Vibrato is a musical effect, produced in singing and on musical instruments by a regular pulsating change of pitch, and is used to add expression and vocal-like qualities to instrumental music. Vibrato can be characterised by the amount of pitch variation ("depth of vibrato") and speed with which the pitch is varied ("speed of vibrato").
Vibrato and tremolo
The terms vibrato and
tremoloare sometimes used interchangeably or inappropriately, although the strict definitions of each describe them as separate effects: vibrato is a periodic variation in the pitch (frequency) of a musical note, whereas tremolo usually refers to periodic variations in the volume (amplitude) of a musical note. In practice, it is difficult for a singer or musical instrument player to achieve a pure vibrato or tremolo (where only the pitch or only the volume is varied), and variations in both pitch and volume will often be achieved at the same time. Electronic manipulation or generation of signals makes it easier to achieve or demonstrate pure tremolo and/or vibrato.
There are some instances where one of the terms (vibrato, tremolo) is used to describe the effect normally associated with the other term. For example, vibrato is sometimes referred to as "tremolo", notably in the context of a
tremolo armof an electric guitar, which produces variations of pitch. Conversely, the so-called vibrato unitbuilt in to many guitar amplifiers produces what is known as tremoloin all other contexts. See " vibrato unit" for a detailed discussion of this terminology reversal.
The extent of the variation in pitch in instrumental vibrato is usually decided by the performer, but does not usually exceed a
semitoneeither way from the note itselfFact|date=February 2007. Many string players vary the pitch from below, only up to the nominal note and not above it. The effect is intended to add warmth to a note, and in the case of bowed strings, adds a shimmer to the sound, as the sound pattern emitted by a well-made instrument virtually "points" in different directions with slight variations in pitchFact|date=March 2008. This effect interacts with the room acoustics to add interest to the sound, in much the same way as an acoustic guitarist may swing the box around on a final sustain, or the rotating baffle of a Leslie speakerwill spin the sound around the room.
Vibrato is sometimes thought of as an effect added onto the note itself, but in some cases it is so fully a part of the style of the music that it can be very difficult for some performers to play without it. The
jazztenor sax player Coleman Hawkinsfound he had this difficulty when requested to play a passage both with and without vibrato by the producer of a children's jazz album to demonstrate the difference between the two. Despite his otherwise exemplary technique, he was unable to play without vibrato. A symphony saxophonist was brought in to play the part.
Many classical musicians, especially singers and string players, have a similar problem. The violinist and teacher
Leopold Auer, writing in his book "Violin Playing as I Teach It" (1920), advised violinists to practice playing completely without vibrato, and to stop playing for a few minutes as soon as they noticed themselves playing with vibrato in order for them to gain complete control over their technique.
In classical music
The use of vibrato in classical music is a matter of some dispute. For much of the 20th century it was used almost continuously in the performance of pieces from all eras from the Baroque onwards, especially by singers and string players. A drastic change in approach cannot be understood wholly without regarding the rise of notionally historically accurate ("period") performance from the 1970s onwards. However, there is no actual proof that singers performed without vibrato in the baroque era. Vocal music of the renaissance is almost never sung with vibrato as a rule, and it seems unlikely it ever was. There are only a few texts from the period on vocal production, but they all condemn the use of vibrato.
Leopold Mozart's " Versuch einer gründlichen Violinschule" (1756) provides an indication of the state of vibrato in string playing at the end of the baroque period. In it, he concedes that "there are performers who tremble consistently on each note as if they had the permanent fever", but condemns the practice, suggesting instead that vibrato should be used only on sustained notes and at the ends of phrases.Fact|date=May 2007 This however, does not give anything more than an indication of Mozart's own personal taste, based on the fact that he was an educated late Rococo/Classical composer. Although there is no aural proof, as audio recordings were not around for more than 150 years, that string players in Europe did not use vibrato, its overuse was almost universally condemned by the leading musical authorities of the day.
Vibrato was seen as an ornament, to be used sparingly. In wind playing too, it seems that vibrato in music up to the 19th century was seen as an ornament to be used selectively.
Martin Agricolawriting in his "Musica instrumentalis deudch" (1529) writes of vibrato in this way. Occasionally, composers up to the baroque period indicated vibrato with a wavy line in the sheet music, which strongly suggests it was not desired for the rest of the piece.
