- History of cosmetics
The history of cosmetics spans at least 6000 years of human history, and almost every society on earth.
The ancient world
archaeologicalevidence of cosmetics usage is found in Ancient Egyptaround 4000 BC. Fact|date=February 2007 The Ancient Greeks and Romans also used cosmetics.Fact|date=February 2007 The Romans and Ancient Egyptians, not realizing their dangerous properties, used cosmetics containing mercury and white lead.Fact|date=February 2007 Fragrances, particularly frankincenseand myrrhare mentioned in the ChristianBible: Exodus30: 34, Gospel of Matthew 2:11. Ancient Egyptians had a wide extent of make-up utensils. One of them is kohl, which was used to outline the eyes. It is made up of lead, copper, burned almonds, soot, and other ingredients. It was believed that eye make-up could ward off evil spirits and improve the sight. Even the poor wore eye make-up in ancient Egypt.
The cosmetic uses of kohl and
hennahave their roots in north Africa. Fact|date=February 2007ccsc
The Middle East
Cosmetics were used in
Persiaand what is today the Middle Eastfrom ancient periods. Fact|date=February 2007 After Arabtribes converted to Islamand conquered those areas, in some areas cosmetics were only restricted if they were to disguise the real look in order to mislead or cause uncontrolled desire.Fact|date=February 2007 On the other hand, some fundamentalistbranches of Islam forbid the use of cosmetics.
cosmetologistwas the physician Abu al-Qasim al-Zahrawi, or Abulcasis (936-1013 AD), who wrote the 30-volume medical encyclopedia " Al-Tasrif". A chapter of the 19th volume was dedicated to cosmetics. As the treatisewas translated into Latin, the cosmetic chapter was used in the West. Al-Zahrawi considered cosmetics a branch of medicine, which he called "Medicine of Beauty" ("Adwiyat al-Zinah"). He deals with perfumes, scented aromatics and incense. There were perfumed stocks rolled and pressed in special moulds, perhaps the earliest antecedents of present day lipsticks and solid deodorants. He also used oily substances called "Adhan" for medication and beautification.cite web|title=Muslim Contribution to Cosmetics|url=http://muslimheritage.com/topics/default.cfm?ArticleID=364|publisher=FSTC Limited|date=20 May, 2003|accessdate=2008-01-29]
Hennahas been used in Indiasince around the 4th or 5th centuries. Fact|date=February 2007 It is used either as a hair dye, or in the art of mehndi, in which complex designs are painted on to the hands and feet, especially before a Hindu wedding.Fact|date=February 2007 Henna is also used in some north African cultures. African henna designs tend to be bolder, and Indian designs more complex. Fact|date=February 2007
The use of kohl or
kajalhas a long history in Hindu culture.Fact|date=February 2007 The use of traditional preparations of kohl on children and adults has been considered to have health benefits,Fact|date=February 2007However in the United Statesit has been linked to lead poisoning and is prohibited. [ [http://www.cfsan.fda.gov/~dms/cos-kohl.html FDA warning] against the use of kohl and related products]
Chinese people began to stain their fingernails with
gum arabic, gelatin, beeswaxand egg from around 3000 BCE. Fact|date=February 2007 The colors used represented social class: Chou dynastyroyals wore gold and silver; later royals wore black or red. The lower classes were forbidden to wear bright colors on their nails. Fact|date=February 2007
Japan, geishas wore lipstick made of crushed safflowerpetals to paint the eyebrowsand edges of the eyes as well as the lips. Fact|date=February 2007 Sticks of "bintsuke" wax, a softer version of the sumo wrestlers' hair wax, were used by geisha as a makeup base. Fact|date=February 2007 Rice powder colors the faceand back; rouge contours the eyesocket and defines the nose.Fact|date=February 2007 Ohaguro (black paint) colours the teeth for the ceremony when "maiko" (apprentice geisha) graduate and become independent.Fact|date=February 2007 The geishawould also sometimes use bird droppings to compile a lighter color.
