Recife


Recife
Recife
—  Municipality  —
The Municipality of Recife
From upper left: Old centre of Recife; Recife and its bridges; Aereal View of Boa Viagem Beach; Boa Viagem Beach; The Crystal Tower; Capibaribe River.

Flag

Seal
Nickname(s): Veneza Brasileira (Brazilian Venice), Capital of the Northeast and Mauricéia/Mauritzstad (after the Dutch colonization)
Motto: Latin: "Ut Luceat Omnibus"'
"That it may shine on all" (Matthew 5:15)
Recife is located in Brazil
Recife
Location in Brazil
Coordinates: 8°3′S 34°54′W / 8.05°S 34.9°W / -8.05; -34.9Coordinates: 8°3′S 34°54′W / 8.05°S 34.9°W / -8.05; -34.9
Country  Brazil
Region Northeast
State  Pernambuco
Founded March 12, 1537
Incorporated (as village) 1709
Incorporated (as city) 1823
Government
 - Mayor João da Costa Bezerra Filho (PT)
Area
 - Municipality 218 km2 (84.17 sq mi)
 - Metro 2,768 km2 (1,068.7 sq mi)
Elevation 10 m (33 ft)
Population (2010)
 - Municipality 1,536,934(9th)
 - Density 7,163.3/km2 (18,537.9/sq mi)
 Metro 4,136,506
 - Metro density 1,361.1/km2 (3,527/sq mi)
Time zone UTC-3 (UTC-3)
Postal Code 50000-000
Area code(s) +55 81
Website Recife, Pernambuco

Recife (Portuguese pronunciation: [ʁeˈsifi] ( listen), English: Reef) is the fourth-largest[1] metropolitan area in Brazil with 4,136,506 inhabitants, the largest metropolitan area of the North/Northeast Regions, the 4th-largest metropolitan influence area in Brazil, and the capital of the state of Pernambuco. The population of the city proper was 1,561,659[2] in 2009. Recife is located where the Beberibe River meets the Capibaribe River to flow into the Atlantic Ocean. It is a major port on the Atlantic Ocean. Its name is an allusion to the coral reefs that are present by the city's shores. The many rivers, small islands and over 50 bridges found in Recife city center characterize its geography and gives it the moniker of the "Brazilian Venice."

The Metropolitan Region of Recife is the main industrial zone of the State of Pernambuco; most relevant products are those derived from cane (sugar and ethanol), electronics, food, and others; thanks to the fiscal incentives of government, many industrial enterprises were started in the 1970s and 1980s. Recife has a tradition of being the most important commercial center of the North/Northeastern region of Brazil with more than 52,500 business enterprises in Recife itself plus 32,500 in the Metro Area which totals more than 85,000.[3]

A combination of a large supply of labor and significant private investments turned Recife into Brazil's second largest medical center (second only to São Paulo);[4] modern hospitals with state-of-the-art equipment receive patients from several neighboring States.[5][6] Like all other cities in the Northeast, Recife is developing its tourist sector. The beach of Porto de Galinhas, 60 kilometers (37 mi) south of the city, has been repeatedly awarded the title of best beach in Brazil and has drawn many tourists.[7] Recife's infrastructure is among the most developed in Brazil for travellers and business people, though there is wide room for improvement.[8]

The city is also a renowned educational center, and home to the Federal University of Pernambuco, the largest university in Pernambuco. Several Brazilian historical figures, such as the poet and abolitionist Castro Alves, moved to Recife to attain their education.

Together with Natal these are the only Brazilian cities with direct flights to the islands of Fernando de Noronha, World Heritage Site since 2001.[9]

Contents

Geography

Due to the city's proximity to the equator, Recife weather is generally warm. Recife has a number of islands, rivers, waterways and bridges that crisscross the city. Recife is located amidst tropical forests which are distinguished by high rainfall levels resulting in poor soil quality as the rainfall washes away the nutrients. There is an absence of extreme temperatures and a cool breeze due to the trade winds from the Atlantic Ocean.[10]

Vegetation

Recife has a tropical forest. Rainforests are characterized by high rainfall, with definitions setting minimum normal annual rainfall between 2,000 millimetres (79 in) and 1,700 millimetres (67 in). The soil can be poor because high rainfall tends to leach out soluble nutrients. There are several common characteristics of tropical rainforest trees. The city of Recife is formed by three islands (Recife, Santo Antônio, and Boa Vista).[11] Between the islands are the rivers Beberibe and Capibaribe.[12]

Hydrography

Aurora Street and the main Capibaribe River.

Rivers

Beaches

Lakes

  • Araçá

Large water supplier (Dams)

  • Prata do Meio and Apipucos

Climate

Recife has a year-round tropical climate, with warm to hot temperatures and high relative humidity throughout the year. However, these conditions are relieved by a near absence of extreme temperatures and pleasant trade winds blowing from the ocean. Under the Koppen climate classification, the city's climate straddles a tropical monsoon climate and a tropical wet and dry climate. January is the warmest month, with mean temperatures ranging from 30 °C (86 °F) to 25 °C (77 °F), with sun; July experiences the coolest temperatures, with mean temperatures ranging from 27 °C (81 °F) to 22 °C (72 °F), with rain. June is the wettest month and the second-cloudiest, receiving an average of 390 mm (15.4 in) of precipitation, and surpassed in cloudiness only by August. Indeed, August is incredibly cloudy in Recife, with a mere daily average of 3.5 hours of sunshine throughout the month. The driest and sunniest month is November, when maximum temperatures hover around 30°C and an average of 48 mm (1.9 in) of precipitation is recorded.

History

Santo Antônio Church.
"Campo das Princesas" State Government Palace.
Recife in the morning.

The area around Recife was one of the first in Brazil to be settled by the Portuguese Crown. In 1537, John III of Portugal divided Brazil into Hereditary Captaincies (Capitanias Hereditárias, in Portuguese); the Portuguese realized that they had no human or financial resources to invest in such a large and distant colony, and decided to assign this task to private entrepreneurs, called Donatários (this system had already been successful in the settlement of the Portuguese colonies in Africa).[citation needed]

Because of several problems (the most obvious being the lack of support from the Portuguese metropolis), most Captaincies failed. One of the few to prosper was the Captaincy of Pernambuco, which was assigned to Duarte Coelho Pereira (the man who founded Olinda which has its historic town center considered a World Heritage site by UNESCO [15] and became famous for expressing his enchantment with the beauty of the place, giving the name to the city).

