—  Metropolitan City  —
Busan Metropolitan City
 – Hangul 부산광역시
 – Hanja
 – Revised Romanization Busan Gwangyeoksi
 – McCune-Reischauer Pusan Kwangyŏksi
From top, going clockwise: Downtown view along the Busan North Port seen from the Busan Tower, Haeundae Beach, night view of the Gwangan Bridge, the Taejongdae Natural Park, the Marine City of Busan, the Centum City of Busan

Emblem of Busan
Map of South Korea with Busan highlighted
Country  South Korea
Region Yeongnam
Districts 15
 – Mayor Huh Nam-Shik (허남식)
 – Total 767.35 km2 (296.3 sq mi)
Population (2010)[2]
 – Total 3,600,381
 – Density 4,692/km2 (12,152.1/sq mi)
 – Dialect Gyeongsang
Flower Camellia flower
Tree Camellia
Bird Seagull
Website busan.go.kr (English)

Busan (Officially Busan Metropolitan City), formerly spelled Pusan[3] (Korean pronunciation: [pusan]) is South Korea's second largest metropolis after Seoul, with a population of around 3.6 million.[1] The Metropolitan area (includes adjacent cities of Gimhae and Yangsan) population is 4,399,515 as of 2010.[4] It is the largest port city in South Korea and the fifth largest port in the world.[5] The city is located on the southeasternmost tip of the Korean peninsula. The most densely built up areas of the city are situated in a number of narrow valleys between the Nakdong River and Suyeong River, with mountains separating some of the districts. Administratively, it is designated as a Metropolitan City. The Busan metropolitan area is divided into 15 major administrative districts and a single county.

Busan was the host city of the 2002 Asian Games and APEC 2005 Korea. It was also one of the host cities for the 2002 FIFA World Cup, and is a center for international conventions in Korea. On November 14, 2005, the city officially announced its bid to host the 2020 Summer Olympics Games.[6] After Pyeongchang's successful bid for the 2018 Winter Olympics, the city is considering its bid to host the 2024 or 2028 Summer Olympics.[7]

Busan is home to the world's largest department store, the Shinsegae Centum City[8] and is pursuing a large number of multi-skyscraper projects, including Solomon Tower (108 floor, 418m), Haeundae Resort Tower (108 floor, 478m), the 110-floor, 510m-supertall Lotte Super Tower, which is slated to become the world's third tallest building in 2013, after Burj Khalifa in Dubai and Taipei 101 in Taipei, Taiwan.[9]



Busan City Hall

Geochilsan-guk existed in the second and third and fourth centuries as a chiefdom of Jinhan. It was absorbed by Silla and renamed Geochilsan-gun. The word Geochilsan means rough mountain, probably referring to Hwangnyeongsan, located at the center of the city.

The grave goods excavated from mounded burials at Bokcheon-dong indicate that a complex chiefdom ruled by powerful individuals was present in the Busan area just as the Three Kingdoms of Korea were forming, c. A.D. 300–400. The mounded burials of Bokcheon-dong were built along the top of a ridge that overlooks a wide area that makes up parts of modern-day Dongnae-gu and Yeonje-gu. Archaeologists excavated more than 250 iron weapons and ingots from Burial No. 38, a wooden chamber tomb at Bokcheon-dong.

In 757, Geochilsan-gun was again renamed Dongnae, which it is still called.

From the beginning of the fifteenth century, the Korean government designated Busan as a trading port with the Japanese and allowed their settlement. Other Japanese settlements in Ulsan and Jinhae diminished later, but the Busan settlement, called Waegwan at the time, continued until Japan invaded Korea in 1592. After the war, diplomatic relations with the new shogunate in Japan were established in 1607, and Busan Waegwan was permitted to be reconstructed. The Japanese settlement, though relocated into Choryang later, continued to exist until Korea was exposed to modern diplomacy in 1876. In 1876, Busan became the first international port in Korea.

