1990 Atlantic hurricane season

Infobox hurricane season
Basin=Atl
Year=1990
Track=1990 Atlantic hurricane season summary.jpg
First storm formed=July 22, 1990
Last storm dissipated=October 21, 1990
Strongest storm name=Gustav
Strongest storm pressure=956
Strongest storm winds=105
Average wind speed=
Total depressions=16
Total storms=14
Total hurricanes=8
Total intense=1
Fatalities=116
Da

Inflated=1
five seasons=1988, 1989, 1990, 1991, 1992
The 1990 Atlantic hurricane season officially began on June 1, 1990, and lasted until November 30, 1990. These dates conventionally delimit the period of each year when most tropical cyclones form in the Atlantic basin. One tropical depression did form before the season officially started, however.

Though very active, the season featured relatively weak systems, most of which stayed at sea. The 1990 season was unusual in that no tropical storms or hurricanes made landfall in the United States, although Tropical Storm Marco weakened to a depression just before landfall. Records show that this had not happened since the 1890 season.

Two of the season's hurricanes were notable. Hurricane Diana killed an estimated 96 in the Mexican states of Veracruz and Hidalgo; property damage estimates are unavailable, but damage was widespread. Hurricane Klaus brought flooding to Martinique, then, after combining with Tropical Storm Marco and a frontal boundary, caused torrential rainfall across the southeastern United States.

torms

Tropical Storm Arthur

Infobox Hurricane Small
Basin=Atl


Track=Arthur 1990 track.pngFormed=July 22
Dissipated=July 27
1-min winds=60
Pressure=995
The first tropical storm of 1990 developed from a central Atlantic low about 300 miles east of Trinidad on July 24. It crossed the Windward Islands chain between Tobago & Grenada and strengthened to near hurricane level, but soon weakened and degenerated to a remnant low on July 27. No casualties or damage were reported.
*The NHC's [http://www.nhc.noaa.gov/archive/storm_wallets/atlantic/atl1990-prelim/arthur/ archive on Tropical Storm Arthur]

Hurricane Bertha

Infobox Hurricane Small
Basin=Atl


Track=Bertha 1990 track.pngFormed=July 24
Dissipated=August 2
1-min winds=70
Pressure=973
A tropical depression drifting east of Florida strengthened to a tropical storm on July 28. It drifted northeast and became a hurricane 500 miles west-southwest of Bermuda on July 29. Bertha continued parallel to the East Coast of the United States, dropping to a tropical storm and restrengthening to a hurricane before becoming extratropical over Nova Scotia on August 2.

Nine deaths were attributed to Bertha, including six crew members of the Greek freighter "Corazon" who perished off the Canadian coast after their ship broke up. Damage to crops and a suspension bridge were reported from Nova Scotia and Prince Edward Island.
*The NHC's [http://www.nhc.noaa.gov/archive/storm_wallets/atlantic/atl1990-prelim/bertha/ archive on Hurricane Bertha]

Tropical Storm Cesar

Infobox Hurricane Small
Basin=Atl


Track=Cesar 1990 track.pngFormed=July 31
Dissipated= [August 7]
1-min winds=45
Pressure=1000
Cesar developed from a tropical wave reaching tropical storm strength west of Cape Verde on August 2. It drifted north-west and dissipated on August 7 while over 1000 miles east of Bermuda.
*The NHC's [http://www.nhc.noaa.gov/archive/storm_wallets/atlantic/atl1990-prelim/cesar/ archive on Tropical Storm Cesar]

Hurricane Diana

Infobox Hurricane Small
Basin=Atl



Track=Diana 1990 track.pngFormed=August 4
Dissipated=August 9
1-min winds=85
Pressure=980
Diana formed from a tropical wave which crossed the Atlantic and most of the Caribbean Sea before developing into a cyclone near the eastern tip of Honduras on August 4. The storm crossed the Yucatán Peninsula then strengthened to a Category 2 hurricane before making landfall in Mexico near Tuxpan, Veracruz, on August 7. It was declared dissipated in western Mexico the next day, although a remnant low-pressure area was observed to have reached the Pacific coast.

