Caxias do Sul
official_name = Caxias do Sul
nickname = "Pearl of the Colonies"
imagesize = 250px
image_caption = View of the city at dawn.
mapsize = 250px
map_caption = Location of Caxias do Sul
subdivision_type = Country
subdivision_type1 = Region
subdivision_type2 = State
subdivision_name = flagicon|BRA
subdivision_name1 = South
Rio Grande do Sul
leader_title = Mayor
leader_name = José Ivo Sartori (PMDB)
established_title = Founded
June 20, 1890
area_total_km2 = 1.643
population_as_of = 2007
population_total = 419.852
population_density_km2 = 250
utc_offset = -3
utc_offset_DST = -2
latd= |latm= |lats= |latNS=
longd= |longm= |longs= |longEW=
elevation_m = 817
blank_name = HDI (2000)
blank_info = 0.857 – high
website = [http://www.caxias.rs.gov.br Caxias, Rio Grande do Sul]
Caxias do Sul is a city in
Rio Grande do Sul, Southern Brazil, situated in the state's mountainous Serra Gaúcharegion.It was established by Italian immigrants on June 20 1890. Today it is the second largest city in the state of Rio Grande do Sul. The demonym of the citizens of Caxias do Sul is " caxiense".
The history of Caxias do Sul starts before the arrival of the Italians, when the region was being roamed by cattlemen and occupied by Indians. Back then, the region was called ‘Indians Field’. The Italian immigrants’ occupation, mostly farmers from the
Venetoregion ( northern Italy), started taking place in 1875 in Nova Milano. Hence, they were in search of a better place to live. They also met people from Lombardy, Trento, and other places. Although they had gotten some governmental support, such as tools, supplies, and seeds, everything had to be reimbursed.
Two years later, the colonial headquarters of the Indians’ Field was given the name Caxias Colony. The town was created on
20 July 1890and acknowledged in the same year, on 24 August. Many economic cycles marked the evolution of the city throughout that century. The first one is connected to the most peculiar aspect of its cultural identity: the growth of vines and the production of wine for own consumption at first, and later on, for commercialization.
June 1, 1910, Caxias do Sul was elevated to the category of city. On the same day, the first train arrived connecting the region to the state capital. Although the immigrants were farmers, many of them used to perform other activities. They settled down, urbanized the region, and started a fast paced process of industrialization.
In the countryside,
subsistence agricultureconcentrates on the cultivation of grapes, wheat, and corn. Home manufactories start to emerge and the overproduction was commercialized. In the beginning, grape and wheat. As time went by, along with the human process the home manufacture became diverse. Then, Caxias do Sul evolved from small home workshops to today’s big factories known internationally.
The University of Caxias do Sul was founded in 1976, a systematical center for culture.
Nowadays, Caxias do Sul is an important city, due to its industrious colonists, vast vineyards, wineries, varied industrial park, and a rich and dynamic market. Those attributes grant this land a greater dimension, the reason why Caxias do Sul, “the capital of the mountains”, “pearl of the colonies”, “hive of work”, is considered the center of the Italian presence in Southern Brazil.
The following table shows the development of the number of inhabitants according to census data of
The city is located in the mountains of the Serra Gaucha, 760 m (about 2000 feet) above sea level. Its climate is subtropical. The average annual temperature is 16°C (60.8°F). In July, the coldest month, the average high temperature is 17°C (62.6°F) and the average low is 8°C (46.4°F); in January, the hottest, they're 26°C (78.8°F) and 16°C (60.8°F), respectively. Frosts are common in the winter, and there is on average one snowy day per year. Its record temperature extremes are -12°C (10.4°F) and 37°C (98.6°F).
In Caxias do Sul, several small, medium, large and multinational companies were founded. The city is recognized as an Entrepreneurial-Exporting Hub in the country.Fact|date=March 2008 Some of these companies are:
*Marcopolo (buses and truck frames, present in six countries)
*Randon S.A. - Implementos e Participações is a mixed holding company, leader of a group of seven companies that employ a workforce of 6,6 thousand employees. They operate in the sectors of road equipment / railway wagons / specialty vehicles/ auto parts/ automotive systems, and services;
*Agrale S/A which owns 4 industrial plants, being the only Brazilian company with 100% national capital making vehicles, tractors and diesel engines;
*Tramontina silverware company based in
Carlos Barbosawith plants throughout Brazil;
*Grendene, a manufacturer of shoes based in neighboring
*Todeschini, a manufacturer of furniture based in nearby Bento Gonçalves, the wine capital of Brazil;
*Florense based in Flores da Cunha, (furniture, tailor-made kitchen cabinets) among others and several textile factories and wineries.
