- Pakistani general election, 2008
election_name = Pakistani general election, 2008
country = Pakistan
type = parliamentary
ongoing = no
previous_election = Pakistani general election, 2002
previous_year = 2002
seats_for_election = All 337 seats to the National Assembly
February 18, 2008
Yousaf Raza Gillani
party1 = Pakistan Peoples Party
last_election1 = 81 seats, 25.8%
seats1 = 121
seat_change1 = +40
popular_vote1 = 10,606,486
percentage1 = 30.6%
Nisar Ali Khan
party2 = Pakistan Muslim League (N)
title = PM
Muhammad Mian Soomro
before_party = Pakistan Muslim League (Q)
Yousaf Raza Gillani
after_party = Pakistan Peoples PartyA general election was held in
Pakistanon February 18, 2008, after being postponed from 8 January 2008, the original date to elect members of the National Assembly of Pakistan, the lower house of the Majlis-e-Shoora(the nation's parliament).cite news|author=Ahmed Rashid |url=http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/south_asia/6211639.stm?lsf|title=Pakistan's uncertain year ahead|publisher=BBC News|date= 2007-01-10|accessdate=2007-07-09] cite news|url=http://www.angus-reid.com/tracker/index.cfm?fuseaction=viewItem&itemID=15363|title=Election Tracker: Pakistan |publisher= Angus Reid Global Monitor|accessdate=2007-07-09] Pakistan's two main opposition parties, the Pakistan Peoples Party(PPP) and the Pakistan Muslim League (N)(PML (N)) won the majority of seats in the election, although the Pakistan Muslim League (Q)(PML (Q)) actually was second in the popular vote. The PPP and PML (N) formed the new coalition governmentwith Yosaf Raza Gillanias Prime Minister of Pakistan.
3 November 2007, President and then-Chief of the Army Staff Pervez Musharrafcalled a state of emergency. Elections were initially postponed indefinitely; [cite news | title = BBC NEWS | South Asia | Musharraf targets key opponents | url=http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/south_asia/7077443.stm | accessdate = 2008-02-20 | year = 2008 ] however, it was later stated they would be held as planned. [cite news | title = BBC NEWS | South Asia | Pakistan 'to keep elections date' | url=http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/south_asia/7079402.stm | accessdate = 2008-02-20 | year = 2008 ] On 8 November 2007Musharraf announced that the election would be held by 15 February 2008, [cite news | title = BBC NEWS | World | South Asia | Musharraf vows polls in February | url=http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/south_asia/7084839.stm | accessdate = 2008-02-20 | year = 2008 ] later calling for the election date to be on or before 9 January 2008. [cite news | title = BBC NEWS | South Asia | Bhutto's 'long march is illegal' | url=http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/south_asia/7090457.stm | accessdate = 2008-02-20 | year = 2008 ] Even later, he suggested 8 January 2008as the election date. [cite web | title = Musharraf recommends general elections to be held on Jan. 8 - People's Daily Online | url=http://english.people.com.cn/90001/90777/6305041.html | accessdate = 2008-02-20 | year = 2008 ] Following the assassination of Benazir Bhutto, the Election Commission announced after a meeting in Islamabad that a January 8 vote was no longer possible and the election would take place on 18 February.cite news |title=Pakistan Delays Vote After Bloodshed |url=http://news.sky.com/skynews/article/0,,30200-1298932,00.html|publisher= Sky News|date=2008-02-01 |accessdate = 2008-02-01]
Following the election, Musharraf acknowledged that the process had been free and fair. He conceded the defeat of the PML (Q) and pledged to work with the new Parliament. [cite news | title = In Pakistan, Musharrafs Party Accepts Defeat - New York Times | url=http://www.nytimes.com/2008/02/20/world/asia/20pakistan.htm | accessdate = 2008-02-20 | year = 2008 ]
By-elections for 28 seats (23 provincial and 5 national) have been delayed numerous times, with most of them now held on 26 June 2008.
