republic of China. Pursuant to United Nations Security Council Resolution 1244, Kosovo is formally under the administration of the United Nations Interim Administration Mission in Kosovo. Serbia continues to maintain its sovereignty claim over Kosovo. Other UN member states and non UN member states continue to recognise Serbian sovereignty or have taken no position on the question. Kosovo is a member of the International Monetary Fund and the World Bank Group. The Republic of Kosovo has de facto control over most of the territory, with limited control in North Kosovo. Nagorno-Karabakh – Nagorno-Karabakh Republic No membership AzerbaijanClaimed by A de facto independent state, recognised only by Abkhazia, South Ossetia and Transnistria.. Claimed in whole by Azerbaijan. Northern Cyprus – Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus No membership Republic of CyprusClaimed by the Recognised only by Turkey. It has participated as an observer state of the Organisation of Islamic Cooperation under the name "Turkish Cypriot State" since 1979. In addition, the Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic regards TRNC as sovereign but Azerbaijan has not followed suit. Northern Cyprus is claimed in whole by the Republic of Cyprus. Palestine – State of Palestine related agenciesNot a UN member state, but member of one or more Disputed The declared State of Palestine has received diplomatic recognition from 127 states. The proclaimed state has no agreed territorial borders, or effective control on the territory that it proclaimed. The Palestinian National Authority is an interim administrative body formed as a result of the Oslo Accords that exercises limited autonomous jurisdiction within the Palestinian territories. In foreign relations, the State of Palestine is represented by the Palestine Liberation Organization, which has permanent observer status at the United Nations General Assembly as a non-member entity. Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic No membership MoroccoClaimed by Recognised by 84 other states. It is a founding member of the African Union and the Asian-African Strategic Partnership formed at the 2005 Asian-African Conference. The territories under its control, the so-called Free Zone, are claimed in whole by Morocco as part of its Southern Provinces. In turn, the Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic claims the part of Western Sahara to the west of the Moroccan Wall controlled by Morocco. Its government resides in exile in Tindouf, Algeria. Somaliland – Republic of Somaliland No membership SomaliaClaimed by A de facto independent state, not diplomatically recognised by any other state, claimed in whole by the Somali Republic. South Ossetia – Republic of South Ossetia No membership GeorgiaClaimed by A de facto independent state, recognised by Russia, Nicaragua, Nauru, Venezuela, Abkhazia and Transnistria. Claimed in whole by Georgia as the Provisional Administrative Entity of South Ossetia. Taiwan – Republic of China[Note 16] Former UN Member (1945–1971);
Member or participant in some UN-related organizations as "Chinese Taipei" (see right)
People's Republic of ChinaClaimed by the A state competing for recognition with the People's Republic of China as the government of China since 1949. The Republic of China controls the island of Taiwan and associated islands, Quemoy, Matsu, the Pratas and parts of the Spratly Islands,[Note 12] and has not renounced claims over its annexed territories on the mainland. The Republic of China is recognised by 23 states as of 2011, including the Holy See. The territory of the Republic of China is claimed in whole by the People's Republic of China.[Note 18] The Republic of China participates in the World Health Organization and a number of non-UN international organizations such as the World Trade Organization, International Olympic Committee and others under a variety of pseudonyms, most commonly "Chinese Taipei". Transnistria – Transnistrian Moldovan Republic (Pridnestrovie, Trans-Dniester)
- Russian: Приднестровье – Приднестровская Молдавская Республика → Pridnestrovye – Pridnestrovskaya Moldavskaya Respublika
- Ukrainian: Придністров'я – Придністровська Молдавська Республіка → Pridnistrov'ya – Pridnistrovs'ka Moldavs'ka Respublika
- Romanian: Транснистрия – Република Молдовеняскэ Нистрянэ → Transnistria – Republica Moldovenească Nistreană
No membership MoldovaClaimed by A de facto independent state, recognised only by Abkhazia and South Ossetia. Claimed in whole by Moldova as the Territorial Unit of Transnistria. ↑ States with no membership to the UN ↑
Criteria for inclusion
The dominant customary international law standard of statehood is the declarative theory of statehood that defines the state as a person of international law if it "possess[es] the following qualifications: (a) a permanent population; (b) a defined territory; (c) government; and (d) capacity to enter into relations with the other states." Debate exists on the degree to which recognition should be included as a criterion of statehood. The declarative theory of statehood, an example of which can be found in the Montevideo Convention, argues that statehood is purely objective and recognition of a state by other states is irrelevant. On the other end of the spectrum, the constitutive theory of statehood defines a state as a person under international law only if it is recognized as sovereign by other states. For the purposes of this list, included are all states that either:
- (a) have declared independence and are often regarded as having control over a permanently populated territory
- (b) are recognized as a sovereign state by at least one other sovereign state
Note that in some cases there is a divergence of opinion over the interpretation of the first point, and whether an entity satisfies it is disputed.
