official_name = _it. Comune di Genova
name = Genoa
website = http://www.comune.genova.it/
image_caption = Via Brigata
flag_link = Flag of Genoa
image_shield = Genova-Stemma.png
pushpin_mapsize = 120
subdivision_type = Sovereign state
subdivision_type1 = Region
subdivision_type2 = Province
Province of Genoa
leader_title = Mayor
area_magnitude = 1 E8
area_total_km2 = 243
population_as_of = 2006
population_total = 620,316 ( 6th)
population_density_km2 = 2553
population_blank1_title = Called
population_blank1 = Zenéixi (in ligurian), Genovesi (in italian)
timezone = CET
utc_offset = +1
timezone_DST = CEST
utc_offset_DST = +2
latd=44 |latm=24 |lats= |latNS=N |longd=08 |longm=55 |longs= |longEW=E
elevation_m = +20
elevation_ft = 66
postal_code_type = Postal code
postal_code = 16100
area_code = 010
St. John the Baptist
Genoa ("Genova", pronounced|ˈdʒɛːnova, in Italian; "Zena" IPA| [ˈzeːna] in Genoese and Ligurian; "Genua" in Latin and, archaically, in English) is a
cityand an important seaportin northern Italy, the capital of the Province of Genoaand of the regionof Liguria. The city has a population of about 620,000 and the urban area has a population of about 890,000.
Origins of the name
"Genua" was a city of the ancient Ligurians. Its name is probably Ligurian, meaning "knee", i.e. "angle", from its geographical position, thus akin to the name of
Geneva. Or it could derive from the Celtic root genu-, genawa (pl. genowe), meaning "mouth", i.e., estuary, or from the Latin word of Celtic origin "ianua", meaning "door". Part of the old city of Genoa was inscribed on the World Heritage List (UNESCO) in 2006 (see below).
The flag of Genoa is a
St. George's Crossflag, a red cross on a lime white field, identical to the Flag of England, which also incorporates the St. George's Cross.
Ancient era and early Middle Ages
Genoa's history goes back to ancient times. The first historically known inhabitants of the area are the
Ligures, an Italic tribe. The attribution of its foundation to Celtsin 2500–2000 BC has been recently recognized as wrong.Fact|date=February 2007
A city cemetery, dating from the 6th and 5th centuries BC, testifies to the occupation of the site by the
Greeks, but the fine harbor probably was in use much earlier, perhaps by the Etruscans. It is also probable that the Phoenicianshad bases in Genoa, or in the nearby area, since an inscription with an alphabet similar to that used in Tyre has been found Fact|date=February 2007.
In the Roman era, Genoa was overshadowed by the powerful
Marseilleand Vada Sabatia, near modern Savona. Different from other Ligures and Celt settlements of the area, it was allied to Rome through a "foedus aequum" ("Equal pact") in the course of the Second Punic War. It was therefore destroyed by the Carthaginiansin 209 BC. The town was rebuilt and, after the end of the Carthaginian Wars, received municipal rights. The original "castrum" thenceforth expanded towards the current areas of Santa Maria di Castello and the San Lorenzo promontory. Genoese trades included skins, wood, and honey. Goods were shipped in the mainland up to important cities like Tortonaand Piacenza.
After the fall of the
Western Roman Empire, Genoa was occupied by the Ostrogoths. After the Gothic War, the Byzantines made it the seat of their vicar. When the Lombardsinvaded Italy in 568, the Bishop of Milan fled and held his seat in Genoa. [Paul the Deacon, Historia Langobardorum, II.25] Pope Gregory the Great was closely connected to these bishops in exile, for example involving himself the election of Deusdedit. [Gregory I, Registrum Epistolarum, MGH Ep. 2, XI.14, p. 274] The Lombards, under King Rothari, finally captured Genoa and other Ligurian cities in about 643. [Paul the Deacon, Historia Langobardorum, IV.45] In 773 the Lombard Kingdom was annexed by the Frank empire; the first Carolingian count of Genoa was Ademarus, who was given the title "praefectus civitatis Genuensis". Ademarus died in Corsica while fighting against the Saracens. In this period the Roman walls, destroyed by the Lombards, were rebuilt and extended.
For the following several centuries, Genoa was little more than a small, obscure fishing center, slowly building its merchant fleet which was to become the leading commercial carrier of the Mediterranean Sea. The town was sacked and burned in 934 by Arab pirates but it was quickly rebuilt.
In the 10th century the city, now part of the "Marca Januensis" ("Genoese Mark") was under the Obertenghi family, whose first member was Obertus I. Genoa was one of the first cities in Italy to have some citizenship rights granted by local feudataries.
