- Villa Borghese gardens
Villa Borghese is a large [The gardens cover eighty hectares.] landscape
gardenin the naturalistic English manner in Rome, containing a number of buildings, museums (see Galleria Borghese) and attractions. It is the second largest public park in Rome (80 hectares or 148 acres) after that of the Villa Doria Pamphili. The gardens were developed for the Villa Borghese Pinciana ("Borghese villa on the Pincian Hill"), built by the architect Flaminio Ponzio, developing sketches by Scipione Borghese, who used it as a "villa suburbana", a party villa, at the edge of Rome, and to house his art collection. The gardens as they are now were remade in the early nineteenth century.
In 1605, Cardinal
Scipione Borghese, nephew of Pope Paul Vand patron of Bernini, began turning this former vineyard into the most extensive gardens built in Rome since Antiquity. The vineyard's site is identified with the gardens of Lucullus, the most famous in the late Roman republic. In the 19th century much of the garden's former formality was remade as a landscape garden in the English taste ("illustration, right"). The Villa Borghese gardens were long informally open but were bought by the commune of Rome and given to the public in 1903. The large landscape park in the English taste contains several villas. The Spanish Stepslead up to this park, and there is another entrance at the Porte del Popolo by Piazza del Popolo. The "Pincio" (the Pincian Hillof ancient Rome), in the south part of the park, offers one of the greatest views over Rome.
Villas in the gardens
Galleria Borgheseis housed in the Villa Borghese itself. The garden Casino Borghese, built on a rise above the Villa by the architect Giovanni Vasanzio, was set up by Camillo Borgheseto contain sculptures by Berninifrom the Borghese collection, including his "David" and his "Daphne", and by Antonio Canova("Paolina Borghese"), with paintings by Titian, Raphaeland Caravaggio.
Villa Giuliaadjoining the Villa Borghese gardens was built in 1551 - 1555 as a summer residence for Pope Julius III; now it contains the Etruscan Museum ("Museo Etrusco").
Villa Medicihouses the French Academy in Rome, and the "Fortezzuola" a Gothic garden structure that houses a collection memorializing the academic modern sculptor Pietro Canonica. In the 1650s, Diego Velázquezpainted several depictions of this Villa's garden casino festively illuminated at night. Before electricity, such torchlit illuminations carried an excitement hard to conceive today.
*Other villas scattered through the Villa Borghese gardens are remains of a world exposition in Rome in 1911.
Galleria Nazionale d'Arte Moderna" located in its grounds has a collection of 19th and 20th century paintings emphasizing Italian artists.
**Architecturally the most notable of the 1911 exposition pavilions is the English pavilion designed by Sir
Edwin Lutyens(who later designed New Delhi), now housing the British School at Rome.
*The villa's gardens feature in one of Respighi's "
Pini di Roma".
*Beside the 1911 Exposition's villas, there is the Exposition's Zoo, recently rearranged, with minimal caging, as the
Bioparco, and the Zoological Museum ("Museo di Zoologia").
* [http://en.villaborghese.it/la_villa/presentazione Villa Borghese]
* [http://www.gardenvisit.com/ge/borghese.htm Villa Borghese — information on garden history]
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