- 201 States recognized by at least one UN member state
- Two states that control a permanently populated territory and are recognized only by non-UN member states: Nagorno-Karabakh Republic, Transnistria
- One state that controls a permanently populated territory and is not recognized by any other state: Somaliland
- ^ The names of the items in the list are given in English, as well as in the official, national, major minority, and historically important languages of the state. Where applicable, names in other languages are included in their original script, along with a transliteration in Roman characters. Except where mentioned, the source for the names in their official languages is the United Nations Group of Experts on Geographical Names (UNGEGN, retrieved 24 February 2011), which uses romanisation systems approved by the United Nations. The sources for flags are the main articles on these states. When other sources are used, these sources are mentioned. For a gallery of flags, see Gallery of sovereign-state flags.
- ^ This column indicates whether or not a state is a member of the United Nations. It also indicates which non-member states participate in the United Nations System through membership in the International Atomic Energy Agency or one of the specialized agencies of the United Nations. All United Nations members belong to at least one specialized agency and are parties to the statute of the International Court of Justice.
- ^ This column indicates whether or not a state is the subject of a major sovereignty dispute. Only states that are claimed in whole by another sovereign state are mentioned. Minor territorial disputes are detailed in the Further information.. column.
- ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab The member states of the European Union have transferred part of their sovereignty in the form of legislative, executive, and judicial powers to the institutions of the EU, which is an example of supranationalism. The EU has 27 member states.
- ^ Information is included on:
- the extent to which a state's sovereignty is recognised internationally. More information can be found at List of states with limited recognition,
- membership in the European Union,[Note 4] where applicable,
- any overseas dependencies, if applicable, which are generally not part of the territory of the sovereign state,
- federal structure of the state, where applicable. More information can be found at Federated state,
- any autonomous areas inside the territory of the sovereign state,
- any situations where one person is the Head of State of more than one state,
- any major territorial disputes,
- any governments in exile recognised by at least one state.
- ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p Commonwealth realms are members of the Commonwealth of Nations in which the head of state is Queen Elizabeth II. The realms are sovereign states; see Relationship of the realms.
- ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x For more information on divisions with a high degree of autonomy, see the List of autonomous areas by country.
- ^ The Argentine Constitution (Art. 35) recognises the following denominations for Argentina: "United Provinces of the Río de la Plata", "Argentine Republic" and "Argentine Confederation"; furthermore, it establishes the usage of "Argentine Nation" for purposes of legislation.
- ^ a b c d e f g The continent of Antarctica, including its outlying islands south of 60°S, are held in abeyance under the terms of the Antarctic Treaty System. Under this treaty, territorial claims in this region are neither recognised nor disputed. Claimant countries are Argentina, Australia, Chile, France, New Zealand, Norway, and the United Kingdom, with all those save Argentina and Chile mutually recognising each others claims.
- ^ Formerly referred to as Dahomey, its official name until 1975.
- ^ For more information about the division of Bosnia and Herzegovina, see Dayton Agreement and the text of The General Framework Agreement for Peace in Bosnia and Herzegovina (14 December 1995). Office of the High Representative. Retrieved 28 February 2011.