During the Japanese rule, Busan (known in Japanese also as Busan) developed into a hub trading port with Japan. Busan was the only city in Korea to adopt the steam tramway before electrification was introduced in 1924.[verification needed]

During the Korean War, Busan was one of only two cities in South Korea not captured by the North Korean army within the first three months of the War, as a result the city became a refugee camp site for Koreans during the war, along with Daegu.[10]

As Busan was one of the few areas in Korea that remained under the control of South Korea throughout the Korean War, for some time it served as a temporary capital of the Republic of Korea. UN troops established a defensive perimeter around the city known as the Pusan Perimeter in the summer and autumn of 1950. Since then, like Seoul, the city has been a self-governing metropolis and has built a strong urban character.

In 1963, Busan separated from Gyeongsangnam-do to become a Directly Governed City (Jikhalsi). In 1983, the provincial capital of Gyeongsangnam-do was moved from Busan to Changwon.

In 1995, Busan became a Metropolitan City (Gwangyeoksi).


Busan's names include Pusan-gwangyŏksi (approved),[11] Pusan,[12] Fusan,[13] Fuzan-fu,[14] Husan,[15] Husan Hu,[16] Pusan-chikhalsi,[17] Pusan-jikhalsi,[18] Pusan-pu[19] and Pusan-si[20]


Busan is located on the Southeastern tip of the Korean Peninsula. It is located on the coast, which determined the development of the whole city itself.


Busan (1981–2010)
Climate chart (explanation)
Average max. and min. temperatures in °C
Precipitation totals in mm

Located on the Southeasternmost tip of the Korean Peninsula, Busan has a humid subtropical climate (Köppen climate classification Cfa). Extremely high or low temperatures are rare. May to July, Late Springs and Early Summers, are usually cooler than inland region because of the ocean effect. Late Summer and Early Autumn, August and September, are generally hot and humid and the city may experience typhoons at that time and be generally rainy. On September 15, 1959, Super Typhoon Sarah passed by the coast of the city and caused catastrophic damage. An unusually severe storm on September 12, 2003, Typhoon Maemi, also caused damage to ships and buildings and resulted in over 48 fatalities.

October and November are generally the most comfortable, with clear skies and pleasant temperatures. Winters are cold and comparatively dry with high winds, but much milder than other parts of Korea except Jeju-do and several islands of the southern coast. Busan and the nearby area has the least amount of snow compared to other regions of Korea due to its location. Snow falls on an average of only about 6 days per year. Even a little accumulation of snow can effectively shut down this seaport city because of the hilly terrain and unfamiliarity of motorists with driving on snow.

Climate data for Busan (1981–2010)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Average high °C (°F) 7.8
Daily mean °C (°F) 3.2
Average low °C (°F) −0.6
Precipitation mm (inches) 34.4
humidity 48.3 51.4 57.7 62.7 69.8 77.4 84.3 79.9 73.9 64.0 57.0 50.1 64.7
Avg. precipitation days (≥ 0.1 mm) 5.5 6.2 8.4 9.1 9.4 10.4 13.6 11.5 9.3 5.2 5.5 4.2 98.3
Sunshine hours 199.0 182.5 193.0 210.0 221.7 179.7 165.8 200.9 167.2 208.9 194.4 204.3 2,327.3
Source: Korea Meteorological Administration [21]

Administrative divisions

In 1957 Busan adopted a division system with the creation of 6 gu: Busanjin-gu, Dong-gu, Dongnae-gu, Jung-gu, Seo-gu, and Yeongdo-gu.

Today, Busan is divided into 15 gu (districts) and 1 gun (county).

