List of invasive species

This is a list of invasive species by country or region. A species is regarded as invasive if it has been introduced by human action to a location, area, or region where it did not previously occur naturally (i.e., is not native), becomes capable of establishing a breeding population in the new location without further intervention by humans, and becomes a pest in the new location, threatening agriculture and/or the local biodiversity.

"Humans" can be considered the "original" invasive species, under this definition.

The term invasive species refers to a subset of those species defined as introduced species, for which see List of introduced species.

Africa

outhern Africa

Plants

*Australian wattles ("Acacia" species)
*Bramble ("Rubus" species)
*Bugweed ("Solanum mauritianum")
*Castor oil plant ("Ricinus communis")
*Eucalyptus or gum trees ("Eucalyptus" species)
*Hakea ("Hakea" species)
*Kariba weed ("Salvinia molesta")
*Lantana ("Lantana camara")
*Mauritius Thorn ("Caesalpinia decapetala")
*Mesquite ("Prosopis species)
*Mexican Poppy ("Argemone mexicana")
*Parrot's Feather ("Myriophyllum aquaticum")
*Pereskia ("Pereskia aculeata")
*Pine ("Pinus" species)
*Prickly pear ("Opuntia" species)
*Queen of the Night Cactus ("Cereus jamacaru")
*Syringa ("Melia azedarach")
*Triffid weed ("Chromolaena odorata")
*Water hyacinth ("Eichhornia crassipes")

Asia

Philippines

*main|Invasive species in the Philippines

Plants

Animals

Chordates

Amphibians

* "Bufo marinus", Cane Toad

Birds

* "Passer montanus", European Tree Sparrow

Fish

"Clarias gariepinus"
* "Cyprinus carpio"
* "Channa orientalis"
* "Channa striata"
* "Gambusia affinis", mosquitofish
* "Poecilia latipinna", sailfin molly
* "Poecilia reticulata", guppy
* Tilapia, various species (see Tilapia as exotic species)

Mammals

* "Bubalus bubalis", Water buffalo
* "Canis lupus familiaris", Feral dogs
* "Felis silvestris catus", Feral cats
* "Rattus norvegicus, Norway rat

Molluscs

Gastropods

* "Achatina immaculata"Albertus alzatos. (PATO con PATAS)Alberto Alzate

Australasia

Australia

*main|Invasive species in Australia

Plants

* ALberto alzate ("Gay")
* Jossy Acevedo ("herpies")
* Alligator weed ("Alternanthera philoxeroides")
* Asparagus fern ("Asparagus densiflorus")
* Bitou Bush ("Chrysanthemoides monilifera")
* Broomsedge ("Andropogon virginicus")
* Camphor laurel ("Cinnamomum camphora")
* Foxtail brome ("Bromus rubens")
* Giant cane ("Arundo donax")
* Japanese barberry ("Berberis thunbergii")
* Lantana ("Lantana camara")
* Madeira vine ("Anredera cordifolia")
* Prickly pear ("Opuntia" spp.)
* Patterson's Curse ("Echium plantagineum")
* Shoebutton Ardisia ("Ardisia elliptica")
* Sweet Acacia ("Acacia farnesiana")
* Tree of heaven ("Ailanthus altissima")
* Wild Tobacco ("Solanum mauritianum")

Animals

Molluscs

* Asian mussel ("Musculista senhousia")
* Common white snail ("Cernuella virgata") [ [http://www.dpiw.tas.gov.au/inter.nsf/Attachments/LBUN-74L3NM/$FILE/white%20snails%20C%20virgata%20Fact%20Sheet.pdf Common white snail or Mediterranean white snail] ]
* White garden snail ("Theba pisana") [http://www.pestalert.org/viewArchPestAlert.cfm?rid=52]
* Pointed snail ("Cochlicella acuta")
* Kevina in the butt ("aka CRAP")

Arthropods

Chordates

Amphibians

* Cane Toad ("Bufo marinus")