- ^ a b c d e f The sovereignty over the Spratly Islands is disputed by People's Republic of China, the Republic of China, Vietnam, and in part by Brunei, Malaysia, and the Philippines. Except for Brunei, each of these countries occupies part of the islands (see List of territorial disputes).
- ^ Also known as Burkina; formerly referred to as Upper Volta, its official name until 1984.
- ^ Burma's official short form name as used by the United Nations is "Myanmar". The government changed the state's official name in English from "Union of Myanmar" to "Republic of the Union of Myanmar" in October 2010.
- ^ The legal name for Canada is the sole word; an officially sanctioned, though disused, name is Dominion of Canada (which includes its legal title); see: Name of Canada, Dominion.
- ^ a b The People's Republic of China (PRC) is commonly referred to as "China", while the Republic of China (ROC) is commonly referred to as "Taiwan". The ROC is also occasionally known diplomatically as Chinese Taipei, along with other names.
- ^ Rendered in unicode as ᠪᠦᠭᠦᠳᠡ ᠨᠠᠶᠢᠷᠠᠮᠳᠠᠬᠤ ᠳᠤᠮᠳᠠᠳᠤ ᠠᠷᠠᠳ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ
- ^ a b In 1949, the Republic of China government led by the Kuomintang (KMT) lost the Chinese Civil War to the Communist Party of China (CPC) and set up a provisional capital in Taipei. The CPC established the PRC. As such, the political status of the ROC and the legal status of Taiwan (alongside the territories currently under ROC jurisdiction) are in dispute. In 1971, the United Nations gave the China seat to the PRC and the ROC withdrew from the UN. Most states recognise the PRC to be the sole legitimate representative of all China, and the UN classifies Taiwan as "Taiwan, Province of China". The ROC has de facto relations with most sovereign states. A significant political movement within Taiwan advocates Taiwan independence.
- ^ a b The Chinese sovereignty over the Paracel Islands is disputed by Vietnam and the Republic of China (see List of territorial disputes);
- ^ a b c Sovereignty over Kashmir is disputed between India and Pakistan; smaller parts are disputed by the People's Republic of China and the Republic of China. Kashmir is divided between India, Pakistan and the PRC. See the List of territorial disputes.
- ^ See also Dates of establishment of diplomatic relations with the People's Republic of China and Foreign relations of the People's Republic of China.
- ^ a b c More information on more or less federal structures can be found at a List of federations.
- ^ Abbreviated as DRC, and also known as Congo-Kinshasa. Formerly referred to as Zaire, its official name from 1971 to 1997.
- ^ See Foreign relations of Cyprus and Cyprus dispute.
- ^ A simpler official short-form name has been encouraged by the Czech government: the English variant Czechia remains uncommon, but variants in Czech (Česko) and some other languages are more popular. See Name of the Czech Republic
- ^ For more information, see Rigsfællesskabet.
- ^ The government of East Timor uses "Timor-Leste" as the English translation.
- ^ Åland was demilitarised by the Treaty of Paris in 1856, which was later affirmed by the League of Nations in 1921, and in a somewhat different context reaffirmed in the treaty on Finland's admission to the European Union in 1995.
- ^ The Irish state is often referred to as the Republic of Ireland (its official description but not its name). Sometimes this is done to distinguish the state from the island of Ireland as a whole. However, sometimes it is done for political reasons and is contentious.
- ^ See Names of Japan for more detail.
- ^ a b Both North Korea and South Korea claim to be the sole legitimate government of Korea. See also Foreign relations of North Korea and Foreign relations of South Korea.
- ^ Moldovan is often considered to be the same language as Romanian, see Moldovan language.
- ^ Romanization in Pinyin.
- ^ The non-state sovereign entity Order of Malta is not included. It claims neither statehood nor any territory. Entities considered to be micronations are not included. It is often up to debate whether a micronation truly controls its claimed territory. Also omitted from this list are all uncontacted peoples, either who live in societies that cannot be defined as states or whose statuses as such are not definitively known.
