native_name = Bilbao
spanish_name = Bilbao
nickname = El Botxo ("the hole")
city_motto = La Muy Noble y Muy Leal e Invicta
city_motto_means = The most noble and most loyal and undefeated
image_flag_size = 150px
image_coat_of_arms = Escudo_heráldico_de_Bilbao.svg
image_coat_of_arms_size = 110px
image_city_map_size = 300px
image_city_map_caption = Location of Bilbao in Spain and Biscay
lat_long = coord|43|15|51|N|2|55|25.50|W|display=inline
time_zone = CET (GMT +1)
time_zone_summer = CEST (GMT +2)
image_skyline_size = 300px
image_skyline_caption= Panorama from Etxebarria park.
founded = 15 June 1300
native_language = Basque
community = Basque Country
community_link = Basque Country (autonomous community)
province = Biscay
province_link = Biscay
comarca = Greater Bilbao
comarca_link = Greater Bilbao
divisions = 8
neighborhoods = 36
mayor = Iñaki Azkuna
political_party = PNV
political_party_link = Basque Nationalist Party
area = 41,3
altitude = 19
population = 354,145
date-population = 2006
population-ranking = 10
density = 8,575
date-density = 2006
website = http://www.bilbao.net/
postal_code = 480XX
area_code = 94
Bilbao, (also "Bilbo"), in the North of
Spain, is the largest city in the Basque Country and the capital of the province of Biscay(Basque: "Bizkaia").The city has 354,145 inhabitants (2006) and is the most financially and industrially active part of Greater Bilbao, the zone in which almost half of the Basque Country’s populationlives. Greater Bilbao’s 950,155 inhabitants are spread along the length of the Nervión River, whose banks are home also to numerous business and factories, which during the industrial revolutionbrought heightened prosperity to the region.
A major seaport and industrial centre, the city is located on the
Estuary of Bilbao, the city's suburbs extending to the Bay of Biscay. The populationof the city of Bilbao proper was 354,145 in 2006. The population of the urban areaof Greater Bilbao( the conurbation) was 935,000 as of 2004 estimates. Population of the metropolitan area(urban area plus satellite towns) was 950,155 as of 2007 estimates, ranking as the fifth-largest metropolitan area of Spain [ [http://alarcos.inf-cr.uclm.es/per/fruiz/pobesp/dat/arc/areas-pob.xls AUDES project 2007 statistical data] ] . As of 2008, the mayorof Bilbao is Iñaki Azkuna.
In the north, Bilbao’s city edge is considered to be around the towns of
Erandio, Sondikaand Derio, in the east it is encompassed by Zamudioand Etxebarri. The southern border passes outside Basauriand Arrigorriagaand in the west, Barakaldoand Alonsotegiare the furthest extremes. The urban area is enclosed by two small mountain ranges called Pagasarri(to the south) and Artxanda (to the north), this fact gives the city its nickname, "el botxo", "the hole".
The city of Bilbao is divided into eight different districts, including the following neighbourhoods:
*3rd District "(Otxarkoaga-Txurdinaga)":
*4th District "(Begoña)": Begoña,
*5th District "(Ibaiondo)":
Casco Viejo, Bilbao La Vieja, San Francisco, Zabala, Atxuri,(La Peña) Iturrialde, Solokoetxe, Abusuand the newly developed neighbourhood of Miribilla.
*6th District "(Abando)": Abando and
*7th District "(Rekalde)": Rekalde,
El Peñascal, Ametzola, Iralabarriand San Adrián,
*8th District "(Basurto-Zorrotza)":
Basurto, Altamira, Masustegi, Olabeagaand Zorrotza.
Bilbao has an
oceanic climate, generally mild, with not too extreme temperatures. January average temperature is 9°C and July average 21°C. Precipitation is around 1200mm per year, almost entirely rain, although every winter it snows three days on average [ [http://www.aavbae.net/meteo/bilbao.php Bilbao climate chart (from the Astronomical association)] ] .
