Coloratura


Coloratura
Farinelli, a soprano castrato famous for singing baroque coloratura roles (Corrado Giaquinto, c. 1755).

Coloratura has several meanings. The word is originally from Italian, literally meaning "coloring", and derives from the Latin word colorare ("to color").[1] When used in English, the term specifically refers to elaborate melody, particularly in vocal music and especially in operatic singing of the 18th and 19th centuries, with runs, trills, wide leaps, or similar virtuoso-like material.[1][2] It is also now widely used to refer to passages of such music, operatic roles in which such music plays a prominent part, and singers of these roles.[3] (See also bel canto.)

Contents

Historical usage

The term "coloratura" was first defined in several early non-Italian music dictionaries: Michael Praetorius's Syntagma musicum (1618); Sébastien de Brossard's Dictionaire de musique (1703); and Johann Gottfried Walther's Musicalisches Lexicon (1732). In these early texts "the term is dealt with briefly and always with reference to Italian usage".[4]

Christoph Bernhard (1628–1692) defined "coloratura" in two ways:[4]

  • cadenza: "runs which are not so exactly bound to the bar, but which often extend two, three or more bars further [and] should be made only at chief closes" (Von der Singe-Kunst, oder Maniera, c. 1649)
  • diminution: "when an interval is altered through several shorter notes, so that, instead of one long note, a number of shorter ones rush to the next note through all kinds of progressions by step or leap" (Tractatus compositionis, c. 1657)

The term was never used in the most famous Italian texts on singing: Giulio Caccini's Le Nuove musiche (1601/2); Pier Francesco Tosi's, Opinioni de' cantori antichi e moderni (1723); Giovanni Battista Mancini's Pensieri, e riflessioni pratiche sopra il canto figurato (1774); Manuel García's Mémoire sur la voix humaine (1841), and Traité complet de l’art du chant (1840–47); nor was it used by the English authors Charles Burney (1726–1814) and Henry Fothergill Chorley (1808–1872), both of whom wrote at length about Italian singing of a period when ornamentation was essential.[4]

Modern usage

The term "coloratura" is most commonly applied to the elaborate and florid figuration or ornamentation in classical (late 18th century) and romantic (19th century, specifically bel canto) vocal music. However, early music of the 15th, 16th and 17th centuries, and in particular, baroque music extending up to about 1750, includes a substantial body of music for which coloratura technique is required by vocalists and instrumentalists alike. In the modern musicological sense the term is therefore used to refer to florid music from all periods of music history, both vocal and instrumental.[4] For example, in Germany the term "coloratura" (German: Koloratur) has been applied to the stereotypical and formulaic ornamentation used in 16th‑century keyboard music written by a group of German organ composers referred to as the "colorists" (German: Koloristen).[2]

In spite of its derivation from Latin colorare ("to color"), the term "coloratura" does not apply to the practice of "coloring" the voice, i.e. altering the quality or timbre of the voice for expressive purposes (for example, the technique of Gilbert Duprez in the 1830s).[4]

Vocal ranges

The term is not restricted to describing any one range of voice. All other female and male voice types may also achieve mastery of coloratura technique. There are coloratura parts for all voice types in different musical genres.[3]

Nevertheless, the term "coloratura", when used without further qualification, normally means soprano coloratura. A coloratura soprano role, most famously typified by the Queen of the Night in Mozart's Die Zauberflöte,[5] has a high range and requires the singer to execute with great facility elaborate ornamentation and embellishment, including running passages, staccati, and trills. A coloratura soprano has the vocal ability to produce notes above high C (C6) and possesses a tessitura ranging from A4 to A5 or higher (unlike lower sopranos whose tessitura is G4–G5 or lower).[citation needed]

An example of a coloratura passage from a soprano role. It includes a more difficult variant (top stave) with a leap to a high D (D6). Final cadenza from the Valse in Ophélie's Mad Scene (Act IV) from the opera Hamlet (1868) by Ambroise Thomas (piano-vocal score, p. 292).
          