- ^ "United Nations Member States". United Nations. 3 July 2006. http://www.un.org/en/members/index.shtml. Retrieved 30 August 2010.
- ^ Press Release ORG/1469 (3 July 2006), retrieved 28 February 2011)
- ^ "Andorra country profile". BBC News. http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/europe/country_profiles/992562.stm#leaders. Retrieved 8 November 2011.
- ^ Government of Antigua and Barbuda. "Chapter 44: The Barbuda Local Government Act". Laws of Antigua and Barbuda. http://www.laws.gov.ag/acts/chapters/cap-44.pdf. Retrieved 2010-11-10.
- ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r "Disputes - International". CIA World Factbook. https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/fields/2070.html. Retrieved 8 November 2011.
- ^ Government of the United States, Congress, Office of Technology Assessment (1989). Polar prospects: a minerals treaty for Antarctica. United States Government Printing Office. p. 43. ISBN 9781428922327. "Mutual recognition of claims has been limited to Australia, France, New Zealand, Norway, and the United Kingdom ... Chile and Argentina do not recognize each other's claims ..."
- ^ Pakistan Worldview - Report 21 - Visit to Azerbaijan Senate of Pakistan — Senate foreign relations committee, 2008
- ^ Nilufer Bakhtiyar: "For Azerbaijan Pakistan does not recognise Armenia as a country" 13 September 2006 [14:03] - Today.Az
- ^ Europa, retrieved 28 February 2011
- ^ There are 33 other official languages in Bolivia. Source for the Aymara, Guaraní, and Quechua is the Consulate General of Brazil in Santa Cruz de la Sierra. "Datos de Bolivia". Government of Brazil. http://www.consbras.org.bo/bolivia/bolivia.html. Retrieved 2010-07-15.
- ^ "Myanmar gets new flag, official name, anthem". Reuters. 21 October 2010. http://ca.reuters.com/article/topNews/idCATRE69K2HM20101021. Retrieved 22 October 2010.
- ^ a b c d Source for names in regional and minority languages is the Federal Foreign Office of Germany (see Bibliography)
- ^ Names in additional regional and minority languages are taken from Geonames. "China". Fröhlich, Werner. http://www.geonames.de/coucn.html. Retrieved 2010-07-14.
- ^ Constitution of Comoros, Art. 1.
- ^ Source for the Hindustani, which uses both the Hindi and Urdu script, is Geonames. "Fiji". Fröhlich, Werner. http://www.geonames.de/coufj.html. Retrieved 2010-07-14.
- ^ "Rotuma Act". Laws of Fiji (1978 ed.). Suva, Fiji: Government of Fiji. 1927. http://www.itc.gov.fj/lawnet/fiji_act/cap122.html. Retrieved 2010-07-10. [dead link]
- ^ Government of Fiji, Office of the Prime Minister (1978). "Chapter 122: Rotuma Act". Laws of Fiji. University of the South Pacific. http://www.paclii.org/fj/legis/consol_act/ra103/. Retrieved 2010-11-10.
- ^ Constitution of Greece, Art. 105.
- ^ Source for the names in recognised regional and national languages is Geonames. "India". Fröhlich, Werner. http://www.geonames.de/couin.html. Retrieved 2010-07-14.
- ^ Source for the official name in Kurdish is the Kurdistan Regional Government. "Official website". http://www.krg.org/. Retrieved 2010-07-15.
- ^ Source: Iraqi constitution
- ^ "Constitution of Ireland – Burnreacht na hÉireann". Government of Ireland. http://www.constitution.ie/reports/ConstitutionofIreland.pdf. Retrieved 8 November 2011. "Article 3: It is the firm will of the Irish Nation...to unite all the people who share the territory of the island of Ireland...recognising that a united Ireland shall be brought about only by peaceful means"
- ^ a b Occupied territory:
- "Israeli-occupied Golan Heights" (Central Intelligence Agency. CIA World Factbook 2010, Skyhorse Publishing Inc., 2009. pg. 339. ISBN 1602397279.)