Music by late Romantic composers such as
Richard Wagnerand Johannes Brahmsis now played with a fairly continuous vibrato. However, some musicians specialising in historically informed performances such as the conductor Roger Norringtonargue that it is unlikely that Brahms, Wagner, and their contemporaries, would have expected it to be played in this way. This is a somewhat controversial view, although Arnold Schoenberg, a considerably later composer, seems to have disliked vibrato as well, likening it to the bleating of a goat. The curious idea that "continuous vibrato" was "invented" by Fritz Kreislerand some of his colleagues seems to be caused by the development of sound recordings which left some people with the impression that vibrato appeared but in the 20th century. However, the sources unanimously prove that Viennese early 19th century string players like Franz Clementand Joseph Maysederwere noted for their tasteful use of vibrato. These musicians (and the two Hellmesbergers) represent the school that Fritz Kreisler actually based his stylistic approach on.
The growth of vibrato in 20th century
orchestral playing that has allegedly been traced by Norrington by studying early recordings, is not supported by actual samples. Norrington claims that vibrato in the earliest recordings is used only selectively, as an expressive device; the Berlin Philharmonic Orchestrawere not recorded using vibrato comparable to modern vibrato until 1935, and the Vienna Philharmonic Orchestranot until 1940. French orchestras seem to have played with continuous vibrato somewhat earlier, from the 1920s.
It should be stressed in this connection that the sonic limitations of older recordings, particularly with respect to overtones and high frequency information, make an uncontroversial assessment of earlier playing techniques very difficult. In addition, a distinction needs to be made between the kind of vibrato used by a solo player, and the sectional vibrato of an entire string ensemble, which can't be heard as a uniform quantity as such. Rather, it manifests itself in terms of the warmth and amplitude of the sound produced, as opposed to a perceptible wavering of pitch. The fact that as early as the 1880s composers such as Richard Strauss (in his tone poems "Don Juan" and "Death and Transfiguration") as well as
Camille Saint-Saëns(Symphony No. 3 "Organ") asked string players to perform certain passages "without expression" or "without nuance" strongly suggests the general use of vibrato within the orchestra as a matter of course.
Despite this, the use of indiscriminate vibrato in late Romantic music goes largely uncontested (although performances of Beethoven with limited vibrato are now not uncommon). Many people take the view that even though it may not be what the composer envisioned, vibrato adds an emotional depth which improves the sound of the music. Others feel that the leaner sound of vibratoless playing is preferable. In
20th century classical music, written at a time when the use of vibrato was widespread, there is sometimes a specific instruction "not" to use it (in some of the string quartets of Béla Bartókfor example). Furthermore, some modern classical composers, especially minimalist composers, are against the use of vibrato at all times. In the 21st century some orchestras are now playing with noticeably less vibratoFact|date=March 2007.
jazzplayers through the 20th century and up to the present day have used vibrato more or less continuously. From around the 1950s, however, some players in more avant garde styles, many following the example of Miles Davis, began to use it more selectively, playing without vibrato as a rule.
Not all instruments can produce vibrato, as some have fixed pitches which can not be varied by sufficiently small degrees. Most percussion instruments are examples of this, such as the
Some types of organ however, "can" produce the effect by altering the pressure of the air passing through the pipes, or by various mechanical devices (see the Hammond or
Wurlitzer Organs for example). The clavichord, though technically a fixed-pitch keyboard instrument, is capable of producing a type of vibrato known as " Bebung" by varying the pressure on the key as the note sounds. Some digital keyboards can produce an electronic vibrato effect, either by pressure on the keys, or by using a joystick or other MIDI controller.
The method of producing vibrato on other instruments varies. On
string instruments, for example, the finger used to stop the string can be wobbled on the fingerboard, or actually moved up and down the string for a wider vibrato.
guqin, a Chinese bridgeless zither, has documents describing over 25 different types of vibrato that can be executed. Most peculiar is the vibrato "ting yin" (literally "still vibrato"); ancient manuals state that the finger on the left hand that is pressing the string should only move or rock ever so slightly so as to alter the pitch minutely, and some manuals say that the finger should not move at all but let the pulse of the finger do the vibrato.Fact|date=February 2007 In pop music, the effect is sometimes heard on the guitarand some, but not all, singers use it (in some pop ballads, the vibrato can be so wide as to be a pronounced wobble). The use of vibrato in some folk musicis rare, or at least less pronounced than in other forms of music, although in Eastern European gypsy music, for example, it can be very wide.
Wide vibrato, as wide as a whole-tone, is commonly used among
electric guitarplayers and adds a vocal-like expressiveness to the sound.
To create vibrato on flutes and oboes, players usually modulate the air flow through the instrument using the diaphragm. On reed woodwinds such as clarinets and saxophones, players tend to create vibrato by repeatedly moving their jaw up and down slightly.
