- 20th century philosophy
The 20th century brought with it upheavals that produced a series of conflicting developments within
philosophyover the basis of knowledgeand the validity of various absolutes. With classical certainties thought to be overthrown, and new social, economic, scientific, ethical, and logical problems, 20th-century philosophy was set for a series of attempts variously to reform, preserve, alter, abolish, previously conceived limits.
New studies in
philosophy of science, philosophy of mathematics, and epistemologyfurthered seemingly antagonistic tendencies in accounting for consciousnessand its objects, as expressed in the profound differences between analytic and continental philosophy, both of which had foundations in place at the beginning of the century. Advances in relativity, quantum, and nuclear physics, generative scienceslike cognitive science, cybernetics, genetics, and generative linguistics, rich literary output, and the emergence of the motion picture as an art form greatly enriched philosophical subject matter.
Just as profoundly, historical events such as the
World Wars, the Russian Revolution, the near collapse of European parliamentary democracy in the 1930s and 1940s, the Holocaust, the use of atomic weaponson Imperial Japan, continued colonial violence, the foundation of the United Nations, the elaboration of new doctrines of human rights, the Vietnam War, the failure of revolutionary sentiment in 1968, the collapse of the Soviet Unionand its client states, continuing inequities in global development and civil society, the resurgence of "fundamental" religious identity in Christian, Jewish, Islamic, and Hinducontexts, and seemingly irrepressible if intermittent genocidal activity called into question many philosophical doctrines on human rationalityand created ever sharper demands on moral, political philosophy, and philosophy of religion.
Analytic philosophy(Lvov-Warsaw School)
Continental philosophy( Marburg School/ Baden School)
Critical theory( Frankfurt School)
Existentialism( Kyoto School)
Logical Positivism( Vienna Circle)
Marxism( Praxis School)
Ordinary language philosophy
* Philosophical Hermeneutics
* Post-colonial philosophy
Twentieth-century French philosophy
List of philosophers born in the nineteenth century
List of philosophers born in the twentieth century
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