Middle Ages, Renaissanceand up until the Industrial Revolution, the lower classes had to work outside, in agricultural jobs. The typically light-colored European skin was darkened by exposure to the sun. The higher class a person was, the more leisure time he or she had to spend indoors, which kept the skin pale. Thus, the highest classed of European society, able to spend all of their time protected from the sun, frequently had the lightest-looking skin. As a result, European men and women often attempted to lighten their skin directly, or used white powder on their skin to look more aristocratic. Fact|date=February 2007 A variety of products were used, including white leadpaint which, as if the toxic lead wasn't bad enough, notoriously also contained arsenic.Fact|date=February 2007 Queen Elizabeth I of Englandwas one well-known user of white lead, with which she created a look known as "the Mask of Youth".Fact|date=February 2007 Portraits of the queen by Nicholas Hilliardfrom later in her reign are illustrative of her influential style. Fact|date=February 2007
Some Native American tribes painted their faces for ceremonial events or battle. Fact|date=February 2007
The 20th century
During the early years of the
20th century, make-up became fashionable in the United States of Americaand Europeowing to the influence of balletand theatrestars such as Mathilde Kschessinskaand Sarah Bernhardt. Fact|date=February 2007 But the most influential new development of all was that of the movie industryin Hollywood. Among those who saw the opportunity for mass-market cosmetics were Max Factor, Sr., Elizabeth Arden, and Helena Rubinstein.Fact|date=February 2007 Modern synthetic hair dyewas invented in 1907by Eugene Schueller, founder of L'Oréal. He also invented sunscreenin 1936.Fact|date=February 2007 Flapperstyle influenced the cosmetics of the 1920s, which embraced dark eyes, red lipstick, red nail polish, and the suntan, invented as a fashion statement by Coco Chanel. Fact|date=February 2007 Previously, suntans had only been sported by agricultural workers, while fashionable women kept their skins as pale as possible. In the wake of Chanel's adoption of the suntan, dozens of new fake tanproducts were produced to help both men and women achieve the "sun-kissed" look. Fact|date=February 2007 In Asia, skin whiteningcontinued to represent the ideal of beauty, as it does to this day.Fact|date=February 2007 During the 1960s and 1970s, many women in the western world influenced by feminism decided to go without any cosmetics. The anti-cosmeticsmovement was an outgrowth of this; feminists in this movement object to cosmetics' role in the second-class status of women, making them mere sex-objectswho must waste time with cosmetics. Cosmetics in the 1970swere divided into a "natural look" for day and a more sexualized image for evening.
deodorantwas invented in 1888, by an unknown inventor from Philadelphia,Fact|date=February 2007 and was trademarked under the name Mumm. Roll-on deodorant was launched in 1952, and aerosoldeodorant in 1965.Fact|date=February 2007
Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.
Look at other dictionaries:
Cosmetics in Ancient Rome — Cosmetae applying cosmetics to a wealthy Roman woman. Cosmetics, first used in Ancient Rome for ritual purposes, were part of daily life for women, especially prostitutes and the wealthy. Some fashionable cosmetics, such as those imported… … Wikipedia
Cosmetics — Make up redirects here. For other uses, see Make up (disambiguation). For other uses, see Cosmetic (disambiguation). Assorted cosmetics and tools … Wikipedia
Cosmetics advertising — Actresses Gong Li and Andie MacDowell have both appeared in many advertisements for L Oréal. Cosmetic advertising is the promotion of cosmetics and beauty products by the cosmetics industry through a variety of media. The advertising campaigns… … Wikipedia
Cosmetics in the 1920s — Actress Evelyn Brent s exaggerated lipline is characteristic of cosmetics in the 1920s. Cosmetics in the 1920s were characterized by their use to create a specific look: lips painted in the shape of a Cupid s bow, kohl rimmed eyes, and bright… … Wikipedia
Cosmetics & Toiletries — magazine Senior Editor Rachel Grabenhofer Categories Personal Care R D Frequency monthly First issue 1906 Company Allured Business Media Country … Wikipedia
History of chemistry — History of science … Wikipedia
COSMETICS — In Ancient Times Cosmetics, for the care and adornment of the body, were widely used by both men and women in the ancient Near East. The use of cosmetics was widespread among the poor as well as the wealthy classes; in the same way that they used … Encyclopedia of Judaism
Cosmetics Directive — European Union directive: Directive 76/768/EEC Directive on the approximation of the laws of the Member States relating to cosmetic products Made by Council Made under … Wikipedia
History of Pakistan — also see History of AJK · Balochistan · G B · KPK · Punjab · Sindh Timeline of Pakistan … Wikipedia
History of Santa Monica, California — The History of Santa Monica, California, USA, covers the significant events and movements in Santa Monica s past. While intertwined with the history of its larger neighbor, Los Angeles, Santa Monica has led an independent existence in modern… … Wikipedia