Code of conduct
A code of conduct for the election has been proposed by the
Citizens' Group on Electoral Process(CGEP) to the Election Commission of Pakistanand the political parties. This suggests that all stakeholders should agree on a set of rules as early as possible, in order to provide a level playing field for a fair general election. [cite web | title = Model code of conduct for polls proposed -DAWN - Top Stories; July 03, 2007 | url=http://www.dawn.com/2007/07/03/top16.htm | accessdate = 2008-02-20 | year = 2008 ]
There have been concerns from the
United Statesthat Pakistan has not been doing enough to assist in their war on terrorism. Musharraf has rejected such claims, stating "The fight against terrorism and extremism, whether it is al-Qaeda or Taliban, can never succeed without Pakistan’s cooperation and Pakistan is the only country that has delivered the maximum on both. We are tackling them with 30,000 troops. If there is anybody who is not doing enough, it is others who are not doing enough." Opposition parties, especially the religious Muttahida Majlis-e-Amalcoalition, are opposed to Pakistan's role as ally of the United States in the War on Terrorism.cite web|url=http://www.globalsecurity.org/military/world/pakistan/mma.htm|title=Muttahida Majlis-e-Amal (MMA)|publisher=GlobalSecurity.org|accessdate=2007-07-09] A car bomb killed 40 people and wounded 90 February 16 2008in northern Pakistan when it exploded in front of an election office of the opposition Pakistan Peoples Party.cite web|url=http://edition.cnn.com/2008/WORLD/asiapcf/02/16/pakistan/index.html|title=Car bomb kills 40 ahead of Pakistan vote |publisher=CNN|accessdate=2008-02-17]
Fairness of elections
A number of opposition parties have called for the resignation of President
Pervez Musharrafto ensure free and fair elections under a caretaker government.cite news |author=M. Ziauddin |url=http://www.dawn.com/2007/07/09/top1.htm|title=MPC declaration asks Musharraf to resign: PPP’s stand accommodated |publisher=Dawn|date= 2007-07-09|accessdate=2007-07-09] On 8 July 2007, opposition parties issued a declaration of their demands for the elections. The parties included are the Pakistan Peoples Party, Pakistan Muslim League (N), and Muttahida Majlis-e-Amal. Regarding the election, the declaration had the following clauses:
*The formation of a caretaker government of national consensus, in consultation with the opposition parties to hold free, fair and honest elections. Its members will not contest the elections.
*The appointment of a neutral Chief Election Commissioner and members of the Election Commission in consultation with the opposition parties.
*The dissolution of local governments three months prior to the holding of the general elections.
*The caretaker government of national consensus shall appoint officers with no political affiliation in Election Commission, federal, provincial and district governments.
*Repeal of all discriminatory election laws, to ensure even playing fields and the implementation of fair election proposals.
*Implementation of the jointly agreed criteria for holding of fair and free elections.
*To keep under review the steps being taken to ensure free, fair and honest elections and to collectively through consensus take any decision which may include a boycott of elections in the extreme case at the appropriate time.
*To firmly resist collectively the machinations of the regime to postpone the general elections by imposing emergency or under any other pretext.
*To struggle collectively for the removal of dictatorship from Pakistan and confine the role of the armed forces to that prescribed in the Constitution of 1973. It demands immediate withdrawal of military personal from all civilian departments and posts. It demands closure of the political cells of all the military, security and intelligence agencies.
Thirty-two parties opposed to Musharraf have joined together in a loose
political alliancecalled All Parties Democratic Movement; the PPP, the largest opposition party, is not a part of this alliance.