Pernambuco prospered from the sugarcane industry (beet sugar was not industrially produced in Europe until the beginning of the 19th century).[citation needed] At the time, in Europe, sugarcane plantations could be grown only in Andalusia and the Algarve; in the 1420s,[dubious ] sugarcane was carried to the Canary Islands, Madeira and the Azores; the sugar from Brazil was very much appreciated in Europe. Duarte Coelho found in Pernambuco plenty of fertile land and an excellent climate for the cultivation of cane; all he needed was labor to work the crops and to keep the "engenhos" (rustic wooden machinery) moving.[citation needed]

At first, the Portuguese tried to use the indigenous peoples of Brazil, but since Portugal was the country with the strongest black slave market because of their previous expeditions to Africa, using black slaves would not only be easier to handle, but it would be cheaper as well; from the 16th to the 19th century, Pernambuco received many African slaves, making it one of the Brazilian States where black African culture has the most visible traces (in dance, music, culinary, etc.).

From 1580 to 1640, the kingdoms of Spain and Portugal were unified under the rule of the former. Spain was engaged in a war against the Netherlands, and determined that the Dutch, who were the main distributors of Brazilian sugar in Europe, would be prohibited from coming to Brazil.[citation needed]

The Dutch decided to invade several sugar producing cities in Brazil, including Salvador and Natal. From 1630 to 1654,[16] they took control of Recife and Olinda, making Recife the new capital of Dutch Brazil, the city of Mauritsstad. During this period, Mauritsstad became one of the most cosmopolitan cities of the world. Unlike the Portuguese, the Dutch did not prohibit Judaism. The first Jewish community and the first synagogue in the Americas was founded in the city.[17]

The inhabitants fought on their own to expel the Dutch, being helped by the involvement of the Dutch in the First Anglo-Dutch War. This was known as the Insurreição Pernambucana (Pernambucan Insurrection). Most of the Jews fled to Amsterdam; others fled to North America, starting the first Jewish community of New Amsterdam (now known as New York City).

During the 18th century, riots spread throughout the city, in which the rich farmers of Olinda and the traders from Recife clashed. Recife had a clear advantage in relation to Olinda: Olinda has no harbour, while Recife's Harbor is one of the largest on the Atlantic Ocean. Recife's victory asserted the supremacy of its bourgeoisie over the decadent sugar aristocrats of Olinda. This was a decisive factor for Recife's growth. Recife is now a large city whereas Olinda is a small historical town. Recife is a historical city, distinguished by the opulence of its colonial buildings, with its colonization rooted in different nations; Portugal, the Netherlands, France, England.[citation needed]

Demographics

Nossa Senhora do Carmo Church, Patroness Saint of Recife.

According to the IBGE of 2008, there were 3,737,000 people residing in the Metropolitan Region of Recife. The population density was 6,422 inhabitants per square kilometre (16,630 /sq mi) (in the urban area). The last PNAD (National Research for Sample of Domiciles) census revealed the following percentage: 1,976,000 Brown (Multiracial) people (52.88%), 1,454,000 White people (38.90%), 280,000 Black people (7.49%), 16,000 Amerindian people (0.43%), 7,000 Asian people (0.20%).[18]

The Metropolitan Region of Recife is the 4th most populous of Brazil, after São Paulo, Rio de Janeiro, Belo Horizonte, and the 1st in the Northeast region. The city is the 9th most populous of the country with 1,561,659 inhabitants, and third largest city in the Northeast region,according with IBGE 2009. The most populous neighborhoods of Recife in 2008 were Boa Viagem (100,388), Casa Amarela (69,134), and Várzea (64,512).[19]

Population Increase of Recife
Year Inhabitants
1630[20] 7,000
1654[20] 8,000
1709[20] 12,000
1790[20] 15,000
1810[20] 25,000
1838[20] 60,000
1872 126,671
1890 111,000
1900 113,106
Year Inhabitants
1920 238,843
1940 348,424
1950 524,682
1960 788,336
1970 1,060,701
1980 1,203,899
1990 1,288,607
2000 1,422,905
2006 [21] 1,515,052

Religion

The Patroness Saint of Recife[22] is Our Lady of Mount Carmel (Nossa Senhora do Carmo), dating back one hundred years ago (1909). Every July 16, her day, she is remembered by the Catholics in Recife, in her church.

Religion Percentage Number
Catholic 68.02% 976,807
Protestant 23.78% 358,564
No religion 5.1% 87,910
Spiritist 1.53% 30,782

Source: IBGE 2000.[23]

Economy

Modern Recife.
Aerial view.

According to 2007 IBGE statistics, the GDP was estimated at R$ 20.7 billion (Brazilian Reais), not counting agricultural activities. Manufacturing represented 17.4% and the sector of the commerce and service 82.53%. In 2006, IBGE estimates indicate that the GDP just of the city had grown to R$ 18.3 billion.

Recife is one of Brazil's prime business centers, largely because it has one International Airport and two International ports. One is located in the town itself, and the other, the port of Suape, is located about 40 kilometres (25 mi) away. Just south of Recife is the region's main industrial area, where the following industries can be found: brewing and canning, automotive electronics, tube manufacturing, chocolate manufacturing, textiles, etc.[24]

Recife has shared in the prosperity of Northeastern Brazil that resulted from development promoted after 1960 by Sudene (Superintendência para o Desenvolvimento do Nordeste), a federal organization. Although its retail and wholesale trade have grown in response to the region's increases in population and wealth, the market area and the walkways of the city's bridges are crowded with vendors selling small items.

The GDP for the city was R$ 20,718,107,000 (2007), and the per capita income for the city was R$ 13,510 which is the highest for the Northeastern Capitals of Brazil.[25]

Information technology industry

Digital Port on the far end.

