Ramón Martí [Ramon Marti, Raimondo Martí, Raimundus Marti, Raymundo Martini, Raymond Martin, Raymund Martin, Raymond Martini, Raymundus Martini.] was a
thirteenth centuryCatalan Dominican monk and theologian. He is remembered for his polemicwork "Pugio Fidei" (c. 1280). In 1250 he was one of eight monks appointed to make a study of oriental languages with the purpose of carrying on a mission to Jewsand Moors. He worked in Spain as a missionary, and also for a short time in Tunis. A document bearing his signature and dated July 1284 shows that he was at that time still living.
He was born in the first half of the
thirteenth centuryat Subirats in Catalonia; and died after 1284. In 1250 he was selected by the provincial chapter, sitting in Toledo, to study Oriental languages at a Dominican school which had been founded for the express purpose of preparing its pupils to engage in polemicsagainst Jews and Moors. Subsequently he lived for a long time in a monastery at Barcelona.
Censorship of the Talmud
In March 1264, he was commissioned, with the Bishop of Barcelona,
Raymund de Peñaforte, and two other Dominicans, Arnold of Sagarraand Petrus Janua, to examine the Hebrew manuscripts and books which the Jews, by order of the king, were to submit to them, and to cancel passages deemed offensive to the Christian religion. This is the first instance of Dominican censorshipof the Talmudin Spain.
Their report was not severe, however, since Martí declared that many passages were confirmatory of the truth of Christianity, and that the Talmud should not be burned entirely ("Pugio Fidei", ii.14, §8).
Martí was the author of two anti-Jewish books, one of which, the "Capistrum Judaeorum", has never been printed. His refutation of the
There is at
Bolognaa manuscript of his "Capistrum Judaeorum" (The Harness of the Jewa), aimed at the errors of the Jews; and at Tortosaa manuscript containing "Explanatio simboli apostolorum ad institutionem fidelium" which has a marginal note that it was edited by "a fratre Ro Martini de ordine predicatorum".
Martí's work was for a long time the chief source for Dominican polemics.
The "Pugio Fidei"
His chief work, the "Pugio Fidei", was lost for a long time, but was finally brought to light by
Justus Scaliger, and edited by Joseph de Voisinof the Sorbonne(d. 1685), with many notes, under the title "Pugio Fidei Raymundi Martini Ordinis Prædicatorum Adversus Mauros et Judæos" (Paris, 1651). The work treats of God's omniscience, the Creation, immortality, and the resurrection of the dead, and attempts to show the falsity of the Jewish religion; the latter part of the work is valuable on account of its extracts from the Talmud, the Midrash, and other sources.
This work was used by
Porchetus de Salvaticisat the beginning of the fourteenth centuryin his "Victoria Porcheti adversus impios Hebreos" (printed 1520), by Hieronymus de Sancta Fidein his "Hebraeomastix" and elsewhere, and was plagiarized by Petrus Galatinus.
François Bosquetdiscovered in the Collegium Fuxense(the Collège de Foix in Toulouse) a manuscript of the "Pugio", and it was from this and three other manuscripts that de Voisin edited the work. Better known than this edition is its reprint by J. B. Carpzov(Leipzig, 1667), with the anti-Jewish preface "Introductio in Theologiam Judaicam".
Knowledge of Hebrew literature
Martí has been accused of forgery because of his quotations from "
Genesis Rabbah," which was not otherwise known; but Leopold Zunzdefends him against this charge ("Gottesdienstliche Vorträge der Juden" p. 300).
Martí was widely read in
Hebrew literature, quoting not only from Talmudic and Midrashic works, but from Rashi, Ibn Ezra, Maimonides, and Ḳimḥi. His fundamental views, which he attempts to substantiate by his citations, are that Jesusis announced in rabbinical literature as the Messiahand son of God; that the Jewish laws, although revealed by God, are abrogated by the advent of the Messiah; and that the Talmudists corrupted the text of the Bible, as is indicated by the "tikkune soferim".
Antoine Touron, "Histoire des Hommes Illustres de l'Ordre de St. Dominique," i.489-504, (Paris, 1743)
Jacob Quétifand J. Echard, "Scriptores Ordinis Prædicatorum," i.396-398, ib. (1719)
Johann Christoph Wolf, "Bibliotheca Hebræa," i.1016-1018, iii.989-991;
Heinrich Graetz, "Geschichte," vii.124, 150.
Ambrose of Altramum, "Bibliotheca Dominicana," ed. Rocaberti, pp. 58, 449-456, Rome, 1677
J. G. Walch, "Bibliotheca theologica selecta," i.609, (Jena, 1757)
Solomon Marcus Schiller-Szinessy, "Journal of Philology," xvi (1887), 131-152
L. Zunz, "Die Gottesdienstlichen Vortäge der Juden," pp. 287-293, Berlin, 1832
E. B. Pusey, "Fifty-Third Chapter of Isaiah," vol. ii, Oxford, 1877
Adolf Neubauer, "Book of Tobit," pp. vii-ix, xx-xxv, ib. 1878
A. Epstein, "Magazin für Wissenschaft des Judenthums," 1888, pp. 65-99,
I. Levi, " Revue des Études Juives," xvii (1888), 313-317.
* [http://www.ccel.org/s/schaff/encyc/encyc09/htm/iv.vii.lxviii.htm "Raymond Martini, Schaff Encyclopedia]
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