As Musharraf had stated that the elections would be held under the
2007 Pakistani state of emergency, at least three parties stated they will boycott such elections, fearing that they would not be free and fair: the PML (N), Jamaat-e-Islamiand Tehreek-i-Insaaf. [cite web | title = Pakistan Opposition parties announce boycott of polls-Pakistan-World-The Times of India | url=http://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/World/Pakistan_Opposition_parties_announce_boycott_of_polls/articleshow/2535243.cms | accessdate = 2008-02-20 | year = 2008 ]
The opposition parties jointly stated that the elections could not be fair, as most opposition candidates were in jail under the state of emergency and thus unable to file nomination papers for the election. [cite web | title =Bloomberg.com: Worldwide | url=http://www.bloomberg.com/apps/news?pid=20601087&sid=aebS9s.CLy9o&refer=home | accessdate = 2008-02-20 | year = 2008 ]
23 November 2007, PPP members were given the go-ahead to register for the elections, while still reserving the decision to boycott the election. [cite web | title = Bhutto's party gives go-ahead for members to file papers for elections in Pakistan - People's Daily Online | url=http://english.people.com.cn/90001/90777/6307995.html | accessdate = 2008-02-20 | year = 2008 ] Imran Khan, the Tehreek-i-Insaaf leader, restated his call for a boycott on 23 November 2007, the day the APDM was to decide on whether to boycott the elections jointly. [cite web | title = Pakistani opposition leader calls for polls boycott - People's Daily Online | url=http://english.people.com.cn/90001/90777/6307981.html | accessdate = 2008-02-20 | year = 2008 ]
Upon his return to Pakistan on
26 November 2007, Nawaz Sharifstated he would run in the elections only if the state of emergency was lifted before the polls, [cite news | title = BBC NEWS | South Asia | Pakistan rivals enter poll fray | url=http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/south_asia/7112550.stm | accessdate = 2008-02-20 | year = 2008 ] and that he would not serve as Prime Minister under Musharraf. [cite news | title = BBC NEWS | South Asia | Sharif welcomed back to Lahore | url=http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/south_asia/7112410.stm | accessdate = 2008-02-20 | year = 2008 ] However, Sharif's candidacy was rejected on 3 Decemberdue to his prior criminal conviction. [cite news | title = Sharif's candidacy papers rejected - CNN.com | url=http://edition.cnn.com/2007/WORLD/asiapcf/12/03/sharif.vote/index.html | accessdate = 2008-02-20 | year = 2008 ]
10 December 2007, Sharif and Bhutto finally announced they would not boycott the election, despite their fears that the election would be neither free nor fair. [cite web | title = Opposition to take part in Pakistan elections - International Herald Tribune | url=http://www.iht.com/articles/2007/12/10/asia/10pakistan.php | accessdate = 2008-02-20 | year = 2008 ]
In a poll from the
International Republican Instituteconducted from January 19 to January 29, the PPP led with 50% (in November 30%), followed by Sharif's PML-N with 22% (25%) and Musharraf's PML-Q with 14% (23%). Muttahida Majlis-e-Amal(MMA) had 1% (4%) and Muttahida Qaumi Movement(MQM) 1% (2%). [cite web | title = Angus Reid Global Monitor | url=http://www.angus-reid.com/polls/view/29874/late_bhuttos_party_most_popular_in_pakistan, | accessdate = 2008-02-20 | year = 2008 ] In the first three counts to finish, the opposition did well: The provincial assembly seat in Baluchistan went to the PPP -- the party of assassinated former Prime Minister Benazir Bhutto-- while two independent candidates won seats from the northern tribal areas. [cite news | title = CNN.com - Page Not Found | url=http://edition.cnn.com/2008/WORLD/asiapcf/02/18/pakistan/index.html, | accessdate = 2008-02-20 | year = 2008 ] Unofficial returns February 19 2008showed huge wins for the opposition parties of former Prime Ministers Nawaz Sharifand the slain Benazir Bhutto, one day after a pivotal vote that could threaten Pakistani President Pervez Musharraf's political viability. [cite news | title = CNN.com - Page Not Found | url=http://edition.cnn.com/2008/WORLD/asiapcf/02/19/pakistan/index.html, | accessdate = 2008-02-20 | year = 2008 ] Pakistan's two main opposition parties, the PPP and the PML (N) announced February 21 2008they would form a new government together after their victory over President Pervez Musharraf's allies in elections the week of February 18 2008. [cite news | title = Pakistan's opposition parties reach agreement | url=http://edition.cnn.com/2008/WORLD/asiapcf/02/21/pakistan.opposition.ap/index.html, | accessdate = 2008-02-21 | year = 2008 ] Shortly after making their coalition official, Pakistan's main opposition parties, the Pakistan Peoples Partyand the Pakistan Muslim League (N), on March 9 2008called on President Pervez Musharrafto immediately convene parliament ( Majlis-e-Shoora). [cite news | title = Anti-Musharraf parties to form new government | url=http://edition.cnn.com/2008/WORLD/asiapcf/03/09/pakistan/index.html, | accessdate = 2008-03-09 | year = 2008 ]
The 2008 Pakistani election was dealt a great shock on
27 December 2007when Benazir Bhutto was assassinated while leaving a rally in Rawalpindi. Bhutto's assassination raised many questions as to whether the general election would be postponed. Following the fatal attack, Pervez Musharraf held an emergency meeting with other government officials, but stated that "no decision had been made on whether to delay the national elections."cite news|url=http://www.nytimes.com/2007/12/28/world/asia/28pakistan.html?_r=1&hp&oref=slogin|title=Bhutto Assassination Ignites Disarray |publisher=New York Times|accessdate=2007-12-27|date=2007-12-28]
Bhutto had "become an appealing solution" to
United Statesofficials frustrated with President Musharraf's failure to restore democracy to Pakistan, " The New York Times" said.