Administrative divisions of Busan.
Name of Gu (districts) & Gun (county) Area (km²)[1] Population[1]
Buk-gu (북구; 北區) 39.44 313,553
Busanjin-gu (부산진구; 釜山鎭區) 29.69 398,174
Dong-gu (동구; 東區) 9.78 102,859
Dongnae-gu (동래구; 東萊區) 16.63 283,636
Gangseo-gu (강서구; 江西區) 180.24 66,269
Geumjeong-gu (금정구; 金井區) 65.17 257,662
Haeundae-gu (해운대구; 海雲臺區) 51.46 429,477
Jung-gu (중구; 中區) 2.82 50,555
Nam-gu (남구; 南區) 26.77 301,904
Saha-gu (사하구; 沙下區) 40.96 362,697
Sasang-gu (사상구; 沙上區) 36.06 261,673
Seo-gu (서구; 西區) 13.88 127,068
Suyeong-gu (수영구; 水營區) 10.20 179,208
Yeongdo-gu (영도구; 影島區) 14.13 148,431
Yeonje-gu (연제구; 蓮堤區) 12.08 213,453
Gijang-gun (기장군; 機張郡) 218.04 103,762


Haeundae is home to many luxury condos, including the tallest residential skyscraper in Asia.

Busan is the fifth busiest seaport in the world,[5] with transportation and shipping among the most high profile aspects of the local economy. Since 1978, Busan has opened three container ports including Jaseungdae, Shinsundae, and Gamman. Busan has one of the world's largest ports and can handle up to 13.2 million TEU shipping containers per year.

The Busan-Jinhae Free Economic Zone Authority, one of two such administrations (the other in the harbor of Incheon), was created to reassert Busan's status as a traditional international trading centre. The port attracts ships from all over the globe and the surrounding area aspires to become a regional financial centre.

Korea Exchange (KRX), Korea's sole securities exchange operator, is headquartered in Busan.

Busan is the home of the headquarters of Renault-Samsung Motor, Hanjin Heavy Industries, Busan Bank, Air Busan, Korea Technology Finance Corporation, Korea Asset Management Corporation.

Jagalchi Fish Market is the oldest and the largest fish market in Korea.

Busan is ranked the fourth best city after Singapore, Seoul, Tokyo among the Asia's top convention cities in a 2011 global ranking by the International Congress and Convention Association (ICCA).[22]

Shopping and Commerce

Shinsegae Centum City is the world's largest department store.

Commercial areas are dispersed through the city near busy intersections and adjacent to university campuses, but the two largest central business districts in Busan are Seomyeon and Gwangbok-dong/Nampo-dong. There are also four substantial shopping areas of note: Seomyeon, Gwangbok-dong, Busan Dae Hakap in Jangjeon-dong, and Haeundae.

Seomyeon is the crossroads of Busan. The local subway station serves two lines and is one of the busiest in the city. The local head offices of Korean and international banks are located in Seomyeon. It is recognized as the ascendant shopping and entertainment district. Directly adjacent to Seomyeon is Bujeon Market, the largest traditional market in the city. Other companies with offices here include Yeolmae Food.

The Gwangbok-dong, Nampo-dong, and Jungang-dong areas form the old central business district. Some of the restaurants in this district use family recipes passed down the generations. Jagalchi Market is an area of narrow street stalls and is well known for its fish market. The Gukje Market is also located nearby. Jungang-dong is the home of many international law offices, the old Immigation Office, and the international ferry terminal serving Japanese routes. Lotte World II is currently under construction along the water between Jungang-dong 7-Ga and 8-Ga.[23]

Major Department Stores

Store Places of Branch in Busan
Lotte Department Store Seomyeon(Busan Main), Gwangbok, Dongnae, Centum Ciy
Shinsegae Department Store Centum City
Hyundai Department Store Beomil-dong

Major Large Discount Stores

Store Numbers of Busan branch
Home Plus 9
E Mart 6
Lotte Mart 6
Hanaro Club 3
Mega Mart 3

Educational facilities

Universities with graduate schools

A panoramic view of PNU

Other institutes of higher education

Foreign Schools

  • Busan Interantional Foreign School [3] (Pre-Kindergarten through 12th Grade)
  • Busan Foreign School [4] (Pre-Kindergarten through 12th Grade)

Culture and Attractions

Busan, not only features a variety of antique and souvenir shops, but also unique restaurants, attractions and accommodations.

