Second Orinoco crossing
The Second Orinoco crossing or Orinoquia Bridge is a combined
roadand railway bridgeover the Orinoco River near Ciudad Guayana, Venezuela. It was inaugurated on November 13, 2006and named "Orinoquia" Bridge. Prior to its construction, the only crossing of the Orinoco was the Angostura Bridgearound 100 km further upstream at Ciudad Bolívarthat was opened in 1967.
At the site chosen for the bridge the Orinoco is three kilometres wide with two navigation channels separated by a small island that is revealed during the low water season. The average discharge of the river here varies between 66 000 m³/s and 85 000 m³/s, flowing at up to 2.6m/s and with a seasonal variation in level of 12.5 m.
The crossing is composed of approximately 4.5 km of structures and carries four lanes of road traffic separated into two carriageways by a single railway track in the centre. It consists of two cable stayed navigation spans each of 300 m with a south approach 1320 m long composed of 22 60 m spans and a north approach of 636 m composed of ten 60 m spans and one of 36 m. The two navigation spans have a clearance of 41 m above water level and are supported by four 120 m tall H-shaped pylons via two planes of cable stays. Unusually, these spans do not lead directly into each other as at other multi-span cable stayed bridges such as the
Millau Viaduct, but are anchored at a fixed point on the mid-stream island.
The bridge was built to complement the existing Angostura Bridge and to provide a more direct connection with the important industrial city of Ciudad Guayana. In particular, it was intended to provide for a future rail connection to allow the city's heavy industrial products to be transported to the ports of Venezuela's
Caribbeancoast. River transport on the Orinoco includes ocean going ships, but because of its high sediment load the Orinoco has to be constantly dredged. In addition the crossing strengthens transport links between Venezuela and Brazil to the South which is important for Brazilian exports. This is one reason why President Lula da Silva of Brazil attended the inauguration together with Venezuela's Hugo Chávez.
Near the bridge, there is Orinoco powerline crossing, whose pylons are the tallest man-made structures in South America today.
* [http://www.dormanlongtechnology.com/English/projects/Orinoco_2.htm Dorman Long Technology: Orinoco River Second Crossing, Venezuela]
* [http://www.bridgeweb.com/magazine/FeatureDetails.cfm?ArticleID=959 Bridge design and engineering news: over the Orinoco]
* [http://www.puenteorinoco.com/site/home.asp Corporación Venezolana de Guayana] (Spanish)
Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.
Look at other dictionaries:
Puerto Ordaz — Infobox Settlement official name = Puerto Ordaz subdivision name1 = Municipio Caroni established title = Founded established date = February 9, 1952 established title2 = established date2 = government type = leader title = Mayor leader name =… … Wikipedia
Liste de ponts à haubans remarquables — Cette liste des ponts à haubans remarquables recense les ponts à haubans présentant des portées supérieures à 300 m (distance entre les pylônes de la travée principale), classés par ordre décroissant de longueur. Cet indicateur de classement … Wikipédia en Français
Ciudad Guayana — Aerial view of the modern planned part of Guayana City … Wikipedia
Angostura Bridge — is a suspension bridge that spans the Orinoco River at Ciudad Bolívar, Venezuela. Built in 1967, it has a main span of 712 meters. Until the opening of the Second Orinoco crossing 100 km further downstream near Ciudad Guayana on 13 November 2006… … Wikipedia
Columbus, Christopher — Italian Cristoforo Colombo Spanish Cristóbal Colón born between Aug. 26 and Oct. 31?, 1451, Genoa died May 20, 1506, Valladolid, Spain Genoese navigator and explorer whose transatlantic voyages opened the way for European exploration,… … Universalium
river — river1 riverless, adj. riverlike, adj. /riv euhr/, n. 1. a natural stream of water of fairly large size flowing in a definite course or channel or series of diverging and converging channels. 2. a similar stream of something other than water: a… … Universalium
Club Malvín — Malvín Full name Club Malvín Nickname(s) Azul de la playa, Playero, Gaviota Founded 28 January 1938 Ground Gimnasio Juan Fco. Canil , Montevideo, Uruguay (Capacity: 3,000) … Wikipedia
Christianity — /kris chee an i tee/, n., pl. Christianities. 1. the Christian religion, including the Catholic, Protestant, and Eastern Orthodox churches. 2. Christian beliefs or practices; Christian quality or character: Christianity mixed with pagan elements; … Universalium
History of Venezuela — Infobox Country native name = República Bolivariana de Venezuela conventional long name = Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela common name = Venezuela official languages = Spanish demonym = Venezuelan capital = Caracas latd=10 |latm=30 |latNS=N… … Wikipedia
List of tallest buildings and structures in the world by country — This is a list of the tallest buildings and structures by country. The list directly includes the tallest buildings and structures for each country, and where appropriate, it also points to more detailed country specific… … Wikipedia