Sharif stated after the assassination that his party would boycott the election. [cite web | title = guardian.co.uk | url=http://www.guardian.co.uk/worldlatest/story/0,,-7181694,00.html | accessdate = 2008-02-20 | year = 2008 ] He later stated that his party would take part if Bhutto's PPP contests the election. [cite web | title = Sharif to 'review' boycott if PPP goes to polls-Pakistan-World-The Times of India | url=http://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/World/Sharif_to_review_boycott_if_PPP_goes_to_polls/articleshow/2662735.cms | accessdate = 2008-02-20 | year = 2008 ] The PPP then decided to name Bhutto's son,
Bilawal Bhutto Zardari, the new party leader with his father Asif Ali Zardarias co-leader, as asked for in Benazir Bhutto's testament. The party also decided that it would contest the elections and stated that the elections should be held as planned.
:In the weeks preceding the election, there were several attacks targeting politicians and political rallies. On February 9, a suicide car bomb killed 27 and injured 37 attending a political rally for the
Awami National Partyin Charsadda. [cite news | title = Pakistan blast toll rises to 27 - CNN.com | url=http://www.cnn.com/2008/WORLD/asiapcf/02/10/pakistan.blast/index.html | accessdate = 2008-02-20 | year = 2008 ] On February 16, another suicide car bomb killed 37 and injured 93 outside the residence of PPP candidate Riaz Shahin Parachinar. [http://www.afp.com/english/news/stories/080216181201.ynl1n26z.html AFP] ] The same day, a suicide attack on an army outpost in Swat Valleykilled two civilians and injured eight people. A polling location in Bajaurwas destroyed by militants earlier.
Anti-Musharraf parties PPP and PML(N) have emerged as victorious from the unofficial results.
Pakistan Muslim League (Q), the party supporting Pervez Musharraf has been clearly defeated and all its main leaders including 22 former federal ministers which constitutes a bulk of the previous federal cabinet have faced crushing defeat. Chaudhry Shujaat Hussain(Party President/Former Prime Minister), Chaudhry Pervaiz Elahi(Former Chief Minister Punjab) (lost 2 out of 3 seats), Sheikh Rashid Ahmad(Former Railways Minister), Dr. Sher Afgan Niazi(Former Minister for Parliamentary Affairs), Wasi Zafar(Former Law Minister), Humayun Akhtar Khan(Former Commerce Minister), Chaudhry Amir Hussain(Former Speaker National Assembly), Rao Sikandar Iqbal(Former Defense Minister), Hamid Nasir Chattha(former Federal Minister), Khurshid Mahmud Kasuri(Former Foreign Minister), Daniyal Aziz(Chairman NRB), Makhdoom Khusro Bakhtiar(Former State Minister for Foreign Affairs), Awais Leghari(Former IT Minister), Nasarullah Dareshak, Chaudhry Moonis Elahi(lost 1 out of 2 seats), Chaudhry Shahbaz Hussain(Former Minister for Population Welfare), Muhammad Ijaz-ul-Haq(Former Minister for Religious Affairs), Liaquat Ali Jatoi(Former Minister for Water and Power), Sardar Yar Muhammad Rind(Former Minister for States and Frontier Regions), Naurez Shakoor(Former Minister for Science and Technology), Ishaq Khakwani(Former State Minister for IT), Sikandar Hayat Bosan(Former Minister for Food and Agriculture), Ghulam Sarwar Khan(Former Minister for Labour and Manpower) to include the few, have lost their seats. [cite news|url=http://www.geo.tv/home/|title=Sh Rashid, Ch Shujaat face surprising defeat |publisher= Geo TV|accessdate=2008-02-19]
February 21, it was announced that the PPP and the PML (N) would form a coalition government. [cite web | title = Al Jazeera English - News - Pakistan Parties To Form Coalition | url=http://english.aljazeera.net/NR/exeres/C7457025-557D-4B05-8906-1EB2C95B8647.htm | accessdate = 2008-02-22 | year = 2008 ] The coalition would also include the Awami National Party.