Middle Ages and Renaissance
Before 1100, Genoa emerged as an independent
city-state, one of a number of Italian city-statesduring this period. Nominally, the Holy Roman Emperor was overlord and the Bishop of Genoawas president of the city; however, actual power was wielded by a number of "consuls" annually elected by popular assembly. Genoa was one of the so-called "Maritime Republics" (" Repubbliche Marinare"), along with Venice, Pisa, and Amalfi) and trade, shipbuilding and banking helped support one of the largest and most powerful navies in the Mediterranean. The Adorno, Campofregoso, and other smaller merchant families all fought for power in this Republic, as the power of the consuls allowed each family faction to gain wealth and power in the city. The Republic of Genoaextended over modern Liguriaand Piedmont, Sardinia, Corsica and had practically complete control of the Tyrrhenian Sea. Through Genoese participation on the Crusades, colonies were established in the Middle East, in the Aegean, in Sicilyand Northern Africa. Genoese Crusaders brought home a green glass goblet from the Levant, which Genoese long regarded as the Holy Grail.
The collapse of the
Crusader Stateswas offset by Genoa’s alliance with the Byzantine Empire, which opened opportunities of expansion into the Black Seaand Crimea. Internal feuds between the powerful families, the Grimaldiand Fieschi, the Doria, Spinola, and others caused much disruption, but in general the republic was run much as a business affair. In 1218–1220 Genoa was served by the Guelph" podestà" Rambertino Buvalelli, who probably introduced Occitan literatureto the city, which was soon to boast such troubadours as Jacme Grils, Lanfranc Cigala, and Bonifaci Calvo. Genoa's political zenith came with its victory over the Duchy of Pisaat the naval Battle of Meloria (1284), and its persistent rival, Venice, in 1298.
However, this prosperity did not last. The
Black Deathwas imported into Europe in 1349 from the Genoese trading post at Caffa( Theodosia) in Crimea, on the Black Sea. Following the economic and population collapse, Genoa adopted the Venetian model of government, and was presided over by a doge(see Doge of Genoa). The wars with Venice continued, and the War of Chioggia(1378–1381), ended with a victory for Venice. In 1390 Genoa initiated a crusade against the Barbary pirates with help of the French and laid siege to Mahdia. After a period of French domination from 1394–1409, Genoa came under rule by the Viscontiof Milan. Genoa lost Sardinia to Aragon, Corsica to internal revolt and its Middle Eastern colonies to the Ottoman Empireand the Arabs. Christopher Columbus, a native of Genoa, donated one-tenth of his income from the discovery of the Americasfor Spainto the Bank of San Giorgioin Genoa for the relief of taxation on foods. The Spanish connection was reinforced by Andrea Doria, who established a new constitution in 1528, making Genoa a satellite of the Spanish Empire. Under the ensuing economic recovery, many Genoese families amassed tremendous fortunes. At the time of Genoa’s peak in the 16th century, the city attracted many artists, including Rubens, Caravaggioand Van Dyck. The famed architect Galeazzo Alessi(1512–1572) designed many of the city’s splendid palazzi. A number of Genoese Baroque and Rococo artistssettled elsewhere and a number of local artists became prominent.
Genoa suffered from French bombardment in 1684, and was occupied by
Austriain 1746 during the War of the Austrian Succession. In 1768, Genoa was forced to also cede Corsica to France.
1810] With the shift in world economy and trade routes to the New World and away from the Mediterranean, Genoa's political and economic power went into steady decline. Fact|date=July 2007
In 1797, under pressure from
Napoleon, Genoa became a French protectorate called the Ligurian Republic, which was annexed by France in 1805. This affair is commemorated in the famous first sentence of Tolstoy's " War and Peace":
"Well, Prince, so Genoa and Lucca are now just family estates of the Buonapartes.(...) And what do you think of this latest comedy, the coronation at Milan, the comedy of the people of Genoa and Lucca laying their petitions [to be annexed to France] before Monsieur Buonaparte, and Monsieur Buonaparte sitting on a throne and granting the petitions of the nations?" (spoken by a thoroughly anti-Boanapartist Russian aristocrat, soon after the news reached
Although the Genoese revolted against France in 1814 and liberated the city on their own, delegates at the
Congress of Viennasanctioned its incorporation into Piedmont ( Kingdom of Sardinia), thus ending the three century old struggle by the House of Savoyto acquire the city. The king of Piedmont even sent the Bersaglieri to sack the city, defining the Genoese as "scum". The city soon gained a reputation as a hotbed of anti-Savoy republican agitation, although the union with Savoy was economically very beneficial. With the growth of the Risorgimentomovement, the Genoese turned their struggles from Giuseppe Mazzini's vision of a local republic into a struggle for a unified Italyunder a liberalized Savoy monarchy. In 1860, Giuseppe Garibaldiset out from Genoa with over a thousand volunteers to begin the campaign. This is called the departure of the thousands and a monument is set on the rock where the group departed from.