Richard Miller names two types of soprano coloratura voices (the coloratura and the dramatic coloratura)[6] as well as a mezzo-soprano coloratura voice,[7] and although he does not mention the coloratura contralto, he includes mention of specific works requiring coloratura technique for the contralto voice.[8]

Examples of coloratura music for different voice ranges include:

See also

Notes

  1. ^ a b Oxford American Dictionaries. Mac OS X.
  2. ^ a b Apel (1969), p. 184.
  3. ^ a b Steane, J. B.; Jander, Owen, "Coloratura" in Sadie (1992) 1: 907.
  4. ^ a b c d e Jander, Owen; Harris, Ellen T. "Coloratura" in Grove Music Online, www.grovemusic.com. Retrieved 27 November 2006.
  5. ^ Randel (1986), p. 180.
  6. ^ Miller (2000), pp. 7–9.
  7. ^ Miller (2000), pp. 12–13.
  8. ^ Miller (2000), p. 13.

References

  • Apel, Willi, ed. (1969). Harvard dictionary of music, second edition. Cambridge, Massachusetts: The Belknap Press of Harvard University Press. ISBN 9780674375017.
  • Miller, Richard (2000). Training soprano voices. New York: Oxford University Press. ISBN 9780195130188.
  • Randel, Don Michael, ed.; Apel, Willi, ed. (1986). New Harvard dictionary of music. Cambridge, Massachusetts: The Belknap Press of Harvard University Press. ISBN 9780674615250.
  • Sadie, Stanley, ed. (1992). The new Grove dictionary of opera (four volumes). London: Macmillan. ISBN 9781561592289.



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Look at other dictionaries:

  • coloratură — COLORATÚRĂ, coloraturi, s.f. 1. Manieră de interpretare vocală care dă posibilitatea interpretului să şi afirme virtuozitatea tehnică, executând cadenţe, triluri etc. ♢ Soprană de coloratură = soprană cu extensiune în registrul acut care cântă în …   Dicționar Român

  • coloratura — (Del it. coloratura). f. Mús. En el canto, adorno virtuosista de una melodía. de coloratura. loc. adj. Mús. Especializado en ejecutar coloraturas. Una soprano con voz de coloratura …   Diccionario de la lengua española

  • coloratura — Ornamental passages, roulades, embellishments, etc., in vocal music [Elson], 1740, from It. coloratura, lit. coloring, from L.L. coloratura, from colorare to color, from color (see COLOR (Cf. color)) …   Etymology dictionary

  • coloratura — s.f. [der. di colorare ]. 1. (non com.) [il colorire] ▶◀ [➨ coloritura (1)]. 2. (mus.) [arricchimento ornamentale della linea melodica, per esibizione di virtuosismi canori] ▶◀ abbellimento, agilità, (non com.) diminuzione, fioritura, gorgheggio …   Enciclopedia Italiana

  • coloratura — [kul΄ə rə toor′ə, kul΄ə rətyoor′ə] n. [It < L coloratus, pp. of colorare, to COLOR] 1. brilliant runs, trills, etc., used to display a singer s skill 2. music containing such ornamentation 3. a soprano who sings such music: in full coloratura… …   English World dictionary

  • coloratura — ит. [колоратура], англ. [колэрэту/эрэ] colorature фр. [колоратю/р] колоратура (украшение) …   Словарь иностранных музыкальных терминов

  • coloratura — ► NOUN 1) elaborate ornamentation of a vocal melody. 2) a soprano skilled in such singing. ORIGIN Italian, colouring …   English terms dictionary

  • Coloratura — La coloratura (lat.: color) es la capacidad de la voz lírica de ejecutar sucesiones de notas rápidas. La coloratura es melismática, o sea, en la coloratura, la vocal de una sílaba se extiende a varias notas seguidas. La coloratura es uno de los… …   Wikipedia Español

  • Coloratura — En musique classique, le terme coloratura[1] (du latin « colorare » qui signifie « orner »)[2] qualifie une voix virtuose apte à réaliser des vocalises complexes au sein d un répertoire richement orné : trilles, arpèges,… …   Wikipédia en Français

  • coloratura — ► sustantivo femenino 1 MÚSICA Línea vocal ornamentada, y generalmente aguda, para la voz de soprano. 2 MÚSICA Cantante que ejecuta esta línea. * * * coloratura. (Del it. coloratura). f. Mús. En el canto, adorno virtuosista de una melodía. || de… …   Enciclopedia Universal


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