The electoral commission released final results on
March 6for all but 11 seats. These results showed the PPP with 120 seats and the PML(N) with 90 seats. [ [http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/south_asia/7283042.stm "Musharraf opponents get MPs boost"] , BBC News, March 7, 2008.]
The Election Commission allocates the 60 seats reserved for women and the 10 seats reserved for religious minorities among the various parties in proportion to the number of general seats each party won (province by province for the 60 women, nationally for the 10 minorities). However for this calculation "the total number of general seats won by a political party shall include the independent returned candidate or candidates who may duly join such political party within three days of the publications in the official Gazette of the names of the returned candidates."
By-elections for 28 seats (23 provincial and 5 national) have been delayed numerous times, and are currently unscheduled. They are being contested, among others, by Nawaz Sharif(who initially stated he had withdrawn, but then appeared to be contesting the election nonetheless; [ [http://english.people.com.cn/90001/90777/90851/6422418.html Former Pak PM allowed to contest by-election - People's Daily Online] ] his brother Shehbaz Sharifwill also run in the by-elections) [ [http://english.people.com.cn/90001/90777/90851/6402842.html Former Pakistani PM not to take part in by-elections - People's Daily Online] ] and Asif Ali Zardari. [ [http://thepost.com.pk/MainNews.aspx?bdtl_id=10437&fb_id=2&catid=14 Main News] ] [ [http://www.onlinenews.com.pk/details.php?id=126960 ONLINE - International News Network] ]
The by-elections had originally planned for
3 June 2008, then postponed to 18 June 2008; a further planned postponement to 18 August 2008due to security reasons met with large-scale opposition, leading to a rescheduling at the time to 26 June 2008. [ [http://www.dawn.com/2008/04/15/top9.htm Election for 38 seats to be held on June 3 -DAWN - Top Stories; April 15, 2008] ] [ [http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/south_asia/7384549.stm BBC NEWS | South Asia | Anger in Pakistan at poll delays] ] PPP announced it would not run in the by-elections which prominent leaders of the PML-N would contest. [ [http://english.people.com.cn/90001/90777/90851/6409920.html PPP not to field candidates against PML-N leaders in by-elections - People's Daily Online] ] [ [http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/south_asia/7388832.stm BBC NEWS | South Asia | New by-election date in Pakistan] ] On 23 June 2008, Sharif was again banned from the election due to his earlier court conviction, [ [http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/south_asia/7469755.stm BBC NEWS | South Asia | Sharif barred from Pakistan poll] ] leading the Supreme Court on 25 June 2008to postpone the by-election for Sharif's seat until after appeal deliberations which begin on 30 June 2008are concluded. [ [http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/south_asia/7472834.stm BBC NEWS | South Asia | Court delays key Pakistani poll] ] By-elections for the other seats were held as planned on 26 June 2008. [ [http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/south_asia/7474930.stm BBC NEWS | South Asia | Pakistanis vote in by-elections] ]