World War IIthe British fleet bombarded Genoa and one bomb fell into the cathedral of San Lorenzo without exploding. It is now available to public viewing on the cathedral premises. The city was liberated by the partisans a few days before the arrival of the Allies.
27th G8 summitin the city, in July 2001, was overshadowed by violent protests, with one protester, Carlo Giuliani, killed amid accusations of police brutality. In 2007 15 officials, who included police, prison officials and two doctors, were found guilty by an Italian court of mistreating protesters. A judge handed down prison sentences ranging from five months to five years. [BBC 15 July 2008 "Italy officials convicted over G8" [http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/europe/7506609.stm] ]
In 2004, the
European Uniondesignated Genoa as the European Capital of Culture, along with the French city of Lille.
:"For a more extensive list, see .Infobox World Heritage Site
WHS = Genoa: "Le Strade Nuove" and the system of the "Palazzi dei Rolli"
State Party = ITA
Type = Cultural
Criteria = ii, iv
ID = 1211
Region = Europe and North America
Year = 2006
Session = 30th
Link = http://whc.unesco.org/en/list/1211The main features of central Genoa include Piazza de Ferrari, around which are sited the Opera and the Palace of the Doges. There is also a house where
Christopher Columbusis said to have been born. Strada Nuova(now Via Garibaldi), in the old city, was inscribed on the World Heritage Listin 2006. This district was designed in the mid-16th century to accommodate Mannerist palaces of the city's most eminent families, including Palazzo Rosso(now a museum), Palazzo Bianco, Palazzo Grimaldi and Palazzo Reale. The famous art college, Musei di Strada Nuova and the Palazzo del Principe are also located on this street.
Other landmarks of the city include
St. Lawrence Cathedral("Cattedrale di San Lorenzo"), the Old Harbor ("Porto Antico"), transformed into a mall by architect Renzo Piano, and the famous cemetery of Staglieno, renowned for its monuments and statues. The Museo d'Arte Orientalehas one of the largest collections of Oriental art in Europe. The 19th century neo-gothic castle, Castello d'Albertis, once home to explorer Enrico Alberto d'Albertis, now houses the Museum of World Cultures.
Other than the old city sights, Genoa also has a large
aquariumlocated in the above-mentioned old harbor. The Aquarium of Genoais one of the largest in Europe.
The port of Genoa also contains an ancient
lighthouse, called the " Torre della Lanterna" (i.e., "the tower of the lantern"). It is the oldest working lighthouse in the worldFact|date=May 2008, one of the five tallest, and the tallest brick one, and it is Genoa's landmark. Boccadasseis a picturesque neighborhood in the east side of the city.
In 2007, there were 610,887 people residing in Genoa, located in the province of Genoa,
Liguria, of whom 47% were male and 53% were female. Minors (children ages 18 and younger) totalled 14.12 percent of the population compared to pensioners who number 26.67 percent. This compares with the Italian average of 18.06 percent (minors) and 19.94 percent (pensioners). The average age of Genoa residents is 47 compared to the Italian average of 42. In the five years between 2002 and 2007, the population of Genoa grew by 1 percent, while Italyas a whole grew by 3.85 percent. [http://demo.istat.it/bil2007/index.html] The current birth rate of Genoa is 7.49 births per 1,000 inhabitants compared to the Italian average of 9.45 births. Genoa has the lowest birth rate and is the most aged of any large Italian city.
As of 2006, 94.23% of the population was Italian. The largest immigrant group comes the
Americas(mostly from Ecuador): 2.76%, other European nations (mostly Albania, and Romania): 1.37%, and North Africa: 0.62%. The city is predominantly Roman Catholic, with small Protestantadherents.
Genoa Cricket and Football Club is one of the oldest
football clubs in Italy. The football section of the club was founded in 1897 by James Richardson Spensley, an English doctor, and has won 9 championships and 1 Italy Cup. The other major football club in the city is U.C. Sampdoria, founded in 1946 from the merger of two existing clubs, Andrea Doria (founded in 1895) and Sampierdarenese (founded in 1911). Sampdoria has won one Italian championship, 4 Italy Cups and 1 UEFA Cup Winners' Cupin 1989/90.