Extreme heat is also common a few days each summer, mainly when strong winds from the south blow through the mountains and temperatures rise because of the
Extreme record observations in Bilbao are 42.2°C maximum (
13 August 2003) and - 8.6°C minimum ( 3 February 1963). The maximum precipitation in a day was 225.6 mm in 26 August 1983when severe flooding was originated by the Nervión River. [ [http://www2.bilbao.net/bilbaoturismo/castellano/cbureau/clima.htm City Council climate information] ]
location = Bilbao (1971-2000)
Jan_Lo_°C = 5
Feb_Lo_°C = 5
Mar_Lo_°C = 6
Apr_Lo_°C = 7
May_Lo_°C = 11
Year_Precip_mm = 1191
source =Bilbao climate chart (from the Astronomical association) [cite web
url =http://www.sws.uiuc.edu/data/climatedb/choose.asp?stn=111577 |title =Monthly Weather Averages for Bilbao Airport (1971-2000 Data) | accessmonthday = July 6 |accessyear =2007
language = ]
accessdate = July 2007
Bilbao was founded as a village by "Don Diego Lopez de Haro V",
Lord of Biscay, on 15 June 1300on the opposite river bank of an existing fishing settlement (now known as "Bilbao la Vieja" or " Bilbo Zarra", "Old Bilbao").
Prior to formal establishment as a township, a village and port called "Bilbao" (the name designated in the founding village charter of 1300) is believed to have been located near an ancient wall (circa XII century) recently discovered by the "San Anton" Bridge. Other evidence suggests that first settlements in Bilbao came earlier near the "Malmasin" promontory.
The name of the city has unclear origins, some think it may come from "bel vado", ancient Spanish for "good river crossing" while others proclaim it stems from Basque "bi albo" meaning "two river banks".
Nearby places like
Sestaoand Ugao-Miraballeshave the same ending that could be Basque "aho", "mouth".
Don Diego gave the city rights and privileges along with land for growth. At first there were only three streets: Somera ("Upper"), Artekale ("middle street") and Tendería ("Shopkeeper's"), following the pattern of three parallel streets found in other Basque towns, and the Santiago church, surrounded by a city wall. Bilbao was in the northern branch of the
Way of Saint James, thus the name of Santiago ("Saint James"') church.
The city grew slowly but steadily, its area is now known as the "Seven streets", after the new parallel developments. The privileges conceded by the successive Lords of Biscay were resented, sometimes violently, by other chartered
villas like Portugaleteand by the unchartered villages.In the 15th century wars between noble families disrupted the city, which had reached a population of almost 3000. Three floods and a fire shook the city, and Santiago Church was almost totally destroyed. But once again the city recovered and it grew beyond the wall.In 1511 the Consulate of Bilbao was granted to the city by the Spanish Crown, this allowed Bilbao to be the main export port for Merinowool from Castile to the northern European cities, like Antwerp.
Bilbao became the most important commercial and financial hub of the Spanish north coast during the
Spanish Empireera. The swords exported through Bilbao were known in England as "bilboes".
In 1602 Bilbao was made capital city of
Biscay, replacing the former capital Bermeo. The following centuries saw a constant increase of the city's wealth, especially after the discovery of extensive iron resources in the surrounding hills. At the end of the 17th century, Bilbao overcame the economical crises that affected Spain thanks to the iron ore and the commerce with England and the Netherlands. During the 18th century the city continued to grow and almost exhausted its limited space.The 19th century's industrial revolutionwas crucial for Bilbao, with the developing of strong mining, steel and shipbuilding industries. At the beginning of the 20th century Bilbao was the wealthiest city of Spain, where the main banks ( BBVA) and insurance companies were established.
Bilbao was besieged four times by the
Carlists during the Carlist Wars, but due to the defenders (the regular Spanish army and local Liberal volunteers), it was never conquered, as is recorded in the city's title ("undefeated").
In 1886 the
University of Deustowas established by the Company of Jesusand a major plan for the city was announced after the village of Abando was annexed. The Alzola, Achúcarro and Hoffmeyer "Ensanche" (extension) project of 1876 almost doubled the city's area and was developed during the following decades, as it happened in other cities like Barcelona at that time.
The 20th century
In 1925, the village of Deusto was annexed and several other parts of the city were developed including Basurto and Begoña.
Bilbao sided with the Republican Government in the
Spanish Civil Warand was the capital of the first Basque Autonomous Government led by José Antonio Aguirre. A defensive ring, called "Cinturón de Hierro" (" Iron Belt") was built around the city, with heavy artilleryand a good number of bunkers linked by kilometers of tunnels. Despite these efforts, on 19 June 1937 Bilbao succumbed to Franco's troops' siege (aided by the betrayal of the engineer Goicoechea, designer of the defensive ring); the bridges were destroyed to stop the enemy, but the city survived relatively intact.