59 candidates contested the five national seats, while the 282 candidates contesting the provincial seats were divided as follow: [ [http://english.people.com.cn/90001/90777/90851/6437724.html Pakistan's by-elections conclude, counting begins - People's Daily Online] ]
* 171 candidates for the 12 vacancies in Punjab
* 68 candidates for the seven vacancies in the NWFP
* 25 candidates for the three vacancies in Balochistan
* eight candidates for the single vacancy in Sindh
Unofficial results showed that PML-N had won three national seats and PPP the other two; of the provincial seats, PML-N won eight, PPP seven, the
Awami National Partytwo and independents six. [ [http://www.ptinews.com/pti%5Cptisite.nsf/0/9A68ED269CAA4D9E65257475002FC169?OpenDocument PML-N, PPP combine sweep Pakistan by-polls] ] Turnout was reportedly low. [ [http://english.aljazeera.net/news/asia/2008/06/20086276463682446.html Al Jazeera English - CENTRAL/S. ASIA - Pakistan ruling parties gain seats] ]
Members elected to National Assembly
The following are names of members elected to National Assembly:
Rana Asif Tauseeq, Syed Asif Husnain, Maulvi Agha Muhammad, Sheikh Aftab Ahmed, Aftab Ahmed Khan Sherpao, Pir Aftab Hussain Shah Jillani, Dr. Pir Ayatullah Durrnai, Malik Abrar Ahmed, Mufti Ajmal Khan, Ehsanullah Reki, Ahsan Iqbal Chuadhry, Mir Ahamdaan Khan, Chuadhry Ahmed Mukhtar, Akhunzada Chatan, Asfandyar Wali Khan, Mir Ijaz Hussain Jakhrani, Justice ® Iftikhar Ahmed Cheema, Chaudhry Iftikhar Nazir, S A Iqbal Qadri, Iqbal Mohammad Ali Khan, Akram Masih, Dr Imitiaz Sultan Bukhari, Ch Imtiaz Safdar Warraich, Syed Amir Ali Shah, Engr. Amir Muqam, Anjum Aqeel Khan, Ch Anwar Ali Cheema, Anosha Rehman Khan, Ayaz Amir, Sardar Ayaz Sadiq, Syed Ayaz Ali Shah Sheerazi, Mrs Bushra Rehman, Bushra Gohar, Ch. Bilal Ahmed Virk, Bilal Rehman, Bilal Yaseen, Sardar Bahadur Ahmed Khan Sehar, Mrs Beelum Hasnain, Raja Pervez Ashraf, Chaudhry Pervaiz Elahi, Pervaiz Khan Advocate, Mrs Perveen Masood Bhatti, Palwasha Muhammad Alizai Khan, Taj Muhammad Jamali, Tasneem Ahmed Qureshi, Ansa Tasneem Siddiqui, Rana Tanveer Hussain, Begum Tehmina Daultana, Begum Surraya Asghar, Mrs Samina Khalid Ghurki, Mrs Samina Mushtaq Pagganwala, Javed Iqbal Warraich, Syed Javed Hasnain, Mian Javed Latif, Jamshaid Ahmed Khan Dasti, Mrs Jamila Gillani, Jawad Hussain, Jehangir Khan Tareen, Syed Hamid Saeed Kazmi, Hamid Yar Hiraj, Humair Hayat Khan Rokhri, Hina Rabbani Khar, Hayatullah Khan Tareen, Syed Haider Abbas Rizvi, Syed Haider Ali Shah, Mrs Khalida Mansoor, Engr Khurram Dastagir Khan, Syed Khursheed Ahmed Shah, Khursheed Begum, Mrs Khush Bakht Shujaat, Dr Darshan, Pir Dilawar Shah, Mir Dost Mohammad Mazari, Dr Donia Aziz, Arbab Zakaullah, Rahila Baloch, Mrs Rukhsana Bangash, Rashid Akbar Khan, Rafiq Ahmed Jamali, Ramesh Lal, Sheikh Rohail Asghar, Mrs. Rubina Saadat Qaimkhani, Haji Rozuddin, Roshan Din Junajo, Mian Riaz Hussain Pirzada, Riaz Fatiana, Chaudhary Zahid Iqbal, Zahid Hamid, Nisar Ali Khan, Rana Zahid Hussain Khan, Mrs Zobaida Jalal, Sajid Ahmed, Sajid Hussain Toori, Mrs Saira Afzal