Recife has an area dedicated to information technology called "Porto Digital" (Digital Port) with more than 90 companies and 3,000 High Tech Jobs. It was founded in July 2000 and has since attracted major investments. Generating some R$10 billion (Brazilian Reais) a year,[26] it produces technology that is exported to Japan, China, among other countries. Software manufacturing is the main activity in the Porto Digital.[citation needed] The Porto Digital cluster comprises small and median companies, but multinationals like Accenture, Motorola, Samsung, Dell and Sun Microsystems are also installed in Porto Digital. IBM and Microsoft transferred their regional headquarters to Recife.[citation needed]

Porto Digital's startups can count on a ready pool of talent, courtesy of the Federal University of Pernambuco (UFPE), which boasts one of the best computer-science departments in all of Latin America.[27] The school began teaching programmers to use Sun Microsystems Inc.'s (SUNW) Java language in 1996, the year it was introduced. Professors at the school also teamed up to launch Centro de Estudos e Sistemas Avançados do Recife (C.E.S.A.R), a business incubator that has played a vital role in the birth of some 30 companies.[27]

Medical facilities

The Metropolitan Region of Recife has the 2nd largest medical pool in Brazil, after São Paulo. Together they make up 417 hospitals and clinics with 72,000 employees in the Metro Area and more than 120,000 in the State of Pernambuco. The medical pool offers a total of 8,990 beds and, according to the Union of the Hospitals of Pernambuco, recorded in the year 2000 an invoicing of R$220 million (Brazilian Reals). It is thanks to the pool that Pernambuco has access to more computed tomography devices than more developed countries such as Canada or France.[28]

A large portion of the modern hospitals included in the pool are located between the neighbourhoods of Derby and of the Ilha do Leite. The Hospital Real Português de Beneficência Portuguesa em Pernambuco, or "Hospital Português" (Portuguese Hospital) for short, is one of the most renowned hospitals in the country.[citation needed] Many people from neighbouring states go to Recife for treatment, as it has the largest and best medical facilities in the North–Northeast of Brazil.[29] Recife has three universities for medicine, 2 public, Federal University of Pernambuco and University of Pernambuco; and 1 private, Escola Pernambucana de Medicina FBV/IMIP (Medical School of Pernambuco).

Princesa Isabel Bridge.

Logistics center

Due to its ports, airport, and geographic location in the northeastern region of Brazil, Recife is considered one of the biggest logistics centers in Brazil. Logistic and Communications Economic sector employees 4%[30] of the people in Recife, 12,3% in Jaboatão dos Guararapes and over 9% in the Metropolitan Area. These numbers could increase by the end of 2010 with the conclusion of the Transnordestina (main NE Trainline with a 1,800/1,118 km/mi extension, which will cross 3 and connect 7 States (34 municipalities in Pernambuco alone) products with Suape port (PE) and Pecem Port (CE)) with costs that are estimated to be around 4.5 BR$.[31]

Recife has historically benefited from its central location in the Northeast region. In a 200-mile (320 km) radius from Recife, it is possible to find four state capitals, two internationals and three regional airports, five international ports, 12 million people, 51% of the research centres of Northeast and 35% of the region's GDP. Similarly, in a 500-mile (800 km) radius there are seven state capitals, five international and five regional airports, nine international ports and two fluvial ports, almost 30 million people and 90% of the northeast region GDP.[citation needed]

Panoramic view.

Convention centres

According to the International Congress and Convention Associations (ICCA) Recife is ranked 6th in terms of Brazilian cities with the most International events. Many events taking place during the year include:

  • O Virtuosi, Festival International de Musica de Pernambuco (International Music Festival);
  • O Mimo, Mostra International de Musica em Olinda (International Music Show in Olinda);
  • A feira da Musica Brasil/Porto Musical (Brasil Music Port);
  • A Fispal Recife, Feira Internacional da Alimentacao (International Food Festival);
  • Recife and Olinda Carnival.

And because of its geographic location, tourism and city infrastructurem Recife's Convention Centres are of a high standard:

  • Centro de Convenções de Pernambuco (Pernambuco Convention Centre)

The 3rd largest convention centre in Brazil with 2 large theatres with 2,800 seats, 4 Auditory rooms with 1,600 seats, 17 business meetings rooms, VIP rooms, large cultural multi-purpose lobby, more than 1,800 parking spots, in a total area of 75,000 square metres. It's considered one of the most developed in South America and fit for any kind of event.

  • Centro de Convenções da UFPE (Federal University of Pernambuco Convention Centre)

Modern theatre with 1,931 seats and 2,071 square metres of exposition area located in the University Campus.

Tourism and recreation

Resort in Muro Alto beach region.
Nassau Bridge.
The city at night.
Golden chapel.

The celebrations, holidays and other events are numerous during the whole year. Thus the New Year begins at the beach, Praia de Boa Viagem and in Old Recife. The carnival of Recife and Olinda (which has its historic town center considered world heritage site by UNESCO in 1982)[32] begins many weeks ahead in December with innumerable balls and parades. In the city, the carnival festivities begin in December, as locals begin preparing for the official Carnival, which starts the week before Ash Wednesday. The pre-Carnival parties usually consist of percussion groups practicing in local clubs, city streets and squares, and even Carnival balls. There is a variety of rhythms from different cultures. Carnival officially starts with the Galo da Madrugada, a party in Downtown Recife attracting many people from several States of Brazil, and other parts of the world. Recife has many quality 3, 4 and 5-Star International Hotels as well Pousadas (traditional Bed & breakfast) and Apart-Hotels totaling more than 11,500 bedrooms and this number increase to over 30,000[33] Metropolitan Area.

Mercado de São José (Market of Saint Joseph) is an old, iron construction with a very popular market nearby. In the Fort Cinco Pontes (Fort of Five Points) is the state museum, (Museu do Estado de Pernambuco). At the rectangular Pátio de São Pedro are the Cathedral São Pedro (Cathedral of Saint Peter) dating from the year 1782 and restored colonial houses, with numerous restaurants, bistros and bars. In the Bairro Santo Antônio (Saint Anthony Neighborhood), at the meeting place of the rivers Capibaribe and Beberibe, is the Praça da República (Square of the Republic) with the Teatro Santa Isabel (Theatre of Saint Isabel), with its neoclassic front - well worth seeing, the Law Courts, and the Palácio da Justiça (Palace of the Justice). Casa da Cultura (House of Culture) is an old prison that has been converted into a cultural space and shopping centre.

Built between 1835 and 1855, the Malakoff Tower, a monument constructed in Tunisian style, which used to be an observatory and now is a cultural centre and a place for popular gatherings. It is located at Arsenal da Marinha Square. It has been registered as a Historical Patrimony and was named after a similar monument on Crimean peninsula, used as a defence center for Sebastopol.[citation needed]

Recife has a zoo called Dois Irmãos Park, 387 hectares of Atlantic Forest reserve and 14 hectares of botanical gardens. There are also 800 wild animals, the Natural Science Museum and various ecological trails.[34] The metropolitan area has also a giant water park 20 km (12 mi) North of Recife, called Veneza water park which has nearly one million sq/ft of area, ten millions litres of water and lots of water slides for the youngsters.