During Franco's dictatorship the city's heavy industries fuelled Spain's economy and thousands of immigrants from central and southern Spain moved to Bilbao, the city and surrounding towns expanded greatly and sometimes chaotically. In an effort to accommodate the influx of immigrants in the city's limited space, the towns in the adjacent
Txoriherrivalley (Erandio, Derio, Zamudio, Sondika, Lezama) were annexed. This annexation was reversed in 1981 after the transition to democracy.
In 1983 heavy floods struck the city, killing many people in the province and causing great damage to the old part of the city; the old Arriaga Theater was devastated. Since then the "Casco Viejo" (the old district) has been renewed, along with the general trend of renewal seen all around the city.
Regeneration and renewal
The city has recently undergone major
urban renewal, in order to move away from the region’s industrial history and instead focus on tourismand services. The developments are centered around the new metro system by Sir Norman Foster (see Metro Bilbao) and, most of all, the Guggenheim Bilbao Museumby Frank Gehry. A new tramline( EuskoTran) was introduced in 2002. The Port of Bilbao, formerly on the river, has been moved and expanded downstream on the Bay of Biscay, opening a great deal of central real estate on the river that has been the site of most of the new building. Other new landmarks include the Santiago Calatrava- designed Zubizuri Bridge and the Euskalduna Palace, a cultural centre, further downstream. The two points are linked by a new riverside passageway opposite University of Deusto, which provides an open green space for the city’s inhabitants to relax.
A major landmark tower, designed by
César Pelli, to house the Iberdrolaelectric company will also be built and there are ambitious plans to regenerate the peninsula on the river known as Zorrozaurre. [ [http://www.bilbaoria2000.com Bilbao Ria 2000 Regeneration of the Metropolitan Bilbao] ] [ [http://www.bm30.com Bilbao Metropoli 30] ] [ [http://www.euskalduna.net Euskalduna Congress Centre] ]
Tourism and monuments
As well as the famous Guggenheim Museum, the city acts as home for the Fine Arts Museum recognised as one of Spain’s finest art museums and recently refurbished) and the Maritime Museum on the Nervión’s banks, which recently hosted the RMS "Titanic" exhibition which has been touring Europe. Museums are only a part of the city's attractions.
Since the inauguration of the Guggenheim museum in 1997, eight new hotels have been opened in the city, reflecting the increasing interest for the city.
Bilbao was briefly featured at the start of the 1999
James Bondfilm " The World Is Not Enough".
Bilbao Live Festival, initiated in 2006, is another measure of new interest.
* [http://www2.bilbao.net/bilbaoturismo/index_ingles.htm City Hall's Tourism site]
Old Town or "Casco Viejo"
The medieval neighbourhood is the most colourful part of Bilbao, a maze of narrow streets full of taverns, shops and monuments.
Plaza Nueva. Teatro Arriagaopera house.
Museums and cultural centres
Guggenheim Museum Bilbao
* Fine Arts Museum
* Basque Museum
* Maritime Museum
Euskalduna Conference Centre and Concert Hall
Saint Anton church
Basilica of Begoña
Saint Nicholas of Bari church
Santos Juanes church
Saint Vincent church
* Doña Casilda de Iturrizar park
Greater Bilbaois the Basque Country's main economic area and one of Spain's most important. The metropolitan area concentrates several key industrial sectors: steel, energy production, machine tool, aeronauticsindustry, electronicsand IT. The municipality of Bilbao has been an industrial one for decades, but the heavier industries have been moved from the city center to the periphery and the city has centered its activities in the services sector which accounts for the 75’5% of the city's added value. The GNP per capitais 19,648€ (FY 2000), slightly above the average of the Basque Country and well above the average of Spain. The city is the corporate seat of the BBVAbank and Iberdrolaelectric company.
The International Trade Fair, now "Bilbao Exhibition Centre (BEC)" hosts many international level exhibitions, specially the "Bianual Machine Tool Fair (BIEMH)", that help dynamizing the economic life. On top of BEC, Bilbao has the
Euskalduna Palaceas a congress center.
port of Bilbaois the most important one in the north of Spain and one of the most important in the Bay of Biscay. In 2005, the port moved 36.8 million tonnes, being the fourth port of Spain after Algeciras, Barcelonaand Valencia.