Torrential rain in Mexico caused mudslides in the states of Hidalgo and Veracruz. Crops, property and roads were damaged, and contemporary reports indicated that 96 people had been killed.
*The NHC's [http://www.nhc.noaa.gov/archive/storm_wallets/atlantic/atl1990-prelim/diana/ archive on Hurricane Diana]

Tropical Storm Edouard

Infobox Hurricane Small
Basin=Atl


Track=Edouard 1990 track.pngFormed=August 2
Dissipated=August 13
1-min winds=40
Pressure=1003
Edouard developed from a non-tropical weather system which crossed the Azores westwards on August 4. It became a tropical storm on August 8 and reversed its direction, becoming extratropical on August 11. There were no casualties and only minor damage in the Azores. Tropical Storm Edouard was unusual due to its formation location in the northeastern Atlantic Ocean.
*The NHC's [http://www.nhc.noaa.gov/archive/storm_wallets/atlantic/atl1990-prelim/edouard/ archive on Tropical Storm Edouard]

Tropical Storm Fran

Infobox Hurricane Small
Basin=Atl


Track=Fran 1990 track.pngFormed=August 11
Dissipated=August 14
1-min winds=35
Pressure=1007
Tropical Storm Fran developed as a tropical depression southwest of Cape Verde on August 11. Moving rapidly westwards, it lost its closed circulation for a while, then recovered and strengthened to a tropical storm on August 13. The next day it passed between Trinidad and Venezuela and dissipated due to interaction with the South American mainland. No damage or casualties were reported.
*The NHC's [http://www.nhc.noaa.gov/archive/storm_wallets/atlantic/atl1990-prelim/fran/ archive on Tropical Storm Fran]

Hurricane Gustav

Infobox Hurricane Small
Basin=Atl


Track=Gustav 1990 track.pngFormed=August 24
Dissipated=September 3
1-min winds=105
Pressure=956
Gustav developed as a tropical depression some 1000 miles east of Barbados on August 24. It moved westward and strengthened, becoming a tropical storm the next day and a hurricane on August 26. Hurricane warnings were raised for the Lesser Antilles but Gustav turned to the north and later northeast, thereby avoiding all land. It was declared extratropical on September 3, with the remnants later passing 200 miles south of Iceland. At its peak it reached Category 3 on the Saffir-Simpson Hurricane Scale.
*The NHC's [http://www.nhc.noaa.gov/archive/storm_wallets/atlantic/atl1990-prelim/gustav/ archive on Hurricane Gustav]

Tropical Storm Hortense

Infobox Hurricane Small
Basin=Atl


Track=Hortense 1990 track.pngFormed=August 25
Dissipated=August 31
1-min winds=55
Pressure=993
Hortense formed 700 miles west-southwest of Cape Verde on August 25. It strengthened into a tropical storm but was sheared by the outflow from Hurricane Gustav and dissipated on August 31 without approaching land.
*The NHC's [http://www.nhc.noaa.gov/archive/storm_wallets/atlantic/atl1990-prelim/hortense/ archive on Tropical Storm Hortense]

Hurricane Isidore

Infobox Hurricane Small
Basin=Atl


Track=Isidore 1990 track.pngFormed=September 4
Dissipated=September 17
1-min winds=85
Pressure=978
Isidore formed south of Cape Verde on September 4 and became a hurricane on September 7. A mid-level trough in the central Atlantic kept it moving northward and it dropped to storm strength for a while before recovering. It was absorbed by an extratropical low north of 50°N on September 17.
*The NHC's [http://www.nhc.noaa.gov/archive/storm_wallets/atlantic/atl1990-prelim/isidore/ archive on Hurricane Isidore]

Hurricane Josephine

Infobox Hurricane Small
Basin=Atl


Track=Josephine 1990 track.pngFormed=September 21
Dissipated=October 6
1-min winds=75
Pressure=980
Josephine formed west of Cape Verde on September 21 and strengthened to a tropical storm on September 24. It wandered in central Atlantic for some time, performing a full loop at one stage before becoming a hurricane on October 4. It tracked around a mid-latitude storm and became extratropical on October 6. Its gestation time from tropical depression to hurricane, at 13¾ days, is the second longest on record, only behind Hurricane Arlene of 1987.cite web| author=NHC Hurricane Research Division|title=Atlantic hurricane best track|publisher=NOAA| date=2006-02-17|accessdate=2007-04-04|url=http://www.aoml.noaa.gov/hrd/hurdat/easyhurdat_5105.html]
*The NHC's [http://www.nhc.noaa.gov/archive/storm_wallets/atlantic/atl1990-prelim/josephine/ archive on Hurricane Josephine]

Hurricane Klaus

Infobox Hurricane Small
Basin=Atl



Track=Klaus 1990 track.pngFormed=October 3
Dissipated=October 9
1-min winds=70
Pressure=985
A westward-moving wave became a tropical storm east of the Lesser Antilles on October 3 and became a hurricane two days later close to Antigua and Barbuda. It flooded Martinique, killing 6 and displacing 1,500 before moving north of the Leeward Islands and Virgin Islands, weakening and reviving as it headed towards the Bahamas. It was absorbed by a low pressure area on October 9. The remnants brought heavy rainfall to South Carolina and Georgia, causing 4 deaths when a dam burst.
*The NHC's [http://www.nhc.noaa.gov/archive/storm_wallets/atlantic/atl1990-prelim/klaus/ archive on Hurricane Klaus]