Parks, beaches, and resorts

Haeundae Beach
Beomeosa Temple
Busan Tower
APEC Nurimaru

Geumjeongsan to the west is a popular weekend hiking spot for Busan residents. To the north, the neighborhoods around Pusan National University (also known as PNU, which is one of the most highly recognized national institutes of higher education in Korea) have student theaters, cafes, bars and restaurants, as well as open-air cultural street performances on weekend nights. Nearby is Beomeosa, the city's main Korean Buddhist temple.

Yongdusan Park occupies 69,000 square meters/17 acres and is home to the Busan Tower, Yongdusan Art Gallery, and the Busan Aquarium. The park supports approximately seventy different species of trees and is a favorite tourist desitination, with various cultural events throughout the year.[24]

Dongnae-gu is a wealthy and traditional residential area. Dongnae Oncheon is a natural spa area with many baths, tourist hotels, restaurants, clubs and shopping areas. Many restaurants in the area use family recipes. Chungnyeolsa is a Confucian shrine for soldiers who died during the sixteenth century battle against the Japanese at Dongnae Fortress.[citation needed]

Busan is called the summer capital of Korea since it attracts tourists from all over the country to its six beaches. Luxury hotels and a carnival boardwalk line the beach at Haeundae. Gwangalli Beach has cafes, bars, and restaurants along the beach, and the Grand Gwangan Bridge. The area around Pukyong National University and Kyungsung University has many cafes, bars and restaurants attracting college students and youth.

Taejongdae is a natural park with magnificent cliffs facing the open sea on the island of Yeongdo.

The area known as the "Foreigners' Shopping Street", but commonly referred to as "Texas Street" near part of the Port of Busan, and adjacent to the front entrance to the Busan Train Station (부산역) has many businesses that cater to the local Russian population, as well as the crews of foreign ships. The area was originally the location of the local Chinatown and still contains a Chinese school. Because of the Chinese presence, the area was designated to serve as the commercial and entertainment needs of American soldiers, and businesses were set up there during the 1940s and 1950s to cater to them.[citation needed]

Busan Aquarium, located in Haeundae Beach, is the largest aquarium in South Korea. Haedong Yonggung temple is one of 3 sacred places related to the Goddess Buddha. It is located right next to the sea. It lies in a mountain in the front and the sea at the back.

Temples, religious and historical sites

  • Beomeosa Temple
  • Busanjinjiseong Fortress (or Jaseongdae)
  • Cheonseongjinseong Fortress
  • Chungnyeolsa Shrine
  • Dongnae eupseong Fortress
  • Dongnae Hyanggyo Confucian shrine-school
  • Dongnaebu Dongheon
  • Dongsam-dong Shell Mound
  • Fortress site of Jwasuyeong
  • Geumjeongsanseong Fortress
  • Haedongyonggungsa Temple
  • Janggwancheong
  • Jeongongdan Altar
  • Samgwangsa Temple
  • Songgongdan Altar
  • Tumuli in Bokcheon-dong, Dongnae
  • United Nations Memorial Cemetery[25]
  • Waeseong in Jukseong-ri, Gijang
  • Yeongdo Bridge
  • Yeonggadae Pavilion
  • Yungongdan Altar


BIFF opening ceremony

Busan hosts the Busan International Film Festival, or BIFF, a large international film festival in Asia. It is also the home of the Busan Biennale, an international contemporary art biennale which takes place every two years.