In 1970, Bilbao was the sixth most populated city in Spain and the third-highest ranked metropolitan area. In 1981, its population peaked at 433,115. From there on the population of the city proper started to decline. This was due to the fact that the towns surrounding Bilbao that were merged into the city during the 1940s and 1960s (
Erandio, Loiu, Derio, Sondikaand Zamudio) regained independence and because of a population movement into the suburban towns in in the The right bank, like Getxoand Leioa, whose populations increased sharply. In 2003, Bilbao’s official figures counted 353,173 inhabitants. [ [http://www.ine.es Instituto Nacional de Estadística] ]
Whilst the overall region’s population continues to climb, the city centre has noticed a drop in residents. This is a result of the steady and seemingly unbreakable trend of the city’s people flocking to the coastlines which has been underway since the 1990s, caused mainly by high
real-estateprices in Bilbao. Bilbao is one of the most expensive cities in Spain, fourth most expensive after Madrid, Barcelonaand San Sebastian.
Industrialised areas have been left in favour of the
coast. In fact, of the 18 towns around Bilbao with more than 10,000 inhabitants, only eight - Amorebieta-Etxano, Arrigorriaga, Durango, Gernika, Getxo, Leioa, Mungiaand Sopelana– have increased their number of inhabitants. Sestaohas been worst hit, losing nearly 11% of its population in eight years.
Since 2001, the number of immigrants in the city has risen steadily each year as a result of increasing migration into Spain. In 2000, 2% of Bilbao's population consisted of immigrants, but this currently stands at 7.5%. As of 2006, there were 23,762 immigrants in the city. According to the 2007 census, there are 26,431 inmigrants in the city. This has helped to reverse the falls in population.
Immigration is mainly based in the old part of the city at neighborhoods such as San Francisco (28.9%), Bilbao La Vieja (19.0%) and the Seven Streets ("Casco Viejo") (12.3%). There are also some neighborhoods with immigration rates above the average, Zabala (10.8%), Arangoiti (10.3%), Ametzola (10.2%) and Iturrialde (9.6%).
Basque Governmentis in charge of education in the Basque Country autonomous community.
In Greater Bilbao there are the following Universities:
University of Deusto: Founded in 1886 by the Society of Jesus, it is one of the most important institutions of Spain. The University has another campus in San Sebastián. The Bilbao campus offers the following studies: Law, Philosophy, Education, Business - "La Comercial", Theology, Politics and Sociology, Engineering - "ESIDE".
University of the Basque Country: Created in 1968 as "University of Bilbao" and renamed to its current name in 1980. It is a public university with the following studies in Greater Bilbao: Business school of Sarriko (Bilbao), Education (Bilbao), Engineering and Telecommunications(Bilbao), Technical Engineering school of La Casilla (Bilbao), Medium grade Business school (Bilbao), Nautical school (Portugalete), Mining (Barakaldo), Elderly University (Bilbao), Medicine and Odontology (Leioa-Erandio), Sociology and Communication (Leioa-Erandio), Fine Arts (Leioa-Erandio), Laboral Relationships (Leioa), Nursing (Leioa).
Infrastructure and transportation
The city has 13 bridges connecting both sides of the river, it is connected to the European road network by the AP-8 toll motorway and to the north of Spain by the A-8 motorway and to the rest of Spain by the AP-68 toll motorway.
The underground network (
Metro Bilbao), inaugurated in 1995, is used by more than 85 million passengers every year. It has 2 lines that connect both banks of the Bilbao Metropolitan Area. There is a project under way to build a third line.
The city has 43 "
Bilbobus" bus lines, 28 for normal buses, seven "micro-buses" for zones of the city that a normal bus can't access, and eight night lines. The inner-city bus network has recently won a prize for its efficiency and quality of service. In addition, there are more than 100 BizkaiBusbus lines, connecting Bilbao with almost every point in Biscay and part of Alava. The city's main bus station is called Termibusand is located near the San Mamés stadium.
There are 7 commuter rail lines operated by three different companies: Bilbao-Abando, main station of RENFE.