Hurricane Lili

Infobox Hurricane Small
Basin=Atl


Track=Lili 1990 track.pngFormed=October 6
Dissipated=October 15
1-min winds=65
Pressure=987
Lili developed from the mid-latitude low which affected the latter stages of Josephine. This low moved southwest and developed tropical characteristics, becoming a hurricane on October 11. It moved rapidly west and passed 140 miles south of Bermuda. Initially appearing to threaten the U.S. coast, it curved north then northeast and become extratropical before striking Nova Scotia and Newfoundland. Damage was limited to minor coastal erosion in North Carolina.
*The NHC's [http://www.nhc.noaa.gov/archive/storm_wallets/atlantic/atl1990-prelim/lili/ archive on Hurricane Lili]

Tropical Storm Marco

Infobox Hurricane Small
Basin=Atl



Track=Marco 1990 track.pngFormed=October 9
Dissipated=October 13
1-min winds=55
Pressure=989
As Klaus was dissipating, a new cold low developed over Cuba and developed down to the surface as a tropical depression on October 9. It became a tropical storm and headed towards Florida, hugging the western coast and making landfall as it weakened to a tropical depression near Cedar Key, Florida. It rapidly lost strength over land but added to the heavy rainfall already brought to the southeastern states by Klaus. [http://www.hpc.ncep.noaa.gov/tropical/rain/marcoklaus1990rain.gif]

Although only a depression at final landfall, this was officially counted as a tropical storm hit on the United States as much of the circulation was on land before landfall in the area of St. Petersburg, Florida. Seven deaths are attributed to Marco's high surf and flooding rains. It also caused $57 million (1990 USD) in damage.

This storm also marked only the second time since naming began in the Atlantic in 1950 that the 'M' name was used, the previous being Martha in the 1969 season. Since 1995, the 'M' name has been used almost every season.
*The NHC's [http://www.nhc.noaa.gov/archive/storm_wallets/atlantic/atl1990-prelim/marco/ archive on Tropical Storm Marco]

Hurricane Nana

Infobox Hurricane Small
Basin=Atl


Track=Nana 1990 track.pngFormed=October 16
Dissipated=October 21
1-min winds=75
Pressure=989
A tropical wave developed into a depression on October 16, 400 miles northeast of Puerto Rico. It intensified into a tiny hurricane the next day and tracked northwest toward Bermuda, but was blocked by upper-level westerlies and dissipated on October 21 without approaching land.

Nana was the first storm to receive the 'N' name since naming began in the Atlantic basin in 1950, and the first of nine storms to do so (as of 2007).
*The NHC's [http://www.nhc.noaa.gov/archive/storm_wallets/atlantic/atl1990-prelim/nana/ archive on Hurricane Nana]

Other storms

Records from the NHC for unnamed tropical systems prior to 1991 are sporadic. On May 24 - before the season officially began - Tropical Depression One developed over the western Caribbean. It moved northwest and brought heavy rains and gusty winds to Cuba and Florida. It was absorbed on May 26 by a front over the Florida Keys.

On September 18, Tropical Depression Eleven formed midway between Africa and the Lesser Antilles from a tropical wave. Ship and reconnaissance aircraft observations reported that the depression almost reached tropical storm strength. It was sheared by strong upper-level winds until it dissipated September 27. The system never affected land.

Accumulated Cyclone Energy (ACE) Rating

The table on the right shows the ACE for each storm in the season. The ACE is, broadly speaking, a measure of the power of the hurricane multiplied by the length of time it existed for, so hurricanes that lasted a long time have higher ACEs.

torm names

The following names were used for named storms that formed in the north Atlantic in 1990. The names not retired from this list were used again in the 1996 season. This is the same list used for the 1984 season. Storms were named Marco and Nana for the first time in 1990. Names that were not assigned are marked in tcname unused.

Retirement

The World Meteorological Organization retired two names in the spring of 1991: Diana and Klaus. They were replaced in the 1996 season by Dolly and Kyle.

ee also

*List of Atlantic hurricanes
*List of Atlantic hurricane seasons
*1990 Pacific hurricane season
*1990 Pacific typhoon season
*1990 North Indian Ocean cyclone season
*Southern Hemisphere tropical cyclone seasons: 1989–90, 1990–91

References

External links

* [http://www.aoml.noaa.gov/general/lib/lib1/nhclib/mwreviews/1990.pdf NOAA 1990 Report] accessed November 1990
* [ftp://ftp.nhc.noaa.gov/pub/storm_archives/atlantic/prelimat/atl1990/ Detailed information on all storms from 1990]
* [http://www.hpc.ncep.noaa.gov/tropical/rain/1990.html U.S. Rainfall information from 1990 tropical cyclones]


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