Among Recife's main tourist attractions are:

  • Churches, historical monuments, public markets including 17th and 18th century constructions from Portuguese and Dutch colonisers;
  • Francisco Brennand's atelier of ceramic art;
  • Ricardo Brennand Institute: cultural institute with museum, pinacotec and library;
  • Recife Antigo (Old Recife) buildings;
  • Boa Viagem beach (the inside city's most important beach) and many beautiful beaches in the metropolitan and state area;
  • Casa da Cultura: souvenir shops in an Historic prison building;
  • The Carnival at locations such as downtown and Recife Antigo;
  • Olinda's historic town centre, considered a world heritage site by UNESCO;[32]
  • News and Historic Cinemas, Theatres and Art galleries.

Shopping centers

Shopping Paço da Alfândega.

Shopping Center Recife, the first Shopping Center in the North/Northeastern region, was inaugurated in 1980 through the initiatives of two large groups of entrepreneurs: Ancar and Ecisa. After twenty-three years and three expansion projects, Shopping Center Recife has been transformed into one of the largest in Latin America, and the first "mega-mall" in Northeastern Brazil.[35] With a total area of nearly two million square feet, 70% of which is mall-space, the shopping centre has 465 stores, 10 movie theatres, 8 restaurants, 4 food service courts with 57 fast food mini-restaurants, and 5,000 parking spaces available. 90,000 customers per day pass through its doors, while 32,400,000 consumers per year use the facilities.[36]

Other shopping centres include:

  • Shopping Center Tacaruna. The first centre for purchases in the North/West zone of the Recife Metropolitan Region was inaugurated on April 29, 1997, with the intention of improving the economies the cities of Recife, Olinda, and Paulista. .[37]
  • Shopping Paço da Alfândega
  • Plaza Shopping Casa Forte was inaugurated in November 1998. [38]

Beaches

Recife beaches

  • Boa Viagem, Pina and Brasilia Teimosa

Jaboatão beaches

  • Piedade, Candeias and Barra de Jangada

Olinda beaches

  • Rio Doce , Casa Caiada and Nossa Senhora do Ó

South beaches

  • Gaibu, Calhetas, Itapuama, Pedra Xaréu, Cabo, Enseada dos Corais (Cabo de Santo Agostinho RMR) 30/50 km S
  • Porto De Galinhas, Muro Alto, Maracaipe, Serrambi, Toquinho, Gamboa (Ipojuca RMR) 50/75 km S
  • Barra de Sirinhaém, Carneiros, Barreiros, Tamandaré, San José da Coroa Grande (in other cities) 75/110 km S
  • Maragogi (Alagoas state) (130 km (81 mi) S

Porto de Galinhas, Ipojuca, Pernambuco (65 km (40 mi) to the south). The most popular nearby tourist destination, with high-end hotels and restaurants competing with more accessible options that lie within the budget of any traveller.

North beaches

  • Janga, Pau Amarelo, Conceição and Maria Farinha (with one of the largest water park in Brazil - Veneza water park (Paulista RMR) 18/29 km N
  • Gavoa, Itamaracá and Jaguaribe. Itamaracá Island has many beaches such as Coroa do Avião, Forte Orange, Quatro cantos and Pontal (Itamaracá RMR) 30/45 km N
  • Catuama, Carne de Vaca, Ponta de Pedras (anothers cities) 45/80 km N


Education

Portuguese is the official national language, and thus the primary language taught in schools. But English and Spanish are part of the official high school curriculum. There are also international schools, such as the American School of Recife and the ABA Maple Bear Canadian School.

Educational institutions

Recife is the most important educational centre of the state.

Recife is home to several higher education institutions (83), notably several public-owned universities:

Culture

Old Recife.
Ricardo Brennand Institute.

Recife is one of the most cultural sites in Brazil, and is the home of several artists, musicians and writers. It is also home to the frevo, a regional dance and music, typical in carnival, and Mangue Beat, a type of Brazilian rock with mixture of Maracatu, Ciranda, Rap and other musical styles. During carnival, downtown Recife holds one of the most authentic and democratic celebrations: every year more than one and a half million people open the festivities of the Brazilian Carnival at Galo da Madrugada. Recife and Olinda combined[39] have 25 museums, 38 art galleries, 2 Orchestra houses, 15 theatres, 1 opera house and more than 40 movie theatres.

Museums

The Museum of Pernambuco State was housed in a 19th century mansion in Recife, the "Museu do Estado de Pernambuco (MEPE)" dates back to 1929. From Masters who portrayed the Colonial period, as well as the Dutch invasion (1630) to 20th and 21st century, the museum comprises over 12 thousand art pieces.

Kahal Zur Israel Synagogue

Sinagoga Kahal Zur Israel, the historic Recife synagogue in Recife Antigo, is the oldest in the Americas, dating back to the 17th Century. Reopened recently, Kahal is an important part of Pernambuco's historic patrimony. It was founded by Jews who were once expelled from Portugal and settled in the Netherlands. Some of those Jews emigrated to "New Holland" when the Dutch invaded the Northeastern portion of Brazilian lands occupied by the Portuguese. When the Portuguese, helped by Portuguese-Brazilians, reconquered the land, Recife Portuguese-Brazilian Jews moved further north with the Dutch, and founded "New Amsterdam" on Manhattan Island. Thus, the first New York City synagogue was created in lower Manhattan by the founders of the first synagogue in the New World in Recife. It later moved to the Upper West Side, where it is still called "The Portuguese and Spanish Synagogue."

Gilberto Freyre Foundation

This farmhouse, from the 18th century, was Gilberto Freyre's old residence. Artworks, arts and crafts, book collections and objects that belonged to the Pernambucan writer and sociologist are displayed here.

Ricardo Brennand Institute

Set up in a reproduction of a medieval-style castle, there is a collection of pieces from the Dutch domination period in Recife, as well as daggers and armor from medieval Europe.

Recife City Museum

Located in a room in Cinco Pontas Fort (the five-pointed Fort), it houses pictures, reproductions of old paintings and objects that encapsulate Recife since the period of Dutch rule.

Cinema

Also known as Recife Audiovisual Festival or Cine-PE, Recife Cinema Festival is a competitive film and audiovisual festival that is held in Recife. It is dedicated to the Brazilian and state production of feature & short films; as well as videos and documentaries. It was founded in 1997 by the Alfredo & Sandra Bertini, who have been the directors since then. Between 1997 and 2008, 1806 films [40] (through either competitive applications or National & International invitations) of all types and genres for a public of over 250,000 people have been a part of it.