- "...the United States considers the Golan Heights to be occupied territory subject to negotiation and Israeli withdrawal..." ("title=CRS Issue Brief for Congress: Israeli-United States Relations", Congressional Research Service, April 5, 2002. pg. 5. Retrieved August 1, 2010.) * "Occupied Golan Heights" (Travel advice: Israel and the Occupied Palestinian Territories, UK Foreign and Commonwealth Office. Retrieved August 1, 2010.) * "In the ICRC's view, the Golan is an occupied territory." (ICRC activities in the occupied Golan during 2007, International Committee of the Red Cross, April 24, 2008.) * "...occupied Syrian Golan Heights..." (The Arab Peace Initiative, 2002, www.al-bab.com. Retrieved August 1, 2010.) * In 2008, a plenary session of the United Nations General Assembly voted by 161–1 in favour of a motion on the "occupied Syrian Golan" that reaffirmed support for UN Resolution 497. (General Assembly adopts broad range of texts, 26 in all, on recommendation of its fourth Committee, including on decolonization, information, Palestine refugees, United Nations, December 5, 2008.)
- ^ Gold, Dore; Institute for Contemporary Affairs (26 August 2005). "Legal Acrobatics: The Palestinian Claim that Gaza is Still "Occupied" Even After Israel Withdraws". Jerusalem Issue Brief, Vol. 5, No. 3. Jerusalem Center for Public Affairs. http://www.jcpa.org/brief/brief005-3.htm. Retrieved 2010-07-16.
- ^ Bell, Abraham (28 January 2008). "International Law and Gaza: The Assault on Israel's Right to Self-Defense". Jerusalem Issue Brief, Vol. 7, No. 29. Jerusalem Center for Public Affairs. http://www.jcpa.org/brief/brief005-3.htm. Retrieved 2010-07-16.
- ^ "Address by Foreign Minister Livni to the 8th Herzliya Conference" (Press release). Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Israel. 22 January 2008. http://www.mfa.gov.il/MFA/Government/Speeches+by+Israeli+leaders/2008/Address+by+FM+Livni+to+the+8th+Herzliya+Conference+22-Jan-2008.htm?DisplayMode=print. Retrieved 2010-07-16.
- ^ Salih, Zak M. (17 November 2005). "Panelists Disagree Over Gaza’s Occupation Status". University of Virginia School of Law. http://www.law.virginia.edu/html/news/2005_fall/gaza.htm. Retrieved 2010-07-16.
- ^ "Israel: 'Disengagement' Will Not End Gaza Occupation". Human Rights Watch. 29 October 2004. http://www.hrw.org/english/docs/2004/10/29/isrlpa9577.htm. Retrieved 2010-07-16.
- ^ "Treaty on Basic Relations between Japan and the Republic of Korea". http://www.ioc.u-tokyo.ac.jp/~worldjpn/documents/texts/docs/19650622.T1E.html. Retrieved 2008-10-27.
- ^ Keun Min. "Greetings". Jeju Special Self-Governing Province. http://english.jeju.go.kr/contents/index.php?mid=02. Retrieved 2010-11-10.
- ^ Source for the Jawi script and Tamil and Chinese romanisations is Geonames. "Malaysia". Fröhlich, Werner. http://www.geonames.de/coumy.html. Retrieved 2010-07-14.
- ^ Source for the formal native version is Geonames. "Marshall Islands". Fröhlich, Werner. http://www.geonames.de/coumh.html. Retrieved 2010-07-14.
- ^ Source for the Berber is the "Royal institute of the Amazigh culture" (in Berber). Government of Morocco. http://www.ircam.ma/amz/index.php. Retrieved 2011-10-11.
- ^ Federal Foreign Office of Germany (November 2009). "Beziehungen zu Deutschland". Government of Germany. http://www.auswaertiges-amt.de/diplo/de/Laenderinformationen/Cookinseln/Bilateral.html. Retrieved 2010-07-16. For more information, see Foreign relations of the Cook Islands.