It also hosted the 2nd Asia Song Festival, organised by Korea Foundation for International Culture Exchange, in 2005.[26]


  • Bokcheon Museum
  • Busan Modern History Museum
  • Busan Museum
  • Busan Museum of Modern Art
  • Busan National University Museum
  • Dongsam-dong Shell Midden Museum
  • Dong-A University Museum
  • Dong-eui University Museum
  • Kyungsung University Museum
  • National Maritime Museum of Korea – As the first of its kind in Korea, it is scheduled to be opened in May 2012 in Yeongdo-gu.[27]
  • Temporary Capital Commemoration Hall

Traditional Cuisine

A plate of a colorful pancake made with green scallions, sliced red chili pepper and chopped seafood
Dongnae pajeon

Busan was once a center of military affairs in the southern region of the peninsula and therefore was an important site for diplomatic relationships with Japan; high-ranking officers and officials from the court frequently visited the city. Special foods were prepared for the officers such as Dongnae pajeon (동래파전), a variant of pajeon (Korean savory pancakes), made with whole scallions, sliced chili peppers, and various kinds of seafood in a thick batter of wheat flour, glutinous rice flour, eggs, salt and water.[28][29]

During the Korean War, Busan was the biggest refugee destination on the peninsula; people from all regions of Korea came there. Some of these refugees stayed and adapted and adjusted the recipes of their local specialties. One of these foods is milmyeon (밀면) (lit. 'wheat noodle') a version of naengmyeon, cold buckwheat noodle soup, but using wheat flour instead. (Naemyeon is originally a specialty food of Hamhung and Pyongyang, the northern regions of the Korean peninsula, now part of North Korea.[30][31]) Dwaeji gukbap (돼지국밥) (lit. 'pork/pig soup rice') is also a result of Korean War. It is a hearty pork soup and is becoming more popular nation-wide.[32]


Station Station Type
Busan KBS TV, Radio
Busan MBC TV, Radio
KNN TV, Radio
Busan CBS Radio
Busan BBS Radio
Busan PBC Radio
Busan Ilbo Daily Newspaper
Kukje Shinmun Daily Newspaper


Sports teams and facilities

Club League Stadium Stadium Capacity Sports Type
Lotte Giants KBO Sajik Baseball Stadium 30,000 Baseball
Busan I'Park K-League Busan Asiad Stadium 60,000 Soccer
Busan KT Sonicboom KBL Sajik Arena 15,000 Basketball


Since 1982, the city has been home to the Lotte Giants, who play in the Korean baseball league. In Korea, Busan is known as the capital of baseball and has a reputation for very enthusiastic baseball fans[citation needed]. For the first few years, the Lotte Giants utilized Gudeok Stadium as their home. In the mid-1980s, they moved to Sajik Stadium, which was built as part of a sports complex for the 1986 Asian Games.


The city is home to K-League soccer team Busan I'Park. They were formerly known as the Daewoo Royals and were a strong team during the 1990s in the K-league. It is also home to National League soccer club Busan Transportation Corporation.


Busan also has a basketball team (Busan KT Sonicboom) that plays in the Sajik Sports Complex area of the city.

Thoroughbred Racing

Thoroughbred racing is held in Busan-Gyeongnam Horse Racing Park every weekend.

Bicycle Racing

Bicycle Racing is held in Busan Cydrome Stadium every weekend.

Festivals and Events

Busan celebrates festivals all year round.

Month Name of Festivals and Events
Jan. New Year Festival in Busan, Polar Bear Swimming Contest
Feb. Haeundae Moontan Road Festival
Mar. Busan International Performing Arts Festival
Apr. Gwangalli Eobang Festival
May Busan Motor Show, Busan Port Festival, Busan Contents Market
Jun. Haeundae Sand Festival, Busan Interantional Dance Festival
Jul. Gijang Town Festival
Aug. Busan Sea Festival, Busan International Rock Festival, Busan International Magic Festival, Busan International Kids' Film Festival, Busan International Advertising Festival
Sep. Busan Biennale, Busan Sea Art Festival, Busan Maru International Music Festival
Oct. Busan International Film Festival, Busan International Fireworks Festival, Busan Jagalchi Festival
Nov. Busan Port Lighting Festival,G-Star-Global Game Exhibition, Busan Choral Festival & Competition
Dec. Busan Christmas Tree Festival

Medical facilities

Busan has many hospitals and clinics. Many cosmetic surgery, dermatological, ophthalmic, dental clinics are concentrated in Seomyeon medical street.