Recife and consequently Pernambuco has a tradition in the Brazilian film making history. In the pioneer times of the Brazilian cinema emerged the Regional movements. One of those, was designated Ciclo de Recife[41] (Recife cycle), between 1922-1931. Despite adverse conditions, during this cycle was realized in Recife 13 feature films (usually about drama & Romance) and 7 realistic films (usually ordered by authorities to show their public works). Despite pervasive influence of U.S. and European cinemas in the silent film times, the Recife cycle was one of the most important, regional and produtive of them. One of the most important movie was Aitaré da Praia, which is recognized for pioneering the rise of regional themes (1925). Anothers large successful films was Retribuição (1923) and A Filha do Advogado (1926). Another important phase of the Pernambuco/Recife film history was in the 1970s with a movement called Super 8, often used for home videos and documentaries realized by students, curious and aspirant film makers, due to the utilization of 8 mm film, proportionated by the new technology released by Kodak.[citation needed]

Cuisine

Typical Brazilian churrasco. From left fraldinha (meat cut), Picanha, chicken heart, sausages, bread with garlic sauce, sliced picanha with garlic and chicken legs.

Recife cuisine is the cuisine of its region, Pernambuco and the Northeast, and the culinary influences of the area can be traced to a dynamic assortment of cultures: the Portuguese, Dutch, Spanish, Moors, Africans and Indigenous.[42] Many dishes come with a delicious coconut sauce, palm oil (dendê) and feature corn, manioc roots, yam, fresh seafood (shrimp, crab, lobster cooked with exotic sauces) and native fruits. Grilled meats are also big here, especially goat and beef dishes.[citation needed]

The typical regional main dishes include caldeirada (seafood stew with octopus cooked with various spices and coconut milk, may be served with white beans or farofa), feijoada Pernambucana (made with brown beans instead of black), sarapatel, buchada (goat stew), dobradinha (bean stew), roast goat, mão de vaca (cow's foot stew), Rabada (ox tail stew with manioc flour), cozido Pernambucano (beef stew), chambaril, galinha de cabidela (chicken in blood sauce), peixada Pernambucana (fish stew), macaxeira com charque (cassava with beef jerky), quiabada (okras with beef), feijão com arroz (rice and beans), guaiamuns (giant crabs) and one of the most traditional dish, is Carne-de-sol (Sun-dried beef), which consists of beef dried in the sun and usually served with green beans. For dessert, it has bolo de rolo (cake roll), cake Souza Leão, cartola (top hat cake) which consists of fried long bananas with cheese topped with cinnamon and sugar. The diversity continues for the breakfast as one person can find cuscus of sweet corn or manioc, yams and cassava with charque (corned beef or beef jerky), sweet potato, goiabada,fried long banana, mugunzá, regional fruits, bread, tapioca, rice pudding, porridge, yogurt, queijo coalho, corn bread, hominy and pamonha. This meal is often accompanied by coffee with/or milk and juices from regional fruits such as from cashew, pineapple, mangoes, acerola, guava, passion fruit, umbu, hog plum, pitanga, jackfruit, orange, avocado and the regional most famous caldo-de-cana and água-de-coco juices.[citation needed]

According to Abrasel (Brazilian Association of Bars & Restaurants) Recife has over than 1.7 thousands bars and restaurants which served regional (partially listed above), Brazilian (such as moqueca, bobó de camarão, açaí)and International dishes from all over the world; which has made it the first gastronomic pole of the Northeast[43] and the third one in the whole country after São Paulo and Rio.

Festa Junina (Saint John Festival)

Maracatu dancers.

Festa Junina was introduced to Northeastern Brazil by the Portuguese for whom St John's day (also celebrated as Midsummer Day in several European countries), on the 24th of June, is one of the oldest and most popular celebrations of the year. Differently from what happens on the European Midsummer Day. The festivities in Brazil do not take place during the summer solstice but during the tropical winter solstice. The festivities traditionally begin after the 12th of June, on the eve of St Anthony's day, and last until the 29th, which is Saint Peter's day. During these fifteen days, there are bonfires, fireworks, and folk dancing in the streets. Typical foods and beverages are served. It should be noted that, like during Carnival, these festivities involve costumes-wearing (in this case, peasant costumes), dancing, drinking, and visual spectacles (fireworks display and folk dancing). Like what happens on Midsummer and St John's Day in Europe, bonfires are a central part of these festivities in Brazil.

Carnaval/Carnival

Galo da Madrugada.

The four-day period before Lent leading up to Ash Wednesday is carnival time in Brazil. Rich and poor alike forget their cares as they party in the streets. Pernambuco has large Carnival celebrations with more than 3000 shows in the street historic center performed for over than 430 local groups, including the Frevo, typical Pernambuco music. Another famous carnival music style from Pernambuco is Maracatu. The cities of Recife and Olinda hold the most authentic and democratic carnaval celebrations in Brazil. The largest carnival in Brazil is Galo da Madrugada, which takes place in Downtown Recife on Carnival Saturday. Another famous event is the "Noite dos Tambores Silenciosos." Carnival Recife's joyous Carnival is nationally known, attracting thousands of people every year. The party starts a week before the official date, with electric trios "shaking" the Boa Viagem Neighborhood. On Friday, people take to the streets to dance to the sound of frevo and to dance with maracatu, ciranda, caboclinhos, afoxé, reggae and manguebeat groups. There are still many other entertainment poles spread out around the city, featuring local and national artists. One of the highlights is Saturday when more than one and a half million people follow the Galo da Madrugada group. From Sunday to Monday, there is the Night of the Silent Drums, on the Pátio do Terço, where Maracatus honor slaves that died in prisons.

2008 Carnival.

"Frevo" was born from the confluence of European and Afro-Brazilian cultures,[44] as probably did all the other musical genres consolidated in Brazil. Historians from Pernambuco say that, before the term appeared in Recife's 'Jornal Pequeno', it was already heard and danced in a symbiosis of polkas, 'modinhas', 'dobrados' e 'maxixes' e 'jogos pastoris' (stick and rope formations) along the streets of Pernambuco's capital. The music bands (civilian or military) of the time helped giving the sound the defining character we have come to know as the Frevo, a musical mass defined by the brasses. About the Street-Frevo, conductor Guerra Peixe said once that "it is the only popular genre that does not admit the 'play-by-ear composer'. He was referring to the technical hardship of this kind of music, and stressing the role of conductors who led the 'frevistical' troupes.

Transportation

International airport

Guararapes International Airport (REC).

Guararapes International Airport, also known as Gilberto Freyre International Airport, is the airport serving Recife, has been open in its newest structure since July 2004 and is 52,000 square meters in area. .