- ^ China Internet Information Centre (13 December 2007). "Full text of joint communique on the establishment of diplomatic relations between China and Niue". Xinhua News Agency. http://www.china.org.cn/english/international/235447.htm. Retrieved 2010-07-16.
- ^ Republic of Nauru Permanent Mission to the United Nations. "Foreign Affairs". United Nations. http://www.un.int/nauru/foreignaffairs.html. Retrieved 2010-07-16.
- ^ http://untreaty.un.org/cod/repertory/art102/english/rep_supp8_vol6-art102_e_advance.pdf
- ^ Radio New Zealand International (26 March 2007). "American Samoa governor ready to resist Tokelau’s claim to Swains Island". Radio New Zealand Ltd. http://www.rnzi.com/pages/news.php?op=read&id=31024. Retrieved 2010-07-16.
- ^ Government of New Zealand; Government of Tokelau (8 October 2007). "Draft Constitution of Tokelau – English". New Zealand Ministry of Foreign Affairs & Trade. http://www.mfat.govt.nz/Foreign-Relations/Pacific/Tokelau/Tokelau-Constitution-(English).php. Retrieved 2010-07-16.
- ^ Constitution of Pakistan, Art. 1.
- ^ Aslam, Tasnim (11 December 2006). "'Pakistan Does Not Claim Kashmir As An Integral Part...'". Outlook India (The Outlook Group). http://www.outlookindia.com/article.aspx?233374.
- ^ Williams, Kristen P. (2001). Despite nationalist conflicts: theory and practice of maintaining world peace. Greenwood Publishing Group. pp. 154–155. ISBN 9780275969349. http://books.google.com/?id=OYmurpH3ahsC.
- ^ Pruthi, R.K. (2001). An Encyclopaedic Survey Of Global Terrorism In 21St Century. Anmol Publications Pvt. Ltd.. pp. 120–121. ISBN 9788126110919. http://books.google.com/?id=C3yDkKDbZ3YC.
- ^ Source for the Ayamara and Quechua is Geonames. "Peru". Fröhlich, Werner. http://www.geonames.de/coupe.html. Retrieved 2010-07-14.
- ^ "EXECUTIVE ORDER NO. 220 July 15, 1987". http://www.lawphil.net/executive/execord/eo1987/eo_220_1987.html. Retrieved 2011-07-29.
- ^ Hungarian foreign ministry information sheet
- ^ Weller, Marc; Nobbs, Katherine (2010). Asymmetric Autonomy and the Settlement of Ethnic Conflicts. Philadelphia, United States: University of Pennsylvania Press. ISBN 9780812242300. http://books.google.com/?id=ru-DIWuuObEC.
- ^ Names in additional regional and minority languages are taken from Geonames. "Spain". Fröhlich, Werner. http://www.geonames.de/coues.html. Retrieved 2010-07-14.
- ^ Source for the Irish, Scottish, and Welsh is Geonames. "United Kingdom". Fröhlich, Werner. http://www.geonames.de/cougb.html. Retrieved 2010-07-14.
- ^ Source for the Hawaiian is Geonames. "United States". Fröhlich, Werner. http://www.geonames.de/couus.html. Retrieved 2010-07-14.
- ^ Source for the Cyrillic is the Federal Foreign Office of Germany (see Bibliography)
- ^ a b "Non-member States and Entities". United Nations. 29 February 2008. http://www.un.org/en/members/nonmembers.shtml. Retrieved 30 August 2010.
- ^ http://www.mfaabkhazia.net/en/node/1082
- ^ a b "Chavez Backs Abkhazia, South Ossetia". St. Petersburg Times (The Associated Press). 27 July 2010. http://www.times.spb.ru/index.php?action_id=2&story_id=32067. Retrieved 5 June 2011.
- ^ a b c "Абхазия, Южная Осетия и Приднестровье признали независимость друг друга и призвали всех к этому же" (in Russian). newsru.com. 2006-11-17. http://www.newsru.com/russia/17nov2006/aup.html. Retrieved 2011-06-05.