Major Medical Centers

Name of Hospital Number of beds
Pusan National University Hospital at Yangsan 1720 [33]
Pusan National University Hospital at Busan 1180 [33]
Inje University Paik Hospital at Haeundae 1004 [33]
Dong-A University Hospital 920 [33]
Kosin University Hospital 912 [33]
Busan St. Mary's Medical Center 716 [33]
Dong-eui Medical Center 640 [33]
Busan Baptist Hospital 608 [33]
Busan Medical Center 591 [33]
Maryknoll Medical Center 501 [33]
Inje University Paik Hospital at Busan 898 [33]
Dongnam Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences Cancer Center 304 [33]



Major express bus lines link Busan with other cities in Korea at two primary bus terminals, Nopodong Bus Terminal (at the northern terminus of Subway Line 1) and Seobu Bus Terminal at Sasang Station on Subway Line 2.

134 routes of urban buses service whole part of Busan Metropolitan City. (Busan Urban Bus)


Busan Harbour Pier 1 with the International Ferry Terminal (3 docked ferries shown).

The Coastal Ferry Terminal serves ferry services to many locations on Geoje Island as well as to Jeju City in Jeju-do.[34]

Ferries leaving from the International Ferry Terminal on Busan Harbour Pier 1 connect Busan to the Japanese ports of Izuhara and Hitakatsu on Tsushima Island, as well as the cities of Shimonoseki, Fukuoka, and Osaka on Japan's mainland.[35]

  • PanStar[36] operates the PanStar Ferry between Busan and Osaka.
  • The Seaflower 2, the ferry to Tsushima operated by Dae-a Express Shipping,[37] carries passengers only between Busan and Hitakatsu in 1 hour 40 minutes and between Busan and Izuhara in 2 hours 40 minutes.
  • The Seonghee, operated by Pukwan Ferry,[38] links Busan to Shimonoseki.
  • One of the ferries to Fukuoka is the Camellia, operated by Camellia Line.[39] The Camellia make the trip to Fukuoka over-night in 7 hours 30 minutes, and trip back in the afternoon in 5 hours 30 minutes.
  • The other ferry service to Fukuoka is assumed by the Beetles and the Kobees, 2 fleets of high-speed hydrofoils operated by Mirajet.[40] About five departures from each city are scheduled every day. By hydrofoil it only takes 2 hours 55 minutes to cross the Korea Strait to Fukuoka. The Beetles are owned by JR Kyushu.

This is administered by the Busan Port Authority.

National Railway

Busan lies on a number of rail lines, of which the most important is the Gyeongbu Line which connects it to other major cities such as Seoul, Daejeon, and Daegu. All classes of trains run along the Gyeongbu Line, including the superhigh speed KTX trains which provide service to Seoul in approximately 150 minutes. The Gyeongbu Line terminates at Busan Station. Other lines include the Donghae Nambu Line which connects Ulsan, Pohang and Gyeongju.


Busan Subway Line 2 Seomyeon Station Platform

The Busan Subway network contains four lines: 1, 2, 3, and 4. All four lines is operated by the Busan Transportation Corporation. The Busan-Gimhae Light Rail Transit line connects from Sasang Station (Line 2), Busan to Samgye Station, Gimhae.


Busan is served by Gimhae International Airport in Gangseo-gu. Gimhae International Airport is connected by Busan-Gimhae Light Rail Transit

Hotels, Resorts and Spas

Busan has a variety of hotels, resorts and spas.