Ports

Suape Port, is located in the administrative area of the small town of Ipojuca, inside the metropolitan region. Suape serves ships 365 days a year without any restrictions with regard to tidal schedules. To assist in the docking operation of the ships, the port offers a monitoring system and laser ship docking system that enables effective, secure control and upholds the same technical standards as the most important ports across the globe. The port moves over 8.4 million tons of cargo a year. More than 95 Companies from almost all Industries are already installed in Suape which includes a Petrobras Refinary, the largest Ship Builder in South American and a large Petrochemical Company as many others.

Tancredo Neves Metro Station.

Port of Recife is located in the city of Recife. Road access to Port of Recife is accomplished, mainly, through the federal highways BR-232 (linking the interior of the state) and BR-101 (linking to other States to the north and the south of the State of Pernambuco). The main producing and consuming centers of the interior of the state and of the rest of the Northeast, are linked to Port by paved highways.

Metro

Since 1998, building of the Metro expansion has been in progress. When ready, Recife Metro will become the second largest in Brazil, after São Paulo.[45] It already reaches from Recife central station to Jaboatão, Timbi (Camaragibe) and Mall (Shopping Recife).

This system also integrates with several bus lines connected to the bus/metro[46] integration terminals, such as Barro and Joana Bezerra stations. It is possible to ride the metro and the connected bus line by purchasing one ticket only. Since March 2009, Recife Metro has finished one more phase of expansion. The system now has 28 stations (11 integrated with buses) and is 39.5 km (24.5 mi) long.

Fleet

Transport Map of Recife.

According to Detran-PE (Transportation State Bureau Administrator) in 2009, the city of Recife has a total fleet of over 464 thousand[47] motor vehicles on its streets. 54,335 cargo vehicles, 318,520 passenger vehicles, 72,719 motorbikes, 14,142 others and 4,855 buses (split between private and public). These buses transport almost two million passengers daily[48][49] in the metropolitan area, distributed between 17 local bus companies.

Highways

Recife metropolitan area is crossed by 3 main Federal highways:[50]

Neighborhoods

Uchôa Bridge Station.
São Pedro dos Clérigos Cathedral.
Recife Sunset.

The city has 6 Regions[51] Political Administrative RPA, which contains all 94 neighborhoods:

  • Aflitos, Afogados, Água Fria,
  • Alto do Mandu, Alto José Bonifácio,
  • Alto José do Pinho, Alto Santa Terezinha,
  • Apipucos, Areias, Arruda, Barro,
  • Beberibe, Boa Viagem, Boa Vista,
  • Bomba do Hemetério, Bongi ,
  • Brasília Teimosa ,Brejo da Guabiraba ,
  • Brejo de Beberibe ,Cabanga ,Caçote ,
  • Cajueiro, Campina do Barreto ,
  • Campo Grande, Casa Amarela ,
  • Casa Forte ,Caxangá,Cidade Universitária ,
  • Coelhos, Coqueiral, Cordeiro ,
  • Córrego do Jenipapo ,Curado, Derby ,
  • Dois Irmãos ,Dois Unidos ,Encruzilhada ,
  • Engenho do Meio ,Espinheiro ,Estância ,
  • Fundão, Graças, Guabiraba ,
  • Hipódromo ,Ibura ,Ibura de Cima (Cohab),
  • Ilha do Leite, Ilha do Retiro ,
  • Ilha Joana Bezerra ,Imbiribeira ,Ipsep ,
  • Iputinga, Jaqueira, Jardim São Paulo ,
  • Jiquiá, Jordão, Jordão Baixo ,
  • Linha do Tiro ,Macaxeira, Madalena ,
  • Mangabeira, Mangueira, Monteiro ,
  • Morro da Conceição, Mustardinha ,
  • Nova Descoberta, Passarinho ,
  • Paissandu, Parnamirim, Pau Ferro ,
  • Peixinhos, Pina, Poço ,
  • Ponto de Parada, Porto da Madeira ,
  • Prado, Bairro do Recife (Recife Antigo) ,
  • Rosarinho, San Martin, Sancho ,
  • Santana, Santo Amaro, Santo Antônio ,
  • São José, Sítio dos Pintos ,
  • Soledade, Tamarineira, Tejipió ,
  • Torre, Torreão, Torrões ,
  • Totó, Várzea ,
  • Vasco da Gama, Zumbi .

Sports

Soccer in Pernambuco began in 1902, when English and Dutch sailors landed in Recife and played a game of soccer on the beach. The new game aroused the interest of the people of Pernambuco, and they soon started playing.

Recife provides visitors and residents with various sporting activities. There are several soccer clubs based in Recife, such as Sport (39 times state champion and once national champion (87) and Brazil's Cup champion (08)), Santa Cruz the current 2011 State Champion (24 times state champion) and Náutico (21 times state champion and unique 6 consecutives). The Campeonato Pernambucano (Pernambuco's State Championship) is divided into Taça Tabocas e Guararapes and Taça Confederação do Equador. They both have the same format: standard round-robin, in which all teams play each other once. A round-robin tournament or all-play-all tournament is a type of group tournament in which each participant plays every other participant an equal number of times. If a team wins both Taça Tabocas e Guararapes and Taça Confederação do Equador, it is crowned the state champion. If not, a home-and-away playoff with the winners is disputed, and the winner is declared the state champion.

Also, the city has traditions in another sports as: Basketball, Hockey, Golf, Tenis, Table tenis, Volleyball, beach volley, Handball, Surf, Bodysurf, Swimning pool and Futsal. Provided by clubs such as: Nautico, Sport, Santa Cruz, Portuguese Club of Recife, Caxanga Golf & Country Club, Mauricio de Nassau University, School of Tenis Recife as others.

2014 FIFA World Cup

Recife is one of the 12 cities to host games for the 2014 FIFA World Cup, for which Brazil is the host nation. The Metropolitan Recife project consists of a new Sports City to be built in São Lourenço da Mata in an intersection area near to Recife, Jaboatão dos Guararapes and Camaragibe. The new Sports complex is 19 km (12 mi) west of Recife city center and 19 km (12 mi) from the Airport.

The sports complex 'City'[52] will have a new stadium (Arena Cidade da Copa) with 45,000 seats, 9,000 flats, 6,000 car parking spaces, 1 hospital, 1 technical school, 1 shopping center, 1 integrated metro/bus station and improvement of federal roads, all with an estimated cost of R$ 1.6 billion. Further expenses will be necessary in the metro area for remodelling of roads and airport expansion.

