Positive pressure ventilation
Positive pressure ventilation Intervention ICD-9-CM 93.90-93.91 MeSH
In emergency medicine positive pressure ventilation (PPV) refers to the process of forcing air into the lungs of a (usually apneic or dyspneic) patient, usually using a bag valve mask (BVM) or mechanical ventilator.
"NIPPV" is an abbreviation for "nasal intermittent positive pressure ventilation" or "non-invasive positive pressure ventilation".
During normal breathing, air is drawn into the lungs from the outside by the expansion of the chest wall and contraction of the diaphragm to increase volume inside the thoracic cavity. If the airway is sealed, the expansion of the thoracic cavity creates negative pressure inside the lungs (756mmHg) relative to the atmospheric pressure outside the body (760mmHg). During normal breathing air is drawn into the lungs by the negative pressure of the lungs. Positive pressure ventilation, however, works by forcing air into the lungs and thereby increasing the pressure inside the airway relative to the outside. Hence, the name "positive pressure." Aside from the obvious advantage of ventilating an otherwise apneic or dyspneic patient, PPV can be effectively used in the treatment of flail segments, which characteristically render negative pressure breathing ineffective, but does not impede PPV.
- Positive airway pressure
- Positive end-expiratory pressure
- Bag valve mask
- Cardiopulmonary resuscitation
- Medical ventilator
- ^ Peter JV, Moran JL, Phillips-Hughes J, Graham P, Bersten AD (April 2006). "Effect of non-invasive positive pressure ventilation (NIPPV) on mortality in patients with acute cardiogenic pulmonary oedema: a meta-analysis". Lancet 367 (9517): 1155–63. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(06)68506-1. PMID 16616558.
- ^ Marieb, Elaine N. & Hoehn, Katja "Human Anatomy & Physiology" 8th Ed., Benjamin Cummings/Pearson, 2010
Respiratory system, physiology: respiratory physiology Lung volumes Airways/
ventilation/perfusion ratio (V/Q)ventilation/perfusion scan · zones of the lung · gas exchange · pulmonary gas pressures · alveolar gas equation · alveolar-arterial gradient · hemoglobin · oxygen-haemoglobin dissociation curve (Oxygen saturation, 2,3-DPG, Bohr effect, Haldane effect) · carbonic anhydrase (chloride shift) · oxyhemoglobin · respiratory quotient · arterial blood gas · diffusion capacity (DLCO)
Control of respiration Insufficiency Respiratory system surgeries and other procedures (ICD-9-CM V3 21-22, 30-34, ICD-10-PCS 0B) Upper RT Lower RT Chest wall, pleura,
mediastinum, and diaphragm
Medical imaging CPRs Lung function test Cytology Respiratory therapy/
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