Birds

* Common Myna ("Acridotheres tristis")
* House Sparrow ("Passer domesticus")
* Red-vented Bulbul ("Pycnonotus cafer")
* Common Starling ("Sturnus vulgaris")
* Feral Pigeon ("Columba livia")
* Domestic Pigeon ("Columba livia")
* Barbary Dove ("Streptopelia risoria")
* Mallard ("Anas platyrhynchos")
* Spotted dove ("Streptopelia chinensis")

Mammals

* MARICA ("Gay in every way")
* Camel ("Camelus dromedarius")
* Goat ("Capra hircus")
* African Wild Ass ("Equus asinus")
* Feral cat ("Felis silvestris catus")
* House mouse ("Mus musculus")
* Rabbit ("Oryctolagus cunicularis")
* Polynesian Rat ("Rattus exulans")
* Red Fox ("Vulpes vulpes")
* Cow ("Bos Taurus")
* Domestic dog ("Canis lupus familiaris")
* Burro ("Equus asinus)
* Horse ("Equus caballus")
* Cape Hare ("Lepus capensis")
* Black rat ("Rattus rattus")
* Brown rat ("Rattus norvegicus")
* Domestic Pig ("Sus scrofa domestica")
* Sambar Deer ("Cervus unicolor")
* Red Deer ("Cervus elaphus")
* Fallow Deer ("Dama dama")
* Bali Cattle ("Bos javanicus")

Echinoderms

Fungi and pathogens

* Frog chytrid fungus ("Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis")

New Zealand

*main|Invasive species in New Zealand

Plants

*Boneseed
*Broom
*Gorse
*Heather
*Kahili Ginger
*Old man's beard
*Pampas Grass
*Ragworts
* "Rhododendron ponticum"
*Wandering Jew

Animals

Chordates

Mammals

*Possum
*Rabbit
*Rat
*House mouse
*Stoat
*Ferret
*Hedgehog

Fish

*Grass carp

Europe

"see Invasive species in the British Isles"

Plants

* desert false indigo ("Amorpha fruticosa")
* Australian swamp stonecrop - ("Crassula helmsii")
* Black locust ("Robinia pseudoacacia")
* Canadian pondweed ("Elodea canadensis")
* "Caulerpa racemosa" - grape caulerpa
* "Caulerpa taxifolia"; usually referring to the Mediterranean caulerpa clone ( [http://www.issg.org/database/species/ecology.asp?si=115&fr=1&sts= 1] )
* "Heracleum mantegazzianum" - Giant Hogweed in the UK
* Honey locust ("Gleditsia triacanthos")
* Hottentot Fig ("Carpobrotus edulis")
* "Hydrocotyle ranunculoides" - Floating Pennywort in the UK
* Himalayan balsam ("Impatiens glandulifera")
* Japanese knotweed ("Fallopia japonica")
* Parrot feather - "Myriophyllum aquaticum".
* "Rhododendron ponticum"
* Sycamore maple ("Acer pseudoplatanus"); in Scandinavia ( [http://www.environment.no/templates/PageWithRightListing____2246.aspx ] )
* Tree of heaven ("Ailanthus altissima")

[ [http://www.environment-agency.gov.uk/news/1444976] ]

Animals

Arthropods

Crustaceans

* Red king crab spreading south from northwest Russia
* American lobster ("Homarus americanus") in Scandinavian waters
* Chinese Mitten Crab ("Eriocheir sinensis")
* Louisiana crawfish
* Signal Crayfish ("Pacifastacus leniusculus")
* Virile crayfish ("Orconectes virilis")
* Orconectes limosus
* Procambarus clarkii

Insects

* Colorado beetle ("Leptinotarsa decemlineata")
* Asian lady beetle ("Harmonia axyridis")

Chordates

Birds

* Canada Goose ("Branta canadensis")
* Bar-headed Goose ("Anser indicus")
* Swan Goose ("Anser cygnoides"]
* Egyptian Goose ("Alopochen aegyptiacus")
* Ruddy Duck ("Oxyura jamaicensis")
* Rose-ringed Parakeet ("Psittacula krameri")
* Monk Parakeet ("Myiopsitta monachus")
* House Crow ("Corvus splendens")