This is the second time Recife has been chosen to be one of the host cities of the FIFA World Cup. In 1950, Recife hosted just one game in the Brazil World Cup between Chile and the United States. At this time, it was the only city which represented the Northeast of Brazil.

Social and environmental issues

Violence

Marco Zero in Old Recife.
View of the city.
João Cabral de Melo Neto statue, an important Brazilian writer. Behind, the Santa Isabel Theatre.

Recife's reputation for safety is not one of the best of the country[53] which placed the city as 9th most violent city in Brazil, and 2nd as capital, after only Maceió. As one of the largest Recife metropolitan area (4th) of the country with large urban concentrations of unskilled people in the peripheral suburbs. Which combined with high unemployment rates, social exclusion, and poverty, generates violence.

PESP plan

The State Governor Eduardo Campos introduced the PESP plan (Security state Plan - Plano Estadual de Seguranca Publica) on second of May 2009, which will try [54] to reduce homicides by 12% each year until they reach half of the previous rate. The plan is based on the fact that 60% of the murders are committed by people related to criminal activities and reaches from the prevention stage until the correctional stage.

Carnival Security plan

ISS servers managed 50 Pelco Spectra PTZ cameras to capture all activity within the city's celebratory areas. Continued deployment of this project at Recife, will continue towards a short term goal of over 1000 cameras blanketing the city. Immediate statistics during the Carnival period indicate a reduction in violent crime of over 30%.[55][56]


Sex tourism

Recife in the evening during carnaval.

There has been a growing number of foreign tourists who come to Brazil looking for sex, mostly Germans, Italians, and other Europeans.[57] These tourists come to Recife not for the culture and beaches, but for sex, often with minors. Brazil has a supply of young girls desperate to escape poverty, and the demand from foreign men is rising all the time. In Recife, where a growing population of children sleep on park benches or fall drugged or drunk on the curbs outside bars catering to a brisk trade in sex tourism, many girls who live on the streets have begun slashing themselves with razor blades, often on their forearms.[58] Recife's secretary for tourism, Romeo Batista, says the long-term antidote to the sex trade lies in better social policies so that Brazilian girls have less need for foreign men and money. Several countries worldwide have their own legislation that prosecutes tourists in their homeland if they engage in illicit sexual conduct in a foreign country with children.[citation needed]


Recuperation program

View of Old Recife.

UNICEF is an international development agency, which supports locally initiated projects with an emphasis on children. Recife offered an environment to utilize its rich cultural heritage to develop programs aimed at its most serious issues. One of the most hands-on projects was a radio program named "Jovens Comunicadores" (Communicating Youth).[59] It trained a group of eighteen adolescents to produce a weekly radio program focusing on child labour. The program is recorded and sent to community radio stations, most of which are broadcast in the sugar cane area where many children work. Jovens Comunicadores advocates and lobbies against exploitation, all produced and edited by teens. As a radio program, it also plays regional music, giving a boost to local culture.[60]

"Criança Feliz" (Happy Child) had the same objective, eliminating child exploitation, but used a different approach. It was begun by a women's organization and offered after-school activities with the goal of discouraging children and adolescents from working in sex tourism. Besides giving classes and training in computers, English, art, and karate, it also offered psychological services and group therapy. These combined services sought to equip children not only with skills but also a positive self image and respect to not fall into prostitution. As all the kids came from very poor backgrounds, the financial pull of prostitution is very high. Criança Feliz worked at educating them about the high costs in the long term. This was a very interesting project, since it was actually a house with groups of kids divided into participating in different activities.[61]

Shark attacks

Boa Viagem Beach, before the waterfront's reform

In recent years, the number of shark attacks on the beaches of Recife has increased. This was addressed on the National Geographic Channel series Hunter Hunted in the episode "Shark Invasion." Surfing has been outlawed since 1995 on the urban beaches (Pina, Boa Viagem, Piedade, and Candeias) because of the risk the sport poses to its practitioners due to shark attacks. It's strongly recommended you do not climb over and swim behind the reefs because of strong, unpredictable currents and the possible presence of bull sharks. Several beaches have messages alerting people of the danger of finding sharks, although this is very rare as in most parts of Brazil.

Before the 1990s, there were virtually no attacks reported here. But since 1992, there have been 47 shark attacks along a 20 km (12 mi) stretch of coast. Sixteen of them were fatal. In 2004, there were seven reported attacks. Two of the victims died. However, in absolute terms, there are more shark attacks in the U.S. State of Florida and Australia than in Brazil.[62] Since mid-1992, 50 encounters involving humans and sharks, 19 of them fatal, have been recorded along the short strip of coast.[63] By comparison, a relatively modest 18 unprovoked shark attacks were reported along the 1,926 kilometers (1,197 mi) of Florida coast in 2005, according to the International Shark Attack File compiled by the American Elasmobranch Society and the Florida Museum of Natural History. At the same rate per kilometer per year as Recife, Florida would suffer nearly 350 attacks a year.[64]

Recife skyline

A state-funded investigation has focused on the long-term ecological effects of a new port, to the south of Recife. Port of Suape opened for business in 1984, and today handles more than four million tonnes of cargo per year. To facilitate its initial construction, two freshwater estuaries, which had discharged into the Atlantic Ocean, were sealed off. Based on that finding, local human rights lawyers are considering a symbolic legal challenge to the State of Pernambuco, with the aim of securing compensation for the victims of attacks.

Via CEMIT, Pernambuco state officials have attempted to reduce the risk of shark attacks through educational campaigns, oversight and research. A CEMIT patrol boat has captured 14 sharks found too close to the coast for comfort over two years. Other public policies include the posting of warning signs every 350 meters (1,150 ft) along the beach and the prohibition of surfing in threatened areas.[65] Nevertheless, when the beach has low waves, natives and tourists protected by the natural reefs do go swimming.

