Service Dress (British Army)
'Service Dress' was the name of the new khaki uniforms introduced by the
British Armyfor use in the field from the early 1900's, following the experiences of a number of imperial wars and conflicts, including the Second Boer War. This variant of uniform continues to be worn today, although only in a ceremonial role, as No. 2 Pattern dress.
In many of those conflicts, the bright red tunics worn by British infantry regiments had proved to be a liability, especially when faced by new rifles, firing smokeless cartridges (this had been exacerbated by the white carrying equipment worn by the line infantry, the cross straps of which made an X on the soldier's chest). The term "Khaki" had come from India, where many regiments on garrison took to staining their white, tropical uniforms with tea leaves in order to camouflage them. Rifle, and Light Infantry regiments had long used dark green uniforms as camouflage, and some units of the Volunteer Force's London Regiment had adopted
Hoddengrey uniforms for the same purpose. Numerous khaki uniforms were adopted by units in the field over the turn of the century, but the standardised Service Dress uniform was not adopted until after the Second Boer War.
For Other Ranks (Enlisted Men), the SD uniform originally comprised khaki wool (serge) trousers, a khaki wool tunic, with stand-and-fall (or "Prussian") collar, four pockets on the front, each buttoned closed by a flap with a straight (horizontal) edge, large, serge re-enforcement patches over each shoulder, epaulettes, and a pair of brass wire hangars on the back, over the kidneys, to support the belt. The front of the jacket was closed by five buttons, usually of a regimental pattern, arranged vertically. A peaked cap was provided, covered in the same khaki serge (including the stiff peak), with a leather chin strap (brown, for most regiments) held at either side by brass or horn buttons.. This uniform was worn with ankle
Ammunition boots, and, in the field, Puttees would be wound up (or down) the length of the shins to the top of the boots. The carrying equipment worn with this uniform was normally the 1908 web pattern, made of fabric, and also khaki (though a lighter shade than the uniform).
The Officers Service Dress was completely different, except in colour. The cloth used was a smarter looking, and more expensive wool. The jacket (not a tunic) had longer skirts, and an open collar, for wear with a collared shirt and tie. The breast pockets were closed by "scalloped" flaps, while those at the hips had straight edges. There was an epaulette on each shoulder, but rank was originally displayed on the cuffs, which were scalloped at the closure, and edged in a lighter cloth. Trousers were usually of a riding style, and brown leather
Riding boots were worn (even in infantry regiments, every officer was provided with a horse)fact|date=July 2008. The carrying equipment was the leather Sam Browne pattern, brown for most regiments. Officers also wore a khaki, peaked cap, though this was of a different design from the men's, with a leather peak.
It should be noted that, unlike other ranks, officers were expected to pay for their own uniforms, pistol, sword and Sam Browne belt.
Scottish Highland pattern uniforms differed in the wearing of tartan
kilts or trews, rather than trousers or breeches, and in alterations in the design of the tunic and jacket to make them resemble traditional Highland ones - notably in cutting away the skirts at the front of the tunic to allow the wearing of a sporran.
There were also lightweight uniforms for wear in warmer climates, known as
Khaki drill. The Officer's was little different in cut, but the Other Ranks tunic was distinguished from the temperate service dress by having only the breast pockets. Both were made from a lighter cloth (both in weight, and in shade). Trousers were often replaced by Bermuda shorts. The same headdress was generally worn, however, if worn at all - pith helmets, covered in khaki cloth, continued to be the norm in warm climates up to the Second World War.
Royal Air Force
Royal Air Force's service dress was adopted in the early 1920s and is of a similar design to the British Army service dress. However, unlike Army service dress, RAF service dress is of a blue-grey colour.
The Great War
This was the standard combat uniform of the British Army at the start of the
Great War, and remained little changed throughout. With the numbers of uniforms produced, minor variations did appear, especially in the enlisted men's hat and the shape of the tunic collar. A soft version of the peaked OR cap was introduced, nicknamed the "Gor Blimey". This was an attempt at conservation, but had the advantage of being able to be stuffed into a pocket or even pressed underneath the new steel Brodie helmetthan began to be issued as the realities of trench warfare, and its attendant artillery bombardment, set in.
Although this was the standard combat uniform for the British Army, and its subordinate colonial units (at least when serving in temperate climates), the Armies of the Commonwealth countries (which originally referred to those with Dominion status) had their own variations on the theme. The Canadian tunic, by example, was closed by seven buttons, and it had a conventional tunic collar (all stand, and no fall), although the Canadian Officer's Service Dress was no different from the British Army's.
Officers SD uniforms were modified during the War chiefly in that plain cuffs were introduced, with the rank insignia moved to the epaulettes. The reason for this was that the old cuffs had made it too easy for enemy snipers to discern officers from their men.
In Scottish Highland regiments replaced the sporran, during the war, with a khaki, cloth apron, with a large, buttoned pocket where the sporran would sit.
The Second World War
The Service Dress uniform continued to be the field uniform of the British Army until shortly before the Second World War, although many units continued to wear it after the start of hostilities, and many Home Guard personnel continued to wear it throughout the War. Service Dress was officially replaced as the standard combat uniform of the British and Canadian Armies, however, in 1939, with the introduction of
Battle Dress. Service Dress continued to be used by officers, however, throughout the War as a walking about dress, and for semi-formal functions. Senior officers might rarely be seen in any other uniform. The Sam Browne belt had been replaced as carrying equipment for officers by the '37 Pattern web equipment, but continued to be worn with the Service Dress, usually reduced to the belt and one brace (worn as a cross strap), though a frog or pistol holster might be added as needed).
The Australian Army continued to wear its version of Service Dress as its standard combat uniform throughout the war.
Since the Second World War, Service Dress has continued in use as an intermediary between combat uniforms and Full Dress. It is also referred to as Number Two (No. 2) Dress. The OR Service Dress, without epaulettes, and with only the '08 Patt., or later the '37 Patt. belt, usually blancoed white or blackened, became progressively smarter. As worn today, the tunic has become a jacket, with an open collar for wear with collared shirt and tie, and cap, jacket, and trousers are all made from a smoother cloth than the rough serge. The uniform was often seen on
Royal Military Policepersonnel, and is frequently worn for parades and other ceremonial functions. In some regiments a beret is worn in place of the peaked cap.
The Officers service dress has changed very little since its introduction, although riding breeches have largely been replaced by trousers, as it is no longer the case that officers are provided with horses.
When Battle Dress was replaced with green, cotton combat uniforms in the 1960s, it was used, for a time, for similar roles as the Service Dress. Men's stand-and-fall collars were replaced on BD blouses, also, with open collars for use with shirts and ties. There was no need for two different uniforms for precisely the same occasion, however, and Battle Dress was eventually made obsolete, and the smarter looking Service Dress retained.
British Army Uniform
* [http://www.lightinfantry.org.uk/regiments/li/li_dress.htm Light Infantry Dress]
* [http://www.gcompany.org.uk/1989%20Messines.htm G Company, London Scottish at Messines Commemoration (in No. 2 Service Dress (Scottish))]
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