- ^ Krüger, Heiko (2010). The Nagorno-Karabakh Conflict: A Legal Analysis. Springer. p. 55. ISBN 9783642117879. http://books.google.com/books?id=7JDCQu-Us8sC&lpg=PP1&pg=PA55#v=onepage&q&f=false.
- ^ Nikoghosyan, Hovhannes (August 2010). "Kosovo ruling implications for Armenia and Azerbaijan". HULIQ.com (Hareyan Publishing, LLC). http://www.huliq.com/1/803-kosovo-ruling-implications-armenia-and-azerbaijan. Retrieved 2011-04-17.
- ^ a b c Вице-спикер парламента Абхазии: Выборы в НКР соответствуют всем международным стандартам: "Абхазия, Южная Осетия, НКР и Приднестровье уже давно признали независимость друг друга и очень тесно сотрудничают между собой", - сказал вице-спикер парламента Абхазии. ... "...Абхазия признала независимость Нагорно-Карабахской Республики..." - сказал он."
- ^ "In detail: The foreign policy of Pridnestrovie". Pridnestrovie. 2010-05-26. http://pridnestrovie.net/foreignpolicy_full.html. Retrieved 2010-06-29.
- ^ See Regions and territories: Nagorno-Karabakh (17 January 2006). BBC News. Retrieved January 17, 2006.
- ^ See The World Factbook|Cyprus (10 January 2006). Central Intelligence Agency. Retrieved January 17, 2006.
- ^ "General Conference admits Palestine as UNESCO Member State". UNESCO. 31 October 2011. http://www.unesco.org/new/en/media-services/single-view/news/general_conference_admits_palestine_as_unesco_member_state/. Retrieved 31 October 2011.
- ^ Palestine Liberation Organization. "Road For Palestinian Statehood: Recognition and Admission". Negotiations Affairs Department. http://www.nad-plo.org/etemplate.php?id=5. Retrieved 2011-07-28.
- ^ See the following on statehood criteria:
- Mendes, Errol (30 March 2010), Statehood and Palestine for the purposes of Article 12 (3) of the ICC Statute, 30 March 2010, pp. 28, 33, http://uclalawforum.com/media/background/gaza/2010-03-30_Mendes-Memo.pdf, retrieved 2011-04-17: "...the Palestinian State also meets the traditional criteria under the Montevideo Convention..."; "...the fact that a majority of states have recognized Palestine as a State should easily fulfill the requisite state practice".
- McKinney, Kathryn M. (1994), "The Legal Effects of the Israeli-PLO Declaration ofPrinciples: Steps Toward Statehood for Palestine", Seattle University Law Review (Seattle University) 18 (93): 97, http://lawpublications.seattleu.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1438&context=sulr&sei-redir=1#search=%22palestine+%22constitutive+theory%22+statehood%22, retrieved 2011-04-17: "It is possible, however, to argue for Palestinian statehood based on the constitutive theory".
- McDonald, Avril (Spring 2009), "Operation Cast Lead: Drawing the Battle Lines of the Legal Dispute", Human Rights Brief (Washington College of Law, Center for Human Rights and Humanitarian Law) 25, https://litigation-essentials.lexisnexis.com/webcd/app?action=DocumentDisplay&crawlid=1&doctype=cite&docid=16+Hum.+Rts.+Br.+25&srctype=smi&srcid=3B15&key=74ccae52ba220673512e7784449388f0, retrieved 2011-04-17: "Whether one applies the criteria of statehood set out in the Montevideo Convention or the more widely accepted constitutive theory of statehood, Palestine might be considered a state."
- ^ International Crisis Group (23 May 2006), "Somaliland: Time for African Union leadership", Africa Report (110): 10–13, http://www.operationspaix.net/IMG/pdf/ICG_Somaliland_AU_Leadership_2006-05-23_.pdf, retrieved 2011-04-19
- ^ Mesfin, Berouk (September 2009), "The political development of Somaliland and its conflict with Puntland", ISS Paper (Institute for Security Studies) (200): 8, http://www.somalilandtimes.net/sl/2009/403/P200.pdf, retrieved 2011-04-19
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