Tarar, Sabeen Rizvi, Sajjadul Hassan, Khawaja Saad Rafique, Chaudhry Saud Majeed, Saeed Ahmed Zafar, Chaudhry Saeed Iqbal, Sufyan Yousuf, Sardar Saleem Haider Khan, Mrs Sumaira Malik, Mrs Sumaira Naz, Khawaja Suhail Mansoor, Malik Shakir Bashir Awan, Shahid Hussain Bhutto, Shahid Khakan Abbasi, Makhdoom Shah Mehmood Qureshi, Shaheen Ashfaq, Mrs Shakila Khanam Rashid, Ms Shagufta Jamani, Mrs Shagufta Sadiq, Begum Shamshad Sattar Bachani, Shaukatullah Khan, Makhdoom Shahabuddin, Shahbaz Bhatti, Shahzada Mohiuddin, Mrs Shahnaz Salim, Begum Shahnaz Sheikh, Shahnaz Wazir Ali, Khawaja Sheraz Mehmood, Sher Muhammad Baloch, Sherry Rehman, Khan Shirin Arshad, Saima Akhtar Bharwana, Pir Syed Sadruddin Shah Rashidi, Salahuddin, Sheikh Salahuddin, Syed Samsam Ali S Bukhari, Malik Muhammad Afzal Khokar, Tariq Shabbir Advocate, Dr Tariq Fazal Chaudhry, Tariq Mehmood Bajwa, Sardar Talib Hassan Nakai, Begum Tahira Aurangzeb, Dr Talat Iqbal, Syed Tayyab Hussain, Zafar Baig Bhittani, Syed Zafar Ali Shah, Dr Zill-e-Huma, Chaudhry Abid Sher Ali, Arif Aziz Sheikh, Dewan Syed Ashiq Hussain Bukhari, Mrs Asma Arbab Alamgir, Dr Arbab Alamgir Khan, Makhdoom Syed Muhammad Amin Fahim, Mir Amer Ali Khan Magsi, Amer Yar Warran, Mian Abdul Haq (alias Mian Mitthu), Abdul Rashid Godel, Mian Abdul Sattar, Rana Abdul Sattar s/o Rana Shamim Ahmed Khan, Abdul Ghafoor Chaudhry, Nawab Abdul Ghani Talpur, Abdul Qadir Patel, Dr Abdul Qadir Khanzada, Sardar Adul Qayyum Jatoi, Abdul Mateen Khan, Syed Yousaf Raza Gilani, Abdul Majeed Khan Khanankhel, Dr Abdul Wahid Soomro, Abdul Wasim, Maulana Fazlur Rehman, Usman Ibrahim, Engr Usman Khan Tarkai, Dr Areesh Kumar, Dr Azra Fazal Pecheho, Begum Ishrat Ashraf, Maulvi Asmatullah, Dr Attiya Inyatullah, Malik Azmat Khan, Aseem Daultana, Syed Allauddin, Sardar Ali Muhammad Khan Mehar, Nawabzada Malik Immad Khan, Pirzada Syed Imran Ahmed Shah, Mrs Imrana Saeed Jamil, Omar Sohail Zia Butt, Syed Inayat Ali Shah, Haji Ghulam Ahmed Bilour, Ghulam Bibi Bharwana, Dr Ghulam Haider Samijo, Ghulam Dastgir Rajar, Ghulam Ali Nizamani, Ghulam Farid Kathia, Capt (retd) Ghulam Mujtaba Kharal, Ghulam Murtaza Jatoi, Syed Ghulam Mustafa Shah, Ghaus Bux Khan Mehar, Chaudhry Ghias Ahmed Mela, Sardar Farooq Ahmed Leghari, Justice Fakharun Nisa Khokhar, Mrs Farhat Begum, Farhat Muhammad Khan, Mrs Farkhanda Amjad Warraich, Dr Firdous Ashiq Awan, Mrs Farha Naz Ishphahani, Farzana Raja, Pir Syed Fazal Ali Shah Jilani, Mrs Fauzia Ejaz Khan, Mrs Fauzia Wahab, Fauzia Habib, Dr Fehmida Mirza, Makhdoom Syed Faisal Saleh Hayat, Faisal Karim Kundi, Faiz Muhammad Khan, Mrs Qudsia Arshad, Chaudhry Qamar Zaman Kaira, Kashmala Tariq, Kishen Chand Perwani, Kishwar Zohra, Kaniz Fizza Junejo, Dr Lal Chand, Lal Muhammad Khan, Chaudhry Liaqaut Abbas Bhatti, Nawab Liaqat Ali Khan, Marvi Memon, Mehboobullah Jan, Khawaja Muhammad Asif, Muhammad Afzal Khadim alias Khadim Hussain, Muhammad Arshad Leghari, Rana Muhammad Ishaq Khan, Muhammad Hanif Abbasi, Raja Muhammad Asad Khan, Sardar Muhmmad Israr Tarin, Pir Muhammad Aslam Bodla, Muhammad Ijaz Virk Advocate, Muhammad Afzal Sindhu, Haji Muhammad Akram Ansari, Dr Muhammad Ayub Sheikh, Chaudhry Mohammad Barjis Tahir, Mohammad Baleeghur Rehman, Syed Mohammad Saqlain Bukhari, Mohammad