International relations

Twin towns — Sister cities

Busan shares the title of sister city with several coastal cities or provinces around the world.[41]

Sister ports

The Port of Busan also has 6 sister ports (listed in order of dates).[44]

Independent cities in South Korea

See also

Notes and references

  1. ^ a b c d "Busan: Population and area of Administrative units". Dynamic Busan: Busan Metropolitan City. http://english.busan.go.kr/01_about/03_02.jsp. Retrieved 2010-03-24. 
  2. ^ Korean Statistical Information Service (Korean) > Population and Household > Census Result (2010) > Population by Adminstrative district, Sex and Age / Alien by Adminstrative district and Sex, Retrieved 2010-06-02.
  3. ^ This romanization of the city's name is in McCune-Reischauer. It was used prior to the official adoption of the Revised Romanization by the South Korean Government in 2000.
  4. ^ http://world-gazetteer.com/wg.php?x=&men=gcis&lng=en&dat=32&srt=npan&col=aohdq&pt=a&va=&srt=pnan%7C
  5. ^ a b http://www.bloomberg.com/apps/news?pid=newsarchive&sid=ah2Znx0vQ580 Empty Containers Clog Busan Port as Trade Slumps, bloomberg.com – March 3, 2009 02:12 EST
  6. ^ People's Daily Online (2005-11-14). "Pusan to declare bid to host 2020 Olympic Games". http://english.people.com.cn/200511/14/eng20051114_221062.html. Retrieved December 8, 2006. 
  7. ^ "24 HOUR NEWS CHANNEL ::::: YTN (와이티엔)". YTN. http://www.ytn.co.kr/_ln/0115_201107071651001121. Retrieved 2011-09-15. 
  8. ^ "Largest Department Store - Guinness World Records Blog post - Home of the Longest, Shortest, Fastest, Tallest facts and feats". Community.guinnessworldrecords.com. 2009-06-29. http://community.guinnessworldrecords.com/_Largest-Department-Store/blog/411871/7691.html. Retrieved 2011-09-15. 
  9. ^ See List of tallest buildings in the world
  10. ^ Andrei Lankov (2010-01-31) http://www.koreatimes.co.kr/www/news/special/2010/02/113_60003.html January 1951: Life of Korean War Refugees in Busan The Korea Times
  11. ^ "Pusan-gwangyŏksi: South Korea". Geographical Names. http://geographic.org/geographic_names/name.php?uni=238859&fid=3420&c=south_korea. Retrieved 2011-08-15. 
  12. ^ "Pusan: South Korea". Geographical Names. http://geographic.org/geographic_names/name.php?uni=-1007276&fid=3437&c=south_korea. Retrieved 2011-08-15. 
  13. ^ "Fusan: South Korea". Geographical Names. http://geographic.org/geographic_names/name.php?uni=-993412&fid=3416&c=south_korea. Retrieved 2011-08-15. 
  14. ^ "Fuzan-fu: South Korea". Geographical Names. http://geographic.org/geographic_names/name.php?uni=-993430&fid=3546&c=south_korea. Retrieved 2011-08-15. 
  15. ^ "Husan: South Korea". Geographical Names. http://geographic.org/geographic_names/name.php?uni=-995526&fid=3567&c=south_korea. Retrieved 2011-08-15. 
  16. ^ "Husan Hu: South Korea". Geographical Names. http://geographic.org/geographic_names/name.php?uni=-995528&fid=3420&c=south_korea. Retrieved 2011-08-15. 
  17. ^ "Pusan-chikhalsi: South Korea". Geographical Names. http://geographic.org/geographic_names/name.php?uni=-1007279&fid=3420&c=south_korea. Retrieved 2011-08-15. 