FEVEtrains. Renfe"(Spanish railway network)" has 3 "Cercanías" lines in metropolitan Bilbao::*C1, Bilbao-Abando- Santurtzi:*C2, Abando- Muskiz:*C3, Abando- Orduña FEVE"(Spanish Narrow Gauge Railways)" has one::*Abando (Concordia)- Balmaseda. EuskoTren"(Basque railway network)", runs three lines::* Deusto- Lezama:* Atxuri- Ermua:*Atxuri- Bermeo.
In 2002, the new tramway,
EuskoTran, was inaugurated. It has one line connecting Atxuri with Basurto. Plans are afoot to greatly expand the network over the coming decade.
A new airport terminal was opened in 2000, expanding the capacity of the former facility, and allowing growth in
tourismfuelled by low-cost flights by airlinessuch as easyJetand Vueling. The airport handled 4,277,610 passengers in 2007.
ferryservice links Santurtzi, near Bilbao, to Portsmouth(UK). The " Pride of Bilbao" ferry departs from the port of Bilbao, 15 km west of the city centre. A service operated by Acciona Trasmediterranea served the same route from May 16 2006until April 2007.
* [http://www.metrobilbao.com/ Metro Bilbao]
* [http://www.euskotren.es/euskotran/html/english/index.html Euskotran, Tramway]
* [http://www.bizkaia.net/herri_lanak/bizkaibus/ca_index.asp Bizkaibus]
* [http://www.bilbao.net/WebBilbaonet/pwegb014.jsp?idioma=i Bilbobus]
* [http://www.euskotren.es Euskotren]
* [http://www.renfe.es/cercanias/bilbao/index_horarios.html Renfe Cercanias - Bilbao]
* [http://www.feve.es FEVE]
* [http://www.cotrabi.com/home_page_in.htm Bilbao Transport Consortium]
"Semana Grande" (Spanish for "Big Week", "Aste Nagusia" in Basque) is Bilbao's main festival attracting over 100,000 people and takes place each year, lasting 9 days. It has been celebrated since 1978 and begins on the Saturday of the 3rd week of August each year. People from around Spain, and increasingly from abroad attend the celebrations.
The celebrations include the strongman games, free music performances, street entertainment,
bullfightingand nightly firework displays. The best views of the display are from the city's bridges. Each year, there is something different occurring, thus a festival programme (these are available all over the city) is strongly recommended.
San Mamésstadium, home of Athletic de Bilbao.] In addition to the main sports, soccer and basketball, Bilbao offers the possibility of many outdoor activities due to its location in a hilly countryside, trekkingis very popular as well as rock climbingin the nearby mountains. Watersports, specially surfingis practiced in the beaches of Sopelanaand Mundaka, easily accessed from the city by car, metro or train.
Buenos Aires, Argentina
*flagicon|People's Republic of China
Qingdao, Shandong, People's Republic of China
Pennsylvania, United States
Sant Adrià de Besòs, Spain
Famous people from Bilbao
Miguel de Unamuno, writerand philosopher.
Gabriel Aresti, poet.
Blas de Otero, poet.
Espido Freire, writer.Musicians
Juan Crisóstomo Arriaga, classical composer.
Kepa Junkera, folkcomposer.
Jesús Guridi, composer.
Amaya Uranga, singer of Mocedades.
Mattin, experimental and improvisational musician.
Fito Cabrales, rock musician.Artists
Aurelio Arteta, painter.
Eduardo Zamacoïs, painter.
Álex de la Iglesia, movie director.
Pedro Olea, movie director and screenwriter.Science and Technology
Evaristo de Churruca y Brunet, engineer.
Alberto Palacio, architectand engineer.
Leonardo Torres y Quevedo, engineer.Sports
Rafael Alkorta, football player.
Gaizka Mendieta, football player.
Julio Salinas, football player.Politicians
Sabino Arana, politician from Abando.
* José Antonio Aguirre, first Basque
Ernesto Erkoreka, Former Mayorof Bilbao, killed by francoist forces in 1937.
Joaquín Almunia, politician.
Josu Ortuondo Larrea, politician and former Mayor.
Don Diego de Gardoqui, diplomatMilitary
José de Mazarredo, admiral of the Spanish Navy.
Juan de Recalde, Vice-Admiral of the Spanish Armada.
Bartolomé Ferrelo, sailor.Media
* Ramón García,
Manuel Aznar Acedo, journalist.
* [http://www.bilbao.net Bilbao's official web page]
* [http://www.visitbilbao.info Bilbao's Chamber of Commerce official tourism website on the city and surrounding areas]
* [http://maps.google.com/?ll=43.258831,-2.947769&spn=0.032254,0.05785&t=k&om=1 Bilbao in Google Maps]
* [http://www.euskomedia.org/aunamendi/14110 BILBAO in the Bernardo Estornés Lasa - Auñamendi Encyclopedia (Euskomedia Fundazioa)] es icon
* [http://www.retratoiberico.com/galeria/gallery.asp?categoryid=7949 Bilbao Photogallery in RetratoIberico.com]
* [http://www.skyscraperpage.com/diagrams/?17440866 Skyscraperpage.com Bilbao's skyscraper diagram]
* [http://www.bilbaoexhibitioncentre.com Bilbao Exhibition Centre]
* [http://www.lostinbilbao.tv Lost in Bilbao tv, web tv about Bilbao]
* [http://www.visiteuropes.com/ccm/vacation/weather/?p2258_country=es&p2258_city=Bilbao&p2258_url=forecast&nav_cat=260&lang=en_US Bilbao] Weather Forecast
* [http://osha.europa.eu The European Agency for Safety and Health at Work (
EU-OSHA) is based in Bilbao] (see also European Agency for Safety and Health at Work)
Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.
Look at other dictionaries:
Bilbao — Wappen Karte von Spanien … Deutsch Wikipedia
¿Bilbao? — Título ¿Bilbao? Ficha técnica Dirección Policarpo Fernández Azcoaga Producción Policarpo Fernández Azcoaga … Wikipedia Español
Bilbao — Bilbao, baskisch Bilbo, Hauptstadt der spanischen Provinz Vizcaya, 15 km oberhalb der Mündung des Río Nervión in die Ria von Bilbao an der kantabrischen Küste, 358 500 Einwohner. Die Stadt liegt zwischen Berghängen auf Talterrassen, rechts des… … Universal-Lexikon
BILBAO — BILBA Le fait portuaire est essentiel pour comprendre la constitution d’un complexe industriel et urbain parmi les plus importants d’Espagne (deuxième port, presque à égalité avec Algésiras, avec un trafic de 27,4 millions de tonnes en 1992,… … Encyclopédie Universelle
Bilbao — (Хавеа,Испания) Категория отеля: Адрес: C/ de Ginjoler, 03730 Хавеа, Испания … Каталог отелей
Bilbao — (Azeri, Catalan, Dutch, Finnish, French, German, Latvian), Romanian, Spanish, Turkish), Bilbao Билбао (Macedonian), Bilbau (Portuguese), Bilbo (Basque) … Names of cities in different languages
Bilbao — Bilbão dkt. Gyvẽnti Bilbão … Bendrinės lietuvių kalbos žodyno antraštynas
Bilbāo — (spr. Wilwao), 1) (Ybaichalval, d.i. enger Fluß), Küstenfluß des Biscayischen Meeres in. Spanien; entspringt auf den Pyrenäen, nimmt den Durango u. Salcedon auf u. mündet bei der Stadt B.; 2) eine der Baskischen Provinzen in Spanien, 1833 aus dem … Pierer's Universal-Lexikon
Bilbao — (baskisch Ibaizabel), Hauptstadt der span. Provinz Vizcaya, wichtiger Hafen und Handelsplatz, liegt malerisch im Tale des schiffbaren Nervión, der B. in B. la Vieja (Altbilbao), am linken, und das eigentliche B., am rechten Ufer, teilt und von… … Meyers Großes Konversations-Lexikon
Bilbao — Bilbāo, Hauptstadt der span. Prov. Biscaya, (1900) 83.306 E.; wichtige Seehandelsstadt (Außenhafen: El Abra, gegenüber Portugalete); Eisenwerke. Belagerung durch die Karlisten 1874, entsetzt 2. Mai 1874 durch Serrano … Kleines Konversations-Lexikon
Bilbao — Bilbao, span. Provinz im Baskenlande, 60 QM. mit 120000 sehr thätigen Einw. Hauptstadt B. am gleichnamigen Flusse, 16500 E., bedeutender Handel; die fast offene Stadt hielt 1835 eine Belagerung durch die Karlisten u. 1838 vom Octbr. bis Dezbr.… … Herders Conversations-Lexikon