Jadib Mangrio, Makhdoom Mohammad Javed Hashmi, Sardar Mohammad Jaffar Khan Leghari, Mohammad Jamil Malik, Mohammad Junaid Anwar Chuadhry, Khawaja Mohammad Khan Hoti, Mohammad Raza Hayat Hiraj, Mohammad Riaz Malik, Mohammad Salman Mohsin Gillani, Sardar Mohammad Saifuddin Khan Khosa, Muhammad Siddique Khan Baloch, Raja Mohammad Safdar Khan, Mohammad Tariq Anees, Mohammad Tariq Tarar, Engr. Mohammad Tariq Khattak, Arbab Mohammad Zahir Khan, Chaudhry Mohammad Asim Nazir, Mohammad Usman Advocate, Sardar Mohammad Irfan Dogar, Sardar Al Haaj Mohammad Umar Gorgaij, Dr Mohammad Farooq Sattar, Rana Mohammad Farooq Saeed Khan, Sahibzada Haji Mohammad Fazal Karim, Mohammad Faiz Taman, Maulana Mohammad Qasim, Mohammad Kamran Khan, Sahibzada Mohammad Mehboob Sultan, Muhammad Mohsin Ali Qureshi, Sardar Mohammad Mushtaq Khan, Mohammad Mazhar Hayat Khan, Mohammad Muazzam Ali Jatoi, Prince Mohammad Nawaz Khan, Nawab Mohammad Yousuf Talpur, Rana Mehmoodul Hassan, Chaudhry Mehmood Bashir Virk, Mehmood hayat Khan alias Tochi Khan, Haji Mudassar Qayyum Naira, Sahibzada Syed Murtaza Amin, Murtaza Javed Abbasi, Mian Marghoob Ahmed, Masood Abbas, Muzzafarul Mulk, Syed Mumtaz Alam Gillani, Sardar Mansab Ali Dogar, Mian Manzoor Ahmed Khan Wattoo, Nausheen Saeed, Mir Munawar Ali Talpur, Munawar Lal, Munir Khan Aurakzai, Mehtab Ahmed Khan, Malik Meharunnisa Afridi, Mahreen Anwar Raja Advocate, Sheikh Waqas Akram, Dr Mahreen Razzak Bhutto, Dr Muhaish Kumar Malavi, Mrs Memoona Hashmi, Syed Nasir Ali Shah, Dr Nahid Shahid Ali, Sardar Nabeel Ahmed Gabol, Mrs Nisar Tanveer, Najmud Din, Dr Nadeem Ahsan, Nadeem Afzal Gondal, Nazar Mohammad Gondal, Humaun Saifullah Khan, Begum Nuzhat Sadiq, Nazir Ahmed Bhugio, Chuadhry Nazir Ahmed Jat, Rana Nazir Ahmed Khan, Begum Nasim Akhtar Chuadhry, Wasim Akhtar Sheikh, Wasim Akhtar, Nasrullah Khan Bajrani, Ch Naseer Ahmed Bhutta, Malik Nauman Ahmed Langrial, Nauman Islam Sheikh, Chaudhry Wajahat Hussain, Nasifa Shah, Nighat Parveen, Malik Nawab Sher Waseer, Nawab Ali Wasan, Noorul Haq Qadri, Noor Alam Khan, Naveed Qamar, Dr Nelson Azeem, Mir Hazar Khan Bajrani, Mir Humayun Aziz Kurd, Mrs Yasmeen Rehman, Yaqub Bazinjoand Sardar Shahjehan Yousaf.
Elections in Pakistan
List of political parties in Pakistan
Pakistani presidential election, 2007
Pakistani presidential election, 2008
2008 in Pakistan
* [http://www.ecp.gov.pk/ Election Commission of Pakistan]
* [http://www.geo.tv/election2008/results.htm Jang/Geo 2008 Election Unofficial Results]
* [http://www.dawn.com/events/election08/results/index.htm Dawn Group 2008 Election Unofficial Results]
* [http://elections.pakistanway.com Election 2008 News & Results]
* [http://www.angus-reid.com/tracker/index.cfm?fuseaction=viewItem&itemID=15363 Pakistani Elections] , Angus Reid Global Monitor.
* [http://www.observerindia.com/cms/sites/orfonline/modules/newsbrief/attachments/PEW58_1202988937705.pdf Pakistan Election Watch] , Observer Research Foundation (ORF)
* [http://www.crisisgroup.org/library/documents/asia/south_asia/crisis_alert_pakistan_emergency_rule_or_return_to_democracy_6v07.pdf Pakistan: Emergency Rule or Return to Democracy?] , International Crisis Group.
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