Trust (social sciences)
Trust does not need to involve belief in the good character, vices, or morals of the other party. Persons engaged in a criminal activity usually trust each other to some extent. Also trust does not need to include an action that you and the other party are mutually engaged in. Trust is a "prediction" of reliance on an action, based on what a party knows about the other party. Trust is a statement about what is otherwise unknown -- for example, because it is far away, cannot be verified, or is in the future.
In the social sciences, the subtleties of trust are a subject of ongoing research. In
sociology(and psychology) the degree to which one party trusts another is a measure of beliefin the honesty, benevolenceand competenceof the other party. Based on the most recent research, a failure in trust may be forgiven more easily if it is interpreted as a failure of competence rather than a lack of benevolence or honesty.
From this perspective, trust is a mental state, which cannot be measured directly. Confidence in the results of trusting may be measured through behavior, or alternatively, one can measure self-reported trust (with all the caveat surrounding that method). Trust may be considered a moral choiceFact|date=April 2007, or at least a
heuristic, allowing the human to deal with complexities that outgo rationalistic reasoning. In this case, machine-human trust is meaningless, because computers have no moral sense and rely on rational computations. Any trust in a device under this characterization is computer-mediated trust of the user of the machine in the designer and creator of the device; who has implemented the rational rules into the device. Francis Fukuyamaand [http://www.amazon.com/s?index=books&rank=-relevance%2C%2Bavailability%2C-daterank&field-author-exact=Tom%20R.%20Tyler Tyler] are academics who advocate this conception of trust – as moral and not directly observable.
A second perspective in
social theorycomes from the classic "Foundations of Social Theory" by James S. Coleman. Coleman offers a four-part definition:
#Placement of trust allows actions that otherwise are not possible (i.e. trust allows actions to be conducted based on incomplete information on the case in hand).
#The person in whom trust is placed (trustee) is trustworthy, then the trustor will be better off than if he or she had not trusted. Conversely, if the trustee is not trustworthy, then the trustor will be worse off than if he or she had not trusted (this is reminiscent of a classical
#Trust is an action that involves a voluntary transfer of resources (physical, financial, intellectual, or temporal) from the truster to the trustee with no real commitment from the trustee (again prisoner's dilemma).
#A time lag exists between the extension of trust and the result of the trusting behavior.
The strength of Coleman's definition is that it allows for discussion of trust behavior. These discussions have been particularly useful in reasoning about human-computer trust, and trust behaviors.
A critical element in studies of trust behavior is power. One who is in a position of dependence cannot be said to trust another in a moral sense, but can be defined as trusting another in the most strict behavioral sense. Trusting another party when one is compelled to do so is sometimes called reliance, to indicate that the belief in benevolence and competence may be absent, while the behaviors are present. Others refer only to coercion.
Coleman's definition does not account for the distinction between trust(worthiness) as a moral attribute and trustworthiness as mere reliability. It is
Annette Baier(Ethics, 1987) who characterizes contexts of trust as structures of interaction in which moral obligations act upon the trustees.
The substantive conflict in the social sciences is whether trust is entirely internal, and only confidence is observable, or whether trust behaviors (and self reported levels of trust) can meaningfully measure trust in the absence of coercion. Note however that many languages (e.g. Dutch or German) do not distinguish between the words trust and confidence, which is complicating this issue. The distinction between trust and confidence is an unsolved issue in current trust/confidence research.
In general, trust is essential as
Social institutions (governments), economies, and communities require trust to function. Therefore trust and altruismare areas of study for economists, although these concepts go beyond strict rational economics.
In psychology, trust is integral to the idea of
social influence: it is easier to influence or persuade someone who is trusting. The notion of trust is increasingly adopted to predict acceptance of behaviors by others, institutions (e.g. government agencies) and objects such as machines. However, once again perception of honesty, competence and value similarity (slightly similar to benevolence) are essential. Once trust is lost, by obvious violation of one of these three determinants, it is very hard to regain trust. Thus there is a clear a-symmetry in building versus destruction of trust. Hence being and acting trustworthy should be considered the only sure way to maintain a trust level.
Increasingly much research has been done on the notion of trust and its social implications:
*Barbara Misztal in her bookBarbara Misztal, "Trust in Modern Societies: The Search for the Bases of Social Order", Polity Press, ISBN 0-7456-1634-8] attempts to combine all notions of trust together. She points out "three basic things that trust does in the lives of people": It makes social life "predictable", it creates a "sense of
community", and it "makes it easier for people to work together".
*In the context of sexual trust Riki RobbinsRiki Robbins, "Betrayed!: How You Can Restore Sexual Trust and Rebuild Your Life", Adams Media Corporation, ISBN 1-55850-848-1] describes [http://www.innerself.com/Relationships/Four_Stages_of_Trust.htm four stages of trust] :
*In the context of
Information theoryEd Gerck defines and contrasts trust with social functions such as Ed Gerck, in "Trust Points", Digital Certificates: Applied Internet Security by J. Feghhi, J. Feghhi and P. Williams, Addison-Wesley, ISBN 0-20-130980-7, 1998.] [http://mcwg.org/mcg-mirror/trustdef.htm power, surveillance, and accountability] :
Kelton; Fleischmann & Wallace (2008). Trust in Digital Information.
Kini, A., & Choobineh, J. (1998). Trust in electronic commerce:
Bachmann, Reinhard and Zaheer, Akbar (eds.)(2006). Handbook of Trust Research. Cheltenham: Edward Elgar.
Kelton, Kari; Fleischmann, Kenneth R. & Wallace, William A. (2008). Trust in Digital Information. JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN SOCIETY FOR INFORMATION SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY, 59(3):363–374.
Kini, A., & Choobineh, J. (1998, January). Trust in electronic commerce: Definition and theoretical considerations. Paper presented at the Thirty-FirstnHawaii International Conference on System Sciences, Kohala Coast, HI.
Position of trust
Faith, which in some religious traditions may be defined as (extreme) trust in God
* [http://www.wilderdom.com/games/TrustActivities.html Trust Building Activities]
* [http://www.sociology.ox.ac.uk/papers/trustbook.html Trust: Making and Breaking Cooperative Relations] , edited by Diego Gambetta
* [http://www.archive.org/details/AmITrust1950 "Am I Trustworthy?" (1950) Educational video clip]
* Stony Brook University is presently (2006 through 2009) hosting weekly seminars on the issue of trust in the personal, religious, social, and scientific realms as part of the Templeton Foundation's Research Lecture series and all of the talks and discussions are recorded and available online: [http://phobos.apple.com/WebObjects/MZStore.woa/wa/viewPodcast?id=205743414 via iTunes] or [https://podcast.ic.sunysb.edu/weblog/templeton/ via RSS] More detailed information and a list of the seminars and participants is available [http://www.stonybrook.edu/trust/ here]
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