  18. ^ "Pusan-jikhalsi: South Korea". Geographical Names. http://geographic.org/geographic_names/name.php?uni=-1007284&fid=3441&c=south_korea. Retrieved 2011-08-15. 
  19. ^ "Pusan-pu: South Korea". Geographical Names. http://geographic.org/geographic_names/name.php?uni=-1007289&fid=3504&c=south_korea. Retrieved 2011-08-15. 
  20. ^ "Pusan-si: South Korea". Geographical Names. http://geographic.org/geographic_names/name.php?uni=-1007290&fid=3441&c=south_korea. Retrieved 2011-08-15. 
  21. ^ "평년값자료(1981–2010) 부산(159)". Korea Meteorological Administration. http://www.kma.go.kr/weather/climate/average_30years.jsp?yy_st=2011&stn=159&norm=M&x=33&y=16&obs=0&mm=5&dd=27. Retrieved 2011-05-27. 
  22. ^ <http://www.uia.be/>
  23. ^ "World Tourism Summit and TPO Forum 2008". Worldtourismsummit.com. 2005-11-14. http://www.worldtourismsummit.com/Travel/KoreaTips/tabid/83/Default.aspx. Retrieved 2011-09-15. 
  24. ^ "Official Site of Korea Tourism Org.: Yongdusan Park". Visitkorea.or.kr. http://www.visitkorea.or.kr/enu/SI/SI_EN_3_1_1_1.jsp?cid=264539. Retrieved 2011-09-15. 
  25. ^ United Nations Memorial Cemetery Homepage
  26. ^ KOFICE 2nd Asia Song Festival 11 November 2005. Retrieved 2011-10-12
  27. ^ Choi, Jae-ho. "National Maritime Museum of Korea exposes its shape". Dong-a Ilbo. http://news.donga.com/3/all/20110914/40313871/1. Retrieved 7 November 2011. 
  28. ^ [1]
  29. ^ "[내고장 이 맛! 부산 동래파전"]. Seoul.co.kr. http://www.seoul.co.kr/news/newsView.php?id=20090511010021&spage=1. Retrieved 2011-09-15. 
  30. ^ Kim Gi-hyeon (김기현) (2009-05-13) 동래파전·돼지국밥…음식도 관광자원으로 (in Korean) Munhwa Ilbo
  31. ^ Lee Gyeong-taek (이경택) (2002-09-26) 부산AG 장외 음식열전 (in Korean) Munhwa Ilbo
  32. ^ Noh, Ju-Seok (노주석) (2009-07-29) (씨줄날줄) 영도다리/노주석 논설위원] (in Korean) Seoul Sinmun
  33. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l "::빠르고 정확한 인터넷 의협신문::". Doctorsnews.co.kr. http://www.doctorsnews.co.kr/news/articleView.html?idxno=53142. Retrieved 2011-09-15. 
  34. ^ Busan Port Coastal Passenger Terminal
  35. ^ International Ferry Terminal
  36. ^ PanStar Ferry, Korean operator of the ferry linking to Osaka, Japan.
  37. ^ (Korean) Dae-a Express Shipping, operator of the ferry linking to Tsushima Island, Japan.
  38. ^ Pukwan Ferry, operator of the ferry linking to Shimonoseki, Japan.
  39. ^ (Japanese) Camellia Line, (Korean) Korea Ferry
  40. ^ Kobee and Beetle, ferries linking to Fukuoka, Japan.
  41. ^ List of Busan's sister cities, Busan Metropolitan City; (English) [2], (Korean) [ http://www.busan.go.kr/06_intro/03_present/05_04_02.jsp]
  42. ^ "Barcelona internacional – Ciutats agermanades" (in Spanish). © 2006–2009 Ajuntament de Barcelona. http://w3.bcn.es/XMLServeis/XMLHomeLinkPl/0,4022,229724149_257215678_1,00.html. Retrieved 2009-07-13. 
  43. ^ "CÁC ĐỊA PHƯƠNG NƯỚC NGOÀI ĐÃ THIẾT LẬP QUAN HỆ HỮU NGHỊ HỢP TÁC VỚI TPHCM". www.mofahcm.gov.vn. October 9, 2010. http://www.mofahcm.gov.vn/vi/hoptac_qt/nr041014110554/#2O2JGVsVDHhB. Retrieved January 8, 2011. 
  44. ^ Port of Busan, Sister Ports, Busan
  45. ^ http://www.city.osaka.jp/port/e_17_sister.html

External links

Coordinates: 35°10′46″N 129°04′32″E / 35.17944°N 129.07556°E / 35.17944; 129.07556

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