Mammals

* American Mink ("Mustela vison")
* Raccoon Dog ("Nyctereutes procyonoides")
* Coypu ("Myocastor coypus")
* Muskrat ("Ondatra zibethicus")
* Brown Rat ("Rattus norvegicus")
* Black Rat ("Rattus rattus")
* Grey Squirrel ("Sciurus carolinensis")
* Reeves's Muntjac ("Muntiacus reevesi")

Reptiles

* Red-eared slider ("Trachemys scripta (elegans)")

Molluscs

* American jack-knife clam ("Ensis directus")
* Zebra mussel ("Dreissena polymorpha"); problem in Swedish lake Mälaren
* "Crassostrea gigas"
* New Zealand mud snail ("Potamopyrgus antipodarum")
* Common slipper shell ("Crepidula fornicata")
* Red-rimmed melania ("Melanoides tuberculatus")
* "Ferrissia wautieri"

Ascidians

* Stalked Sea Squirt ("Styela clava")

Platyhelminthes

* New Zealand flatworm ("Arthurdendyus triangulatus")
* Australian flatworm ("Australoplana sanguinea")

Pathogens

* Dutch elm disease ("Ophiostoma ulmi")

North America

Plants

* Air-potato ("Dioscorea bulbifera")
* Amur honeysuckle or Bush honeysuckle ("Lonicera maackii")
* Australian pine ("Casuarina equisetifolia")
* Autumn olive ("Elaeagnus umbellata")
* Blackberry ("Rubus armeniacus")
* Brazilian pepper ("Schinus terebinthifolius")
* Brazilian waterweed ("Egeria densa")
* Caulerpa ("Caulerpa taxifolia"); usually referring to the Mediterranean clone
* Camphor laurel ("Cinnamomum camphora")
* Chinaberry ("Melia azedarach")
* Chinese privet ("Ligustrum sinense")
* Chinese tallow ("Sapium sebiferum")
* Cogon grass ("Imperata cylindrica")
* Common broom ("Cytisus scoparius")
* Common reed ("Phragmites australis"; also native, but European subspecies invasive [http://www.invasiveplants.net/invasiveplants/phragmites/natint.htm 1]
*Cosmos sulphureus
* Cotton thistle ("Onopordum acanthium")
* Coral ardisia ("Ardisia crenata")
* Curly-leaf pondweed
* Diffuse knapweed ("Centaurea diffusa")
* Dog-strangling vine ("Cynanchum rossicum", also "Cynanchum louisae")
* Downy brome, Cheatgrass ("Bromus tectorum")
* English ivy ("Hedera helix")
* Eurasian watermilfoil ("Myriophyllum spicatum")
* Flowering rush ("Butomus umbellatus")
* Garlic mustard ("Alliaria petiolata")
* Giant hogweed ("Heracleum mantegazzianum")
* Giant reed ("Arundo donax")
* Giant salvinia ("Salvinia molesta")
* Hydrilla ("Hydrilla verticillata")
* Japanese honeysuckle ("Lonicera japonica")
* Japanese knotweed ("Polygonum cuspidatum")
* Japanese climbing fern ("Lygodium japonicum")
* Kudzu ("Pueraria montana var. lobata")
* Leafy spurge ("Euphorbia esula")
* Melaleuca ("Melaleuca quinquenervia")
* Mile-a-minute weed ("Polygonum perfoliatum")
* Mimosa ("Mimosa pudica")
* Multiflora rose ("Rosa multiflora")
* Musk thistle ("Carduus nutans")
* Natal grass ("Rhynchelytrum repens")
* Old World climbing fern ("Lygodium microphyllum")
* Orange Hawkweed ("Hieracium aurantiacum")
* Pampas Grass ("Cortaderia selloana")
* Phragmites ("Phragmites australis")
* Purple loosestrife ("Lythrum salicaria")
* Russian knapweed ("Acroptilon repens")
* Russian Olive ("Elaeagnus angustifolia")
* Saltcedar ("Tamarix spp".)
* Scotch Broom ("Cytisus scoparius")
* Silk Tree ("Albizia julibrissin")
* Skunk vine ("Paederia foetida")
* Smooth Cordgrass ("Spartina alterniflora"; invasive mainly on the West Coast)
* Spotted knapweed ("Centaurea beibersteinii" or "Centaurea maculosa")
* Torpedo grass ("Panicum repens")
* Tree of heaven ("Ailanthus altissima")
* Tropical soda apple ("Solanum viarum")
* Water caltrop ("Trapa natans")
* Water hyacinth ("Eichhornia crassipes")
* Wild parsnip ("Pastinaca sativa")
* Wild taro ("Colocasia esculenta")
* Witchweed ("Striga asiatica")
* Yellow star thistle ("Centaurea solstitialis")