*"'Hyco Hidrover is Brasil's major manufacturer of hydraulic cylinders for mobile applications. www.hycoweb.com/loc_hidrover.php
The per capita income in Caxias do Sul is one of the highest in Brazil according to
Portuguese is the official national language, and thus the primary language taught in schools. Elderly people can often speak Venetian, an Italian dialect. [ [http://www.caxias.rs.gov.br/cidade/cid_atr1.php4 Prefeitura Municipal de Caxias do Sul - RS ] ]
Colleges and Universities
* Universidade de Caxias do Sul (UCS);
* Faculdade da Serra Gaúcha (FSG);
* Faculdade Anglo-Americano;
* and others.
Culture in Caxias do Sul was not greatly favoured by the first Italian settlers, as they were mostly involved with survival concerns in an area until then unexplored. In the beginning of the 20th century, however, there was some cultural interest developing, and some
sculptors, painters and decorators made a significant career in the city and around, like as Pietro Stangherlin, Francisco Meneguzzoand the Zambelli family. They left the first examples of artworks worth of mention, specially in sacred artand building decoration. Julio Calegariand Ulysses Geremia, both photographers, also deserve close attention for their huge collection of images of the old city and in the field of portrait.
As of historical
architecture, one may find a few eclectic houses built for rich families, public buildings and neogothicchurches, like as the Cathedral and the Chapel of Santo Sepulcro (Sacred Tomb). The first houses of the immigrants, made of stone, and later traditional wooden buildings, nearly all disappeared as the city developed.
The city nowadays has many intensely active
museums and cultural centers, both private and official, and a great university which sponsors an art gallery, a museum, a huge libraryand a symphonic orchestra.
Tourism and recreation
The city has many tourist attractions: museums, churches, culture, music and all types of leisure activities. Nature can be found in the city and the surroundings.
The city also hosts the popular National Grape and Wine Festival, which celebrates the Italian heritage. It's one of the most famous events in the country and it's called
Festa da Uva, when lots of merrymaking, wine drinking, grapes and people animate the month of February, every two years (on even-numbered years). Visitors may eat cheese, grapes and various Brazilian wines. Visitors interested in the regions wine can also visit the Château LacaveCastle, a 6th Century-style medieval structure that currently functions as a winery. Caxias do Sul is also one of the four settlements along the beautiful Caminhos da Colôniascenic tourist route in the Serra Gaúcha.
Caxias do Sul is home to the S.E.R. Caxias and Juventude soccer clubs. Even though both teams have recently claimed the
Campeonato Gaúcho, Juventude has had greater luck at national level, since the team has been in the first division of the Campeonato Brasileiro for over ten years and won the 2000 edition of the Copa do Brasil, while Caxias, as of 2006, plays in the third division. Juventude also has the third biggest population of fans in the state, just behind the two major teams of the state capital city, Porto Alegre.
* [http://www.caxias.rs.gov.br/ City Hall of Caxias do Sul]
* [http://maps.google.com/maps?f=q&hl=en&q=caxias+do+sul,+brazil&ie=UTF8&z=13&om=1&iwloc=A Street Map of Caxias do Sul]
* [http://www.clicrbs.com.br/jornais/pioneiro/jsp/default.jsp?uf=1&local=1§ion=Home Local Newspaper "O Pioneiro" (The Pioneer)]
* [http://www.ucs.br/ The University of Caxias do Sul]
* [http://www.juventude.com.br/ Juventude Soccer Club]
* [http://www.sercaxiasdosul.com.br/ S.E.R. Caxias Soccer Club]
* [http://www.rodoviariacaxias.com.br/ Caxias Bus Station and Schedules]
* [http://www.caxiasdosul.tur.br/ Caxias do Sul Tourist Guide]
* [http://www.festuva.com.br/ Official Festa da Uva Site(The Grape Festival)]
* [http://www.lacave.com.br/ Chateau Lacave Castle]
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