Famous Genoese include Sinibaldo and Ottobuono Fieschi (Popes
Innocent IVand Adrian V) and Pope Benedict XV, navigators Christopher Columbus, Enrico Alberto d'Albertis, Enrico de Candia ( Henry, Count of Malta) and Andrea Doria, composers Niccolò Paganiniand Michele Novaro, Italian patriots Giuseppe Mazziniand Nino Bixio, writer and translator Fernanda Pivano, poet Edoardo Sanguineti, Communist politician Palmiro Togliatti, architect Renzo Piano, Physics 2002 Nobel Prize winner Riccardo Giacconi, Literature 1975 Nobel Prize winner Eugenio Montale, the court painterGiovanni Maria delle Piane (Il Mulinaretto) from the Delle Piane family, the artist Vanessa Beecroft, comedians Gilberto Govi, Paolo Villaggio, Beppe Grillo, Luca Bizzarri, Paolo Kessisogluand Maurizio Crozza; singer-songwriters Fabrizio de Andréand Ivano Fossati, actor Vittorio Gassman, and actress Moana Pozzi, Giorgio Parodi who conceived the motorcycle company Moto Guzziwith Carlo Guzzi and Giovanni Ravelli. Some reports say Giovanni Caboto ( John Cabot) is also from Genoa, others say he was from Savona. Saints from Genoa include Romulus, Catherine, and Paula Frassinetti.
University of Genoa, with 40,000 students (one of the largest universities in Italy) was founded in 1471. Its botanical garden, the Orto Botanico dell'Università di Genova, occupies one hectare in the city center.
* The word "
jeans" comes from Genoa, as a way to pronounce "genoese".
* The Genoese have primarily immigrated to South America;
Uruguay, Chile, Argentinaall have strong Genoese communities. The special strong connection with Argentina is witnessed by the famous song Ma se ghe penso, and by the episode "From the Apennines to the Andes" in the book "Cuore" (Heart) by Edmondo De Amicis; the supporters of the Boca Juniors football team, rooted in the neighborhood of La Boca, in Buenos Aires, are known as "los xeneizes" (a nickname deriving from the word "zeneize", which means "genoese" in their language). " Farinata" ("Fainâ" as they call it, a chickpea flatbread) and "Torta Pasqualinn-a" (a salty artichokes, eggs, and cheese pie) are widely spread in those countries as local dishes, but they are from Genoa.
* A significant portion of
Gibraltar's population is of Genoese origin, since the arrival of Genoese inhabitants in the XVI century. For that reason, a variant of Genoese dialectwas still spoken in Gibraltar up to the end of the XVIII century.
Yiddishword "Yanova" with which Ashkenazi Jewsare most commonly calling the Diamante Citron, is a jargon from the city of Genoa which was the cultivation and shipping center for the citronor as they are calling it Etrog.
Florida International Universityin Miami, Floridain the United Stateshas a regional campus in Genoa.
*flagicon|USA Baltimore, USA
*flagicon|USA Boston, USA
*flagicon|USA Columbus, USA
Saint Petersburg, Russia
Republic of Genoa
Metropolitana di Genova
* [http://lij.wikipedia.org/wiki/Main_Page Wikipedia in Ligurian language]
* Amoco Haven tanker disaster
*Gino Benvenuti. "Le repubbliche marinare. Amalfi, Pisa, Genova e Venezia". Netwon Compton, Rome, 1989.
* Steven A. Epstein; "Genoa & the Genoese, 958-1528" University of North Carolina Press, 1996; [http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=72341660 online edition]
* Steven A. Epstein; "Labour and Port Life in Medieval Genoa." Mediterranean Historical Review 3 (1988): 114-40.
* Steven A. Epstein; "Business Cycles and the Sense of Time in Medieval Genoa." Business History Review 62 ( 1988): 238-60.
* Face Richard. "Secular History in Twelfth-Century Italy: Caffaro of Genoa." "
Journal of Medieval History" 6 (1980): 169-84.
* Hughes Diane Owen. "Kinsmen and Neighbors in Medieval Genoa." In "The Medieval City," edited by Harry A. Miskimin, David Herlihy, and Adam L. Udovitch, pp. 3-28. 1977.
* Hughes Diane Owen. "Urban Growth and Family Structure in Medieval Genoa." "Past and Present" 66 (1975): 3-28.
* Lopez Robert S. "Genoa." In "Dictionary of the Middle Ages," pp. 383-87. 1982.
* Vitale Vito. "Breviario della storia di Genova." Vols. 1-2. Genoa, 1955.
* [http://www.comune.genova.it/index.jsp Official Site]
* [http://www.liguri.org/lanterna/Lighthouse.htm The official lighthouse website]
* [http://www.irolli.it/english.html Palazzi dei Rolli of Genoa]
* [http://www.iit.it/en The Italian Institute of Technology]
* [http://www.sampdoria.it Unione Calcio Sampdoria]
* [http://www.ptoskana-appartement.de/highlights/ligurien/genua/aquarium_genua_acquario_di_genova.html Aquario of Genoa]
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