Brass instrumentplayers produce a vibrato by gently shaking the horn which varies the pressure of the mouthpiece against the lip. Alternatively, the embouchurecan be rapidly altered, essentially repeatedly "bending" the note. On a trombone, a player may move the slide back and forth gently (if the slide is well-oiled), centering on one note, providing a slightly more pronounced vibrato than embouchure or air-supply vibrato that provides a very lyrical effect, adding to the already lyrical sound of the trombone.
Some instruments can only be played with constant, mechanical vibrato (or none at all), notably the
vibraphoneand the Leslie speakerused by many electric organists. Vibrato on the theremin, which is a continuously variable-pitch instrument with no "stops", can range from delicate to extravagant, and often serves to mask the small pitch adjustments that instrument requires.
*Audio|Frequenzmodulation.ogg|Vibrato, Sound Frequency 500 Hz - Frequency Modulation 50 Hz - Vibrato Frequency 6 Hz
*Audio|Amplitudenmodulation.ogg|Tremolo, Sound Frequency 500 Hz - Amplitude Modulation 6 Hz
*Audio|Schwebung_500_506_hz.ogg|Tremolo by beating - Sound Frequencies 500 and 506 Hz, Beat Frequency 6 Hz
* [http://www.vibroworld.com/magnatone/vibrato.html Vibrato or tremolo?] - technical treatment, but accessible to laypersons
* [http://www.standingstones.com/vibrtopg.html The Vibrato Page] - collection of opinions and quotes against vibrato.
* [http://books.guardian.co.uk/review/story/0,12084,904398,00.html Roger Norrington writing on vibrato] - from a conductor's perspective
* [http://www.soundpostonline.com/archive/fall2003/page4.htm David Montgomery: The Vibrato Thing] - from a musician's perspective, debunking Norrington and Moens-Haenen
* [http://www.fretjam.com/string-vibrato.html Punctuating your Lead Guitar with String Vibratos]
* [http://ladyviola1593.tripod.com/musichistory Use of Vibrato in Baroque Vocal Music] - Historical documentation, brief but clear scientific explanation, and a short bibliography
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Look at other dictionaries:
VIBRATO — VIBRA Dans le jeu des instruments à archet, mouvement égal et continu d’oscillation horizontale du poignet (violon, alto) ou de l’avant bras (violoncelle) plus ou moins prononcé, qui produit une ondulation expressive du son. Il était déjà connu… … Encyclopédie Universelle
vibrato — VIBRÁTO adv. (Indică modul de executare a unei bucăţi muzicale) Cu vibraţii. ♦ (Substantivat, n.) Bucată (sau parte dintr o bucată) muzicală astfel executată. ♢ Vibrato vocal = modulaţie a vocii umane (de frecvenţă, de amplitudine, de spectru) de … Dicționar Român
vibrato — 1861, from It. vibrato, from L. vibratus, pp. of vibrare to vibrate (see VIBRATE (Cf. vibrate)) … Etymology dictionary
vibrato — (Del it. vibrato). m. Mús. Ondulación del sonido producida por una vibración ligera del tono … Diccionario de la lengua española
vibrato — agg. [part. pass. di vibrare ]. 1. [messo in vibrazione]. 2. (fig.) [caratterizzato da forte e intensa emozione: presentare una v. protesta ] ▶◀ concitato, energico, fremente, palpitante, prorompente, veemente, vibrante, vigoroso. ◀▶ blando,… … Enciclopedia Italiana
vibrato — vibrȃto m DEFINICIJA glazb. višekratna neznatna oscilacija visine tona, zvučni efekt koji se može postići na puhaćim i gudaćim glazbalima (treperenjem žice) te u vokalnoj izvedbi ETIMOLOGIJA tal. ← lat. vibratus: treptav, drhćući … Hrvatski jezični portal
vibrato — ► NOUN Music ▪ a rapid, slight variation in pitch in singing or playing some musical instruments, producing a stronger or richer tone. ORIGIN Italian, from vibrare vibrate … English terms dictionary
vibrato — [vi brät′ō, vēbrät′ō] n. pl. vibratos [It, pp. of vibrare < L: see VIBRATE] Music a pulsating effect, less extreme than a tremolo, produced by rapid alternation of a given tone with a barely perceptible variation in pitch, as by the slight… … English World dictionary
Vibrato — Ejemplos de diferentes tipos de vibrato en una frecuencia de 6 Hz. Ejemplo de un vibrato modulando la frecuencia del sonido … Wikipedia Español
Vibrato — Das Vibrato ist in der Musik die periodisch wiederkehrende, geringfügige Veränderung der Frequenz eines gehaltenen Tons. Im Gegensatz zu einem nicht vibrierenden Ton wird ein Ton mit angemessenem Vibrato als lebendig wahrgenommen. Daher findet… … Deutsch Wikipedia