Notable people

Sister cities

Recife's sister cities are:[66]

Country City State / Region Since
Portugal Portugal PRT.png Porto Flag of Portugal.svg Norte Region 1987
France France Blason Nantes.svg Nantes Logo pays de la loire.png Pays de la Loire 2003
China China National Emblem of the People's Republic of China.svg Guangzhou Flag of the People's Republic of China.svg Guangdong 2007
Netherlands Netherlands Amsterdam.svg Amsterdam Flag North-Holland, Netherlands.svg North Holland 1900
United States United States Seal of Dallas.svg Dallas Flag of Texas.svg Texas 1948

References

  1. ^ Cities Influence Areas
  2. ^ IBGE Population
  3. ^ Recife Municipal Profile
  4. ^ Recife Medical Pool
  5. ^ Pernambuco A-Z
  6. ^ Pernambuco Daily
  7. ^ Porto de Galinhas Beach
  8. ^ Business in Recife
  9. ^ Unesco - Fernando de Noronha Islands
  10. ^ Weather of Recife
  11. ^ Islands of Recife
  12. ^ Rivers of the city
  13. ^ "Weatherbase: Historical Weather for Recife". July 2011. http://www.weatherbase.com/weather/weather.php3?s=99828&refer=&units=metric. 
  14. ^ "Climate Statistics for Recife, Brazil (1961-1990)". 2011-11-06. http://www.theweathernetwork.com/statistics/c03194. 
  15. ^ http://whc.unesco.org/en/list/189
  16. ^ Facsimile of manuscript regarding the surrender of Dutch Brazil:Cort, Bondigh ende Waerachtigh Verhael Wan't schandelyck over-geven ende verlaten vande voorname Conquesten van Brasil...;
  17. ^ (in Portuguese) (PDF) Jewish community in Recife. Recife, Brazil: Jewish press. 2006. ISBN 85-240-3919-1. http://www.jewishpress.com/page.do/19153/Glimpses_Into_American_Jewish_History_%28Part_3%29.html. Retrieved 2007-07-18. 
  18. ^ (in Portuguese) (PDF) Síntese de Indicadores Sociais 2008. Recife, Brazil: IBGE. 2008. ISBN 85-240-3919-1. http://www.sidra.ibge.gov.br/bda/tabela/listabl.asp?z=pnad&o=3&i=P&c=262. Retrieved 2010-01-16. 
  19. ^ Recife City Hall - Demographics
  20. ^ a b c d e f Artigo na Revista do Instituto do Ceará - Página consultada em 27 de agosto de 2007.
  21. ^ estimativa - Fonte: IBGE
  22. ^ http://oglobo.globo.com/cidades/mat/2009/07/16/fieis-lotam-igreja-do-carmo-em-recife-para-homenagear-padroeira-da-cidade-756845527.asp
  23. ^ Sistema IBGE de Recuperação Automática - SIDRA
  24. ^ Economy of Recife
  25. ^ (in Portuguese) (PDF) GDP and GDPpc. Recife, Brazil: IBGE. 2006. ISBN 85-240-3919-1. http://www.ibge.gov.br/home/estatistica/economia/pibmunicipios/2003_2007/tab01.pdf. Retrieved 2007-07-18. 
  26. ^ (in Portuguese) (PDF) Digital Port of Recife. Recife, Brazil: Porto Digital. 2006. ISBN 85-240-3919-1. http://www.portodigital.org. Retrieved 2007-07-18. 
  27. ^ a b Brazil: A Hot Incubator For Tech Startups
  28. ^ Recife Medical Pool
  29. ^ (in Portuguese) (PDF) Medical pool Ranking. Recife, Brazil: UOL. 2006. ISBN 85-240-3919-1. http://www2.uol.com.br/JC/_1999/1909/ec1909c.htm. Retrieved 2007-07-18. 
  30. ^ Government State Site
  31. ^ State site Portal Pernambuco, World Cup 2014 Plan, page 11
  32. ^ a b Olinda - Unesco
  33. ^ Miolo_1.pdf Fifa 2014 - Recife
  34. ^ Dois Irmãos Park
  35. ^ Shopping Recife
  36. ^ Daily Pernambuco - Shopping Recife
  37. ^ Shopping Tacaruna
  38. ^ Plaza Shopping Casa Forte
  39. ^ Miolo_1.pdf Cultura in Fifa 2014 project page 23
  40. ^ Recife cinema festival
  41. ^ [1]
  42. ^ Cuisine of Recife
  43. ^ Cuisine of Recife
  44. ^ Frevo
  45. ^ (in Portuguese) (PDF) Recife Metro. Recife, Brazil: Diário de Pernambuco. 2006. ISBN 85-240-3919-1. Archived from the original on 2008-02-02. http://web.archive.org/web/20080202123837/http://www.cbtu.gov.br/acbtu/acompanhia/sistemas/rec/recsist_cont.htm. Retrieved 2007-07-18. 
  46. ^ (in Portuguese) (PDF) Recife Metro. Recife, Brazil: CBTU. 2006. ISBN 85-240-3919-1. Archived from the original on 2008-02-02. http://web.archive.org/web/20080202123837/http://www.cbtu.gov.br/acbtu/acompanhia/sistemas/rec/recsist_cont.htm. Retrieved 2007-07-18. 
  47. ^ http://www.detran.pe.gov.br/download/estatistica/Frota%20registrada%20segundo%20o%20tipo%20-%20Recife.pdf
  48. ^ http://blogs.diariodepernambuco.com.br/tecnologia/?p=2229
  49. ^ http://jc.uol.com.br/2008/06/27/not_172583.php
  50. ^ http://www.aondefica.com/p_atlasflash_pe.asp
  51. ^ http://www.recife.pe.gov.br/pr/secplanejamento/inforec/bairros.php
  52. ^ Recife Sports City 2014 in Pernambuco State site (Portuguese)
  53. ^ Homicide rate in Brazil's Cities 2006 in Portuguese page 16
  54. ^ Miolo_2.pdf PESP plan in Fifa 2014 project page 26
  55. ^ Security plan of Recife
  56. ^ City hall website - Security plan
  57. ^ "Brazil struggles to curb sex tourism". BBC News. 2004-12-02. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/americas/4061325.stm. Retrieved 2010-05-22. 
  58. ^ "Recife Journal;The Decorated Veterans of Brazil's Stark Streets". The New York Times. 1996-05-21. http://query.nytimes.com/gst/fullpage.html?res=940CEFDD1039F932A15756C0A960958260&sec=&spon=. Retrieved 2010-05-22. 
  59. ^ Jovens Comunicadores in Recife, Pernambuco
  60. ^ Jovens Comunicadores Program Blog
  61. ^ Criança Feliz Program
  62. ^ Shark attacks in Boa Viagem Beach
  63. ^ Top 10 Shark Infested Beaches in the World
  64. ^ Sharks in Recife
  65. ^ Reduce the risk of shark attacks
  66. ^ "Mayor's International Council Sister Cities Program". Recife, Pernambuco. http://www.recife.pe.gov.br/2007/07/03/mat_144821.php. Retrieved 2008-08-18. 

External links

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