Insects

* Africanized honeybee ("Apis mellifera scutellata")
* Argentine ant "(Linepithema humile)"
* Asian long-horned beetle ("Anoplophora glabripennis")
* Asian tiger mosquito ("Aedes albopictus")
* Cactus moth ("Cactoblastis cactorum")
* Emerald ash borer ("Agrilus planipennis")
* European gypsy moth ("Lymantria dispar")
* Formosan subterranean termite ("Coptotermes formosanus")
* Hemlock woolly adelgid ("Adelges tsugae")
* Japanese beetle ("Popillia japonica")
* Red imported fire ant ("Solenopsis invicta")

Aquatic arthropods

* European green crab ("Carcinus maenas")
* Chinese mitten crab (also known as the Shanghai hairy crab)
* Spiny water flea ("Bythotrophes cederstroemi")

Aquatic mollusks

* Zebra mussel ("Dreissena polymorpha")
* Asian Clam ("Corbicula fluminea")
* Chinese mystery snail ("Cipangopaludina chinensis")
* New Zealand mud snail ("Potamopyrgus antipodarum")
* Veined rapa whelk ("Rapana venosa")
* Ampullariidae (apple snail)
* Bithynia tentaculata (faucet snail)

Land snails

* Theba pisana the white garden snail

Fish

* Alewife ("Alosa pseudoharengus")
* Asian swamp eel ("Monopterus albus")
* Bighead carp
* Eurasian ruffe ("Gymnocephalus cernuus")
* Flathead catfish ("Pylodictus olivaris")
* Sea lamprey ("Petromyzon marinus") in the Great Lakes
* Northern Snakehead ("Channa argus")
* Round goby ("Neogobius melanostomus")
* Silver carp
* Common carp ("Cyprinus carpio")

Reptiles and amphibians

* Brown tree snake ("Boiga irregularis")
* Bullfrog ("Rana catesbeiana")
* Cane toad ("Bufo marinus")

Birds and mammals

* Coypu or Nutria ("Myocastor coypus")
* European Starling ("Sturnus vulgaris")
* House Sparrow ("Passer domesticus")
* Wild Boar ("Sus scrofa")
* Mute Swan
* Rock Pigeon ("Columba livia")

Pathogens

* Chestnut blight ("Cryphonectria parasitica")
* Dutch elm disease ("Ophiostoma ulmi")
* Exotic Newcastle disease (Paramyxovirus)
* Fowlpox (Avipoxvirus)
* Plum pox (Potyviruses: "Potyviridae")
* Soybean rust ("Phakopsora pachyrhizi", "Phakopsora meibomiae")
* Sudden Oak Death ("Phytophthora ramorum")
* West Nile virus (Flavivirus)
* Whirling Disease ("Myxobolus cerebralis")

Others

* Varroa mite ("Varroa destructor")
* Earthworms, several species (lumbricid)
* Didymosphenia geminata (didymo, rock snot)

Hawaii

Insects

* "Quadratichus erythrinae", a parasitic wasp on the wiliwili
* "Pristomerus hawaiiensis", "Calliephialtes grapholithae" (Ichneumonidae) and "Euderus metallicus" (Eulophidae), "Diadegma blackburni", another ichneumonid - previously introduced as biocontrol agents [ [http://www.hawaii.edu/scb/docs/